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									                      ENG 306
             ADVANCED WRITING II


                        WEEK 3
       HOW TO WRITE ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAYS
STAGE 1: Choosing a Topic and Writing a Thesis Statement
                   Contrast Clauses
HOW TO WRITE ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAYS
STAGE 1: Choosing A Topic and Writing the Thesis
Statement

      What is the first thing that you need for an
                 argumentative essay?
      A controversial, or debatable, topic




         CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
    The Argumentative Thesis Statement

  The thesis statement should define the scope of the argument
  and make an assertion that is open to debate.

How do you evaluate the thesis statement below?

            Something should be done on media bias.
Not effective because it does not clearly state the writer’s idea.

“What is that ‘something’ that should be done?”                                      These questions
“Who should do it?”                                                                  should get an
                                                                                     answer in the
“Why should something be done?”                                                      thesis statement.

           CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
What do you think about the following thesis
statement?
                  CNN is the best TV channel.
Not effective because it is a personal preference and personal
     preferences and choices are not argued.




           CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
What do you think about the following
thesis statement?
               There are 3 ways of media censorship.
This is not an argumentative thesis statement, but an expository
      thesis statement as the writer aims at listing and just
      explaining the types of media censorship.

The writer does not aim at persuading readers here, he wants to
    give information.

Also, the ways of censorship are not open to debate, thus, not
     suitable for argumentation.


           CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
How would you evaluate the thesis
statement below?
   “Newspapers should not identify people by color, race, or
                  religious faith in any way.”

This is an effective argumentative thesis statement.
- Firstly, the topic is open to discussion, as there may be
    opponents claiming that this kind of restriction would
    damage the objectivity of the news. Therefore, the writer
    holds a clear stance.
- Above all, it is obvious that the writer’s goal is to convince
    the readers to take his/her side in the debate.



           CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
         The Expository Thesis Statement
                        vs.
               Argumentative Thesis
                    Statement


                  What is the difference
                 between the expository
                 and the argumentative
                    thesis statement?




CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
Both expository and argumentative thesis statements
express a certain opinion about a topic.
                        However,
an expository thesis statement does not include a
sharp opinion; rather, it discusses:
- advantages
- disadvantages                      Listing
- types                                       Classification
- reasons
                                  Enumeration
- results
- problems                                 Sequencing
- solutions etc. in the form of;
           CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
An argumentative thesis statement, on the
other hand,


          -has a clear stance on a debatable
          topic,
          - fiercely argues that the writer’s
          opinion is correct, and
          - reflects this subjectivity both in its
          style and tone.



         CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
 Examine the given thesis statements.
1) “There are three main reasons why the media
   manipulate the news.”

- This is not argumentative as the writer’s main concern is
   to inform the readers about the reasons of media
   manipulation.




        CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
 Examine the given thesis statements.

2) “The media should not manipulate the news in any
   way.”

- This is acceptable as an argumentative thesis statement
   because of the writer’s clear stance in the debate. The
   writer intends to change the readers’ minds.




           CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
      Which of the two thesis statements
       below is an argumentative one?
a) It is essential to be media literate for three reasons.
 Though the writer uses the word “essential”, this is an expository thesis
 statement as the writer focuses on informing the 3 reasons by listing them.
 There is neither an introduction for an argumentation nor a clear stance by
 the writer.

b) It is essential that media literacy be taught in schools.

   This clearly is argumentative.
   - Firstly, the topic debatable,
   -Secondly, the writer is clear about where he stands in the discussion,
   - Finally, the purpose of the writer is to change the ideas of the readers
   on this issue


      CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
TASK 3 (AESS II p.161)
  Examine the given thesis statements and decide whether
  they are expository (E) or argumentative (A).


      A
  1. ____ Censorship is the best way of controlling the minds of
      the citizens.
      A
  2. ____ Newspapers should not identify victims of sexual assault
      without their consent.
      E
  3. ____ Parents control their children’s TV viewing habits in three
      ways.
      A
  4. ____ In war journalism, it is never appropriate to show on the
      news how a country’s soldiers suffer in combat.
      A
  5. ____ The only way to receive high ratings for a TV series is to
      cast attractive actors or actresses.

                CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
TASK 3 (AESS II p.161)
  Examine the given thesis statements and decide whether they
  are expository (E) or argumentative (A).

     E
 6) ____ There are common practices that advertisers use to sell
      products.

     E
 7) ____ Politicians use various strategies to influence the media
      during their election campaigns.

     E
 8) ____ There are two main ways of manipulation in print media;
      false balancing, which means focusing on only one side of an
      argument; and slighting of the content, which aims at giving so
      much emphasis to style and so little to the actual substance.



              CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
Which grammar or vocabulary contribute the
 argumentative meaning?
•   The only way...
•   The best way..
•   The most appropriate way...
•   (It’s) never appropriate...
•   (It’s) never acceptable...
•   (It) should...
•   (It) shouldn’t...
•   ...




           CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
More on argumentative thesis statements...
 (STUDY PACK p. 19-20)
    A thesis statement often mentions the opposing point
    of view. Point out the counter argument in the
    following thesis statements:

    “Despite the claims that curfew laws are necessary to
    control juvenile gangs, curfew laws are clearly
    unconstitutional.”

    “Although there are certainly reasons to be cautious
    with stem cell research or any new technology, its
    potential benefits far outweigh its dangers.
    CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
Use expressions such as the following to
 introduce opposing points of view.
Some people feel that the United States should have a
   national health care plan like Canada’s.

Many think that genetically engineered crops are a grave
   danger to the environment.

Smokers say that they have a right to smoke.

It may be true that U.S. Constitution gives citizens the
    right to own weapons.
           CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
Then connect the opposing point of view to
 your own with transition signals of contrast:
Some people feel that the United States should have a
   national health care plan like Canada’s; however, the
   government should stay out of the health care
   business.

Although/ Even though many think that genetically
    engineered crops are a grave danger to the
    environment, such crops can alleviate world hunger
    and malnutrition.


           CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
Smokers say that they have a right to smoke in
spite of the fact that/ despite the fact that
smoking will kill them.

While / Whereas It may be true that U.S.
Constitution gives citizens the right to own
weapons, the men who wrote the Constitution
lived in a different time.


         CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
Practice 2: Thesis Statements
(Study Pack pp. 20-21)


Choose three of the topics and add an opposing point
of view for each by using appropriate language by
working in groups.

POSSIBLE ANSWERS

2) Although a great many people are against any type
of censorship, the sale of CDs with songs containing
lyrics that degrade women should be prohibited.



                CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
POSSIBLE ANSWERS

3) Even though it’s true that TV is the most popular
   pass-time and entertainment tool for almost
   everyone, it is the worst invention of modern times.

4) In spite of the fact that environmental protection
   laws are meant to protect the natural balance of the
   environment and transfer it to the next generations
   in the best way possible, they go too far.




         CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
POSSIBLE ANSWERS

5) Though viewers often get fed up with being exposed
   to ads everywhere, the advertising industry performs
   many public services.




         CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
Practice 3: Supporting arguments
(Study Pack p. 21)



• Think of two or three supporting
  arguments for each thesis statement.
  Notice that two of the thesis statements
  state only the writer’s point of view, and
  two state both sides of the argument.




                CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
            CONTRAST CLAUSES
             Study Pack (pp. 15-18)
• DIRECT OPPOSITION CLAUSES




        WHILE and WHEREAS have
        the same meaning and they
        are interchangeable.


         CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
                    CONTRAST CLAUSES
                     Study Pack (pp. 15-18)
• CONCESSION (UNEXPECTED RESULT) CLAUSES
- A concession clause means “This idea is true, but the
   idea in the independent clause is more important.”




         CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
     ALTHOUGH, EVEN THOUGH, THOUGH

• They have almost the same meaning, but;


     Though is
                                                                            Even though
    less formal
                                                                               is a little
                                                                            stronger than
                                   Although is                                 Although
                                      a bit
                                    stronger
                                      than
                                     Though
         CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT
            PRACTICE 7 A / B / C
             Study Pack (pp. 16-18)
  IT’S YOUR TURN AGAIN!




CANKAYA UNIVERSITY - OFFICE OF BASIC AND ELECTIVE COURSES- ENGLISH UNIT

								
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