Safeguarding Children in Education

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					Safeguarding Children in Education

              CHILD PROTECTION
              Training for school staff

                      Helen Wilson
              Advisory Teacher Child Protection
Aim: To increase awareness of issues
      related to safeguarding
  •To have thought about safeguarding children and what are
  safe working practices in school
  •Know what to do if you are worried that a child is being
  •Be able to identify common signs and indicators of child
       Child Protection Training

•Often deals with sensitive issues
•Questions and contributions are
•Anything shared during the training
session will remain confidential
• Protecting children from maltreatment
• Preventing impairment of children’s health or
• Ensuring that children are growing up in
  circumstances consistent with the provision of
  safe effective care; and
• Taking action to enable children in need to have
  optimum life chances

Children are best protected when
professionals are clear about what is
required individually, and how they
need to work together
                   The Legal Framework
• Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families (DH2003)
• What To Do If You Are Worried A Child Is Being Abused (DH2006)
• Safeguarding Children and Safer Recruitment in Education (DfES 2007)
• Working Together to Safeguard Children (March 2010) revised Sept 2012
• Trafford Council Child Protection / Child in Need Procedures
• Local Safeguarding Children Boards TSCB
• CRB Checks – Child Protection Safer Recruitment
Section 175 Education Act 2002

  Safeguarding Agenda

  A duty to have arrangements
  about safeguarding and
  promoting the welfare of
 Section 175/157 Education Act 2002

(2) The governing body of a maintained school
and Proprietors of Independent Schools shall
make arrangements for ensuring that its
functions relating to the conduct of the school
are exercised with a view to safeguarding and
promoting the welfare of children who are pupils
at the school

• All agencies to ensure that the risks of harm to
children’s welfare are minimised
• Where there are concerns, all agencies take action
to address those concerns
• Working to agreed local policies and procedures
• Working in full partnership with other local agencies
Working in Partnership

             Social Services


 Education   Neighbours
                         Child Protection

                            Child Protection
                                                            Staff Conduct
      Anti Bullying


Attendance                 Safeguarding


                                                                            Building Design
              Health &                         Safe Recruitment
              Safety                           and Selection
• Keeping children safe
• Providing a safe environment to learn
• Identify children who are suffering or likely to
suffer significant harm
• Taking appropriate action with the aim of
making sure they are kept safe at home and
      More than protecting individual children
• Pupil Health
• Safety
• Bullying
• Meeting the needs of children with medical conditions
• First Aid
• School Security
• Drugs and substance misuse
• Also specific safeguarding needs of individual children
Children have a range of needs…

                               child protection

                 .      assessment framework

           .                    safeguarding
    Model of Children in Need

                    Level 4
                Child Protection

             Level 3 Child Concern
            Level 2 Need for Support          Framework
                Level 1 Universal

Children can and do move up/down the ‘needs triangle’
Level 1 – Universal
Universal services for all children. Social Services
do not provide a service at this level.
Level 2 - Need for Support
Children who are unlikely to achieve or maintain or
have the opportunity of achieving or maintaining a
reasonable standard of health or development
without the provision for him/her of services, or
he/she is disabled.
This level is single agency response that may result
in other agencies calling a Child in Need meeting.
Level 3 - Child Concern
Children where risk issues or concerns are identified and a
multi-agency response is required to address them. Children
Act S17 (1c): ‘his health or development is likely to be
significantly impaired or further impaired without the
provision of such services’
Level 4 - Need for Protection
Where abuse has occurred and there is continuing risk or
continued likelihood of significant harm.
Children may enter the model at any level and can move
through the different levels at different times in their lives.
                           ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK
                                                                                Basic Care
     Emotional &                                                                          Ensuring Safety
     Development Identity                                                                     Emotional Warmth
   Family & Social
                                                 and promoting                                       Guidance &
Social                                               welfare                                         Boundaries
 Self-care Skills
                                       FAMILY & ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS


           Why Schools Matter

• After parents, education staff are the adults who
have most contact with children
• School staff are the only professionals who routinely
have daily contact with children
• Not many children have a social worker, the majority
of children attend school
            Barriers to Diagnosis

The biggest barrier to diagnosis is the existence of
emotional blocks in the minds of professionals. These
can be so powerful that they prevent diagnosis even
being considered in quite obvious cases. All those
working with children should be warned that their
overwhelming impulse on confronting their first case is
to cover it up.
    Lauren Wright – 1994-2000

• when she died, she had lost four stone and
weighed only two stone
• after appearing with bruises, which were
explained away
• Lauren was killed by her stepmother
          Lauren Wright – 1994-2000

“lots of times, often she was covered with lots of small bruises
and with major bruises about once a month. These included
black eyes, bruising to her face and scratches across her back.”
                                                     Class Teacher
“Her physical deterioration had been apparent for at least 5
months before she died.”
                                                             Head Teacher
                 House of Commons Hansard Debates for 16th July 2003: Column 479
         What went wrong?

• Lauren’s stepmother was a member of staff
in the school
• The designated teacher for the child
protection had left the school
• A Governor offered to take on the
responsibility for the child protection
          What went wrong?

• Lauren’s Classroom teacher has received no
child protection training
• The stepmother told Paediatrician that the
bruises were as a result of bullying in school
• No referral was made by either of the teachers
to Social Services
            What is Child Abuse?
A range of ways in which people harm children:
• Physical injury
• Sexual abuse
• Emotional abuse
• Neglect
• Can suffer from one or a combination of these
• Often the abuser is someone known
         What is child abuse?

‘The child is suffering from significant harm or is
         likely to suffer significant harm’
                 (The Children Act 1989)

 The emphasis is on present and future harm
                Physical Abuse

Physically hurts or injures a child by:
Hitting, shaking, biting, throwing, burning & scalding.
Drowning, suffocating, fabricated & induced illness.
• Giving alcohol, inappropriate drugs or poison
• Fails to prevent physical injury or suffering
• Whether a child was knowingly put at risk
• Whether reasonable attention was paid to the safety of
the child
           Common sites for physical injury
                              Eyes -
                              Bruising, black
                              (particularly                   SKULL – fracture or bleeding under skill (from shaking)
                              both eyes)

                                                                    EARS – pinch or slap marks, bruising
   FACE – bruising,
   finger marks

                      MOUTH –
                      torn frenulum                                          NECK – bruising, grasp marks

                                                                           UPPER & INNER ARM – bruising, grasp
SHOULDERS – bruising, grasp marks                                          marks

                 GENITALS -                                           CHEST – bruising, grasp marks

                                                            BACK      )   Linear bruising.
                                      KNEES – grasp marks   BUTTOCKS) Outline of belt/buckles.
                                                            THIGHTS    ) Scalds/burns.
     Common sites for physical injury


                                BONEY SPINE



                   Emotional Abuse

Persistent emotional ill-treatment of a child such as to cause severe and
persistent adverse effects on his/her emotional development.
It may involve:
• conveying to children they are worthless, unloved or inadequate –
        regularly humiliating a child
• conveying to children that they are valued only insofar as they meet the
needs of another person
• inappropriate expectations for their age or development
• causing children to feel frightened or in danger
• the exploitation or corruption of children

Persistent failure to meet the child’s basis and/or psychological needs,
likely to result in the serious impairment of a child’s health or
It may involve:
• a parent or carer failing to provide adequate food, shelter and
• failing to protect a child from physical harm or danger – left alone
• failure to ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment
• unresponsiveness to a child’s basic emotional needs
                         Sexual Abuse
Forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual
activities, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening.
Activities include:
• physical contact, including penetrative and non-penetrative acts
• involving children looking at or in the production of pornographic
• watching sexual activities
• encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways
• inappropriate discussion about sexual matters
                      Both girls and boys can be victims
              Domestic Abuse

•The effects is of domestic violence on children
is such that it must be considered as abuse.
Either witnessing it or being the subject of it is
not only traumatic in itself but is likely to
adversely impact on a child and it should be
treated as physical or emotional abuse as

• www.womansaid (changing to Trafford
Domestic Abuse Services (TDAS)

• (For young people)

•The Expect Respect Education Toolkit- a series
of lesson plans from Reception to Yr 13
           Domestic Abuse

• Children living in households where DA is
happening are now identified as ‘at risk’

• Adoption & Children Act extended the legal
definition of harm to include harm suffered by
seeing or hearing ill treatment of others
                 Some Effects

• Children are confused and frightened
• They don’t know who they can trust
• Effects are far ranging and often profound
• Context of abuse
• How long has the abuse gone on for?
               Recognising Child Abuse

•Two areas
    1. Physical signs
    2. Behavioural signs

Education staff are well placed to observe signs/changes in

They can do no more than give rise to suspicion – not proof.

Education service does not have direct investigative responsibility
Physical signs:                        Behavioural signs:
• hungry/stealing food                 • always tired
• frequently dirty, smelly             • missing school or being
• loss of weight/under
weight                                 • compulsive stealing or
• dressed inadequately
                                       • few friends
• untreated medical
        conditions                     • fails to attend medical
                         Physical Abuse
                                          Behavioural signs:
Physical signs:
                                          • reluctant to have parents
• injuries which a child cannot explain   contacted
• injuries not treated                    • aggressive/temper
• bruising                                outbursts/depression

• cigarette burns/human bite marks        • shows fear

• broken bones                            • flinches when approached or
• scalds
                                          • reluctance to get undressed
                                          for sport
                                          • unnaturally compliant
                  Sexual Abuse
Physical signs:               Behavioural signs:
• plain, discomfort around    • fear of someone
genital area
                              • nightmares/bedwetting
• sexually transmitted
        disease               • self harm

• frequent stomach pains      • sexualised behaviour/knowledge in
                              young children
• pregnancy in a girl under
16 years were the identity    • sexual drawings/ language
of the father is a secret     • reluctance to undress for sport
                       Emotional Abuse
                              Behavioural signs:
Physical signs:               • compulsive nervous behaviour eg.
• failure to grow or thrive
                              • unwillingness to play
• sudden speech
disorders                     • fear of making mistakes
• delayed development         • excessive lack of confidence
                              • excessive need for approval

•All schools must have a written child protection

• A designated person for child protection

• All staff need to be aware of procedures
  Designated Person for Child Protection

• Attends refresher training every 2 years (all staff every 3 years)

• Liaises with other agencies about child protection

• Acts as a source of support, advice and expertise within the
• Ensures all staff have child protection training
             TSCB Child Protection Procedures
                       Sexual Abuse

• Consult with the designated person as soon as possible

• Listen to the child
• Limit the questions / not leading questions
• Do not ask a child to undress
• Reassure the child
• Do not keep secrets
• Record actual words of the child
• Parents/carers should not be contacted
Procedures for cases other than sexual abuse

  • Consult with the designated person
  • Check the CP file for any previous concerns
  • Listen to the child and reassure
  • Don’t ask leading questions or examine the child
  • Information can not be kept secret
  • Make careful notes, visible injuries, observations of
  behaviour/emotional state
  • Sign and date information
          What is designated CP person will
                find helpful to know

 What is your concern
 How/why your concerns have arisen
 What you have seen/heard to make you believe a child
may be at risk
 Do you know if anyone shares your concerns
 The child’s name, age, ethnicity, disability/SEN
 Have you discussed concerns with parents/carers. How
did they respond?
                    Recording Concerns
• Make a careful note of exactly what the child said as soon as possible
• Notes should be taken objectively and factual
• Behaviour and/or emotional state
• Any injuries or marks to the body showing location, date and
explanation for the injury
• Attendance
• Appearance/dress – especially if concerns about neglect
• Include dates, times, events
     How to respond if a child confides in you

• Take what the child says seriously
• Listen to the child carefully and without interruption or prompting
• Remain calm, don’t rush into any action which may be inappropriate
• Reassure / how are you going to help
• If in a group situation, arrange to speak with the child on their own
• Make sure emergency medical care is provided if necessary
                Responses to avoid
• Do not allow your shock to distaste to shoe
• Do not probe for more information that is offered
• Do not speculate or make assumptions
• Do not make negative comments about the alleged abuser
• Do not make any promises that you cannot keep
• Do not keep information a secret
• Never delay emergency action to safeguard
• Never express disbelief in what the child is saying
• Disabled/children with SEN may find it more difficult to
        disclose abuse
Golden Rules
          Do                            Don’t

•Listen carefully
                                  • Ask leading questions
• Make accurate notes using
                                  • Use your own words to
  the child’s words
                                  describe events
• Inform the designated
                                  • Investigate
person for child protection

• Tell the child that they have
                                  • Promise confidentiality
  done the right thing by
telling you

• Independent Safeguarding Authority (ISA)

• Referrals to MARAT- Single Agency Referral Form
( S.A.R.F.) Tel 0161 912 5125
• Trafford Safeguarding Children’s Board (TSCB) website
•Munro Review
Allegations against staff
Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO)
   Manage and oversee individual cases
   Provide advice and guidance
   Liaise with police and other agencies
   Monitor progress of cases
Senior Manager considers:

 What information do I have about the subject of the allegation?
 What information do I have about the child/adult
   making the allegation?
 Am I aware of any incident/tension/friction between the parties?
 Senior Manager must then consider:
  Does the allegation suggest that the individual has:
     behaved in a way that has harmed, or may have harmed, a child
     possibly committed a criminal offence against, or related to a
     child, a child; or
     behaved towards a child or children in a way that indicates s/he is
     unsuitable to work with children
                           Contact LADO

Behaved in a way that           Allegation reported to senior manager named in
has harmed, or may
                                             employees procedures
have harmed a child

                                 Senior manager considers alleged behaviour
Possibly committed a                                                                  Internal Action e.g.
criminal offence                                                                       Support for Staff/
against,                                     Contacts LADO                               Child Parent
or related to, a child; or                                                               Policy review
                                                                                         Staff Training
Behaved towards a child
or children in a way                     Initial discussion with
that indicates s/he is                    LADO and decision
unsuitable to work                         re course of action
with children

               Police                                                               Employers
            investigation                Strategy Discussion
                                                                          (including disciplinary action)
                             Assessment by
                              Social Care

             LADO tracks progress, monitors outcomes and reports to the LSCB and DCSF
         Framework for the inspection of
         Maintained schools in England
              From January 2012

• Key judgements –

• Leadership and Management
• Ensure that all pupils are safe

• The behaviour and safety of pupils
• Behaviour management
• Anti-bullying
• Behaviour around school
Private Fostering
        What is private fostering?

The Children Act 1989 defines PF as…
A child/young person under 16, or under 18
 if disabled, who is cared for by someone
 other than:
Their parent
A person with parental responsibility
A close relative
For 28 days or more
 Close relatives are defined as:
• Parents or step-parents
• Siblings
• Brothers or sisters of a parent (full or half
   blood or by marriage)
• Grandparents
  Private fostering arrangements are
usually continuous but allow occasional
short breaks
          How is it organised?

• Private fostering is organised as a private
  arrangement between parents and carers, not by
  the Local Authority BUT the
• Local Authority should be informed about it and
  assess it’s suitability, meet the child regularly and
  offer any support required to meet the child’s
 Why is private fostering so
The reasons for children becoming privately
fostered are varied and complex and they are at
 risk of being “invisible children”
Research has found that children in private
fostering arrangements have more difficulties in
 life and less support than children in standard
 foster placements ( Holden 1973)
Private fostering arrangements are often invisible
 and are a potential honey pot for abusers
One in ten children are believed to be privately
 fostered at some time during their childhood
Examples of possible private
• Young people coming to England for education
  and staying with carers who are not close
• Children staying with friends while a parent is in
• Teenagers staying with friends due to the
  breakdown of relationships at home or to be with
  a boyfriend/girlfriend
• Children with disabilities staying with distant
  family due to the pressure of meeting their needs
What you need to do
 • If you think an arrangement exists which might
   could be considered Private
 • Fostering, or you are not sure - you must contact
   MARAT with as much detail as possible to get their
   advice and support.
 • MARAT – (0161) 912 5125
 • More Information on Trafford Council
  Website – Trafford Private Fostering

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