Safety Culture - HealthNet

Document Sample
Safety Culture - HealthNet Powered By Docstoc
					SAFETY CULTURE

   Viera Rusnáková
                 Context
EU strategic goals
• To raise awareness of occupational safety
  and health risks and their prevention
• To promote risk prevention or“ safety
  culture“



                                              2
    Why do we need to understand
          Safety Culture?
• Recently, the focus has shifted by the
  awareness of organizational, managerial
  and human factors rather than technical
  issues.
• Safety Culture is a mean to predict safety
  performance


                                               3
    Origin of the Importance of Safety Culture


                              The investigation into the Chernobyl
                              disaster concluded that a poor
                              safety culture at the facility was a
                              significant causal factor




Medvedev G. The truth about
Chernobyl. New York: Basic
Books, 1991.

                                                                     4
 Expanding focus of safety concern
         across industries
                                System & cultural issues


               Unsafe acts (errors and violations)

 Equipment failures (hardware  software)

1955                                                       2005
  1960s        1970s          1980s         1990s       2000s
  Metal fatigue Flixborough   Chernobyl     Paddington Linate
  Aberfan       Seveso        Zeebrugge     Long Island Überlingen
  Ibrox         Tenerife      Bhopal        Alabama     Columbia
                TMI           Piper Alpha   Estonia
                                                                     5
                Mt Erebus     Dryden        Eschede
        Role of Safety Culture
• 80% of accidents are caused by unsafe acts.
• However, the problem is also at the
   organizational policies and standards.
• Therefore, health and safety practitioners
   now focus on the organizational values
   that might enhance risk and crisis
   management and safe performance in
   complex and hazardous condition.


                                                6
        What is Culture?


“The way we do things around here”



      1 attitude = Opinion…
      Everyone’s Attitude =
      Culture

                                     7
The safety culture of an organization
is the product of
– individual and group values, attitudes, perceptions
– competencies and
– patters of behavior
that determine the commitment to, and the style and
proficiency of an organization’s health and safety
  management 88
(UK Health and Safety Commission, 1993)

                                                        8
        Important variables
• The amount of training the organization
  received,
• Good relations between management and
  workers,
• Monitoring of unsafe work behaviors
• Low turnover of staff, and
• Safety controls on machinery
(Shannon et al., 1997; p. 213)
                                            9
 Organizations with a positive safety
    culture are characterized by
• communications founded on mutual trust,
• by shared perceptions of the importance of
  safe and
• by confidence in the efficacy of preventive
  measures.



                                            10
Emergent Themes in Safety Culture

1.   Management commitment to safety
2.   Safety system
3.   Risk
4.   Work pressure
5.   Competence
6.   Procedure

                                       11
1.Management Commitment to Safety
• Senior management
  – Support safety through indirect means
     • Establishing safety policies and procedures
     • Setting production goals
  – How workers’ perceived management actions
     for safety?
  – Consideration must also be given to the
     middle management level.


                                                     12
1.Management Commitment to Safety cont.

• Supervisors
   – The link between senior management and job
             floor
   – Monitor worker compliance safety and provide
         feedback to workers concerning their behavior
   – It is measured by respondents’ perception of
         supervisor’s behavior and attitudes with
         respect to safety.
            2.Safety System
• Encompasses aspects of SMS which
  includes
  – safety committee
  – safety work procedure
  – safety officer,
  – safety equipment
  – safety policies.

                                     14
                      3.Risk
• Perception of risks on workplace
  – This may contribute to the workers’
     involvement or responsibility for safety
• Attitudes toward risk and safety
  – Why workers continue to take risk?




                                                15
            4.Work Pressure
• Balance between safety and production
• Work pressure is becoming greater
  because of global issues such as cost
  reduction, organization restructuring etc




                                              16
              5.Competence
• Competence factor:
  – Technical: worker skill, qualification and
     knowledge
  – Non-technical: leadership and decision
     making
• Multi-skilling must be properly applied
otherwise it is risky

                                                 17
      6. Procedures and Rules
• Perception of safety rules
• Attitudes to safety rules
• Compliance or violation of procedures

• The three factors are influenced by
  supervisor behavior and work pressure


                                          18
                  Subculture
• Subcultures present in an organization
  because of an absence of cohesive
  culture.
  – Workers and management might think
     differently to make the workplace safer




                                               19
      Example from practices
• Implementation in HC industry
  – AHRQ Patient Safety Culture Survey for
    Hospitals
  – Internationally used tool
  – Part of JCI accreditation system




                                             20
                            Conclusion

Risk prevention                   T

               Adverse events
                                                S
• Technology
• System                                            C
• Culture


                                         time

                                                        21
 Safety Culture in Organization



People   Process      Value




                                  22
HC Safety Culture Chain

                               Leadership
                             Commitment to
                              Patient Safety




   Employee &
     Physician                                            Open
  Involvement &                                        Communication
  Accountability




                                                Blame-free
             Safety Design
                                               Environment



                                                                       23
             Questions:
        Top Management Role
The importance that management places on safety
– Is safety a strategic concern to the company?
– How effective does management communicate
   safety goals to employees in the field?
– How often management attend safety training?
– Does management assign safety accountability to
   somebody?


                                                    24
                  Questions:
                Field Personnel
The level of importance field personnel and site
  managers place on safety
– Whether field personnel is empowered to
   change or improve safety conditions?
– Is a dedicated safety personnel used in the
   field?
– Is reporting system in the place and used ?
– Significance during the planning and organization ?

                                                   25

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:0
posted:6/24/2013
language:English
pages:25