Reading Recovery_ How Much Does It Cost_ by malj


									Reading Recovery:
How Much Does It Cost?
Christy Wall Harrelson
Dr. G. Geer
EDAD 684: School Finance-Ethics
Spring 2011
What is Reading Recovery?
• Early intervention for struggling emerging readers
  (the bottom 20% of the first grade class)
• For first grade students only
• One-on-one
• Provided by a trained, highly-certified teacher
• 12-20 weeks of instruction and intervention
• 30 minutes of daily instruction
• Supplements rather than replaces
  classroom reading instruction (in
  ADDITION TO what students are
  already receiving, not in place of)
• Data-driven
A typical Reading Recovery
lesson consists of…
• Familiar re-reads (reading familiar books for fluency
  and comprehension)
• Reading the book from the previous
  day’s lesson to complete a running
  record (data collection)
• Working with magnetic letters and
  words (sound and spelling patterns)
• Writing a story
• Putting together a cut-up story
  (structured language)
• Introducing and reading a new book
Vision and Goals:
Why Reading Recovery?
  “The goal of Reading Recovery is to
   dramatically reduce the number of
     first-grade students who have
   extreme difficulty learning to read
   and write and to reduce the cost of
     these learners to educational
               -Reading Recovery: Basic Facts
    What does this have to do with us?
• We want the most bang for our buck.
• Reading Recovery produces consistent results in a short amount of time
  (81% of students graduating from the program in South Carolina in the
  2009-2010 school year reached or surpassed grade level performance).
• Early interventions help prevent the effects of low performance such
   – truancy,
   – continued poor performance,
   – increases in the number of students labeled with learning
   – increases in the needs for special support staff to address learning
     difficulties later on,
   – increases in drop-out rates,
   – “reduced employment opportunities” (from,
   – and involvement in criminal behavior.
So…how much does it
  Let’s compare…
A cost comparison example:
  Calculations for estimated annual per-pupil cost based
  on a teacher salary and benefits of $60,000 annually.

                       PUPIL COST       IN PROGRAM     ACROSS TIME

Retention            $9,200           1 year          $9,200
Title I              $2,400           5 years         $12,000
Special Ed.          $3,750           5 years         $18,750
Other (eg. Small     $2,400           3 years         $7,200
group pull-out)

Reading Recovery     $3,750           12-20 weeks     $3,750

- From “Reading Recovery Is Cost Effective”
   Costs are based on…
• Average teacher salary (found on state report
• Adjusted teacher cost (fringe benefits)
• Annual spending per pupil (state report cards)
• Pupil-teacher ratio (state report cards)
• Number of Reading Recovery Full-time Equivalent
  (FTE) teachers (1 FTE equals 8 slots)
• Number of students served per FTE (number of
  FTE’s in the district divided by the total number of
  students served)
• Cost per student served
Formula for determining cost per pupil is as follows…
Step 1: Calculate the Adjusted Teacher Salary/Cost
   Average teacher salary x 1.3 (allocated for fringe
Step 2: Determine the Number of FTE’s (full-time
   equivalent teachers) for Reading Recovery
   Total Number of RR Slots / 8 (number of slots taught by
   an FTE teacher)
Step 3: Determine the Number of RR Students Served per
   Number of Students Served / Number of FTE’s
Step 4: Determine Reading Recovery per Pupil Cost
   Adjusted Teacher Salary / Number of RR Students Served
   per FTE
   In Horry County, for example,…
(Information based on the 2009-2010 District Report Card)
Average teacher salary-$50,257.00

Step 1: Adjusted teacher cost (salary)-$65,334.10
  ($50,257.00 x 1.3, with 1.3 accounting for fringe benefits)
Step 2: Number of FTE’s for Reading Recovery-15
   (120 / 8)
Step 3: Number of Students Served per FTE-14
   (210 / 15)

Step 4: Cost per Reading Recovery Pupil-         $4,355.61
How does this compare for Horry County?
 Cost Comparison for Horry County:
 Calculations for estimated annual per-pupil
 cost based on a teacher salary and benefits
 of $50,257 annually.

    Intervention     Annual Per-    Average Time      Per-Pupil Cost
                      Pupil Cost     in Program        Across Time
 Retention          $10,122        1 year            $10,122
                                                     ($ spent per pupil)
 Title I                           3 years

 Special Ed.        $3,170         5 years           $15,850

 Reading Recovery   $4,355.61      12-20 weeks        $4,355.61
                                   (less than 1 year)
Training/Start Up Costs
The following costs are incurred by the district choosing
  to implement the Reading Recovery program. The
  costs apply to each teacher trained to provide Reading
  Recovery instruction.
• Starter set of materials for implementation-$3,000
• Teacher textbooks-$150
• Tuition cost for graduate course required for training-
• Support fee for regional training site-$3,000
• Continuing contract fee-$300 a year/$900 over
  expected 3-years of Reading Recovery instruction
      TOTAL-$10,550 per teacher trained
   And the total is…
   For a district like Horry County considering…
• 15 Reading Recovery teachers x $10,550
• 210 students served x $4,355.61
…the total cost of implementing Reading Recovery for
   one full year comes roughly to a grand total of…

 That is roughly 4.57 % of the total $234,718,979.00
      Horry County spent on instruction last year.
•   Assad, S. & Condon, M.A. (1996). Demonstrating the cost effectiveness
          of reading recovery: Because it makes a difference. Network News:
          A Newsletter Published by the Reading Recovery Council of North
          America, Winter, 1-3.
•   Gomez Bellenge, F.X. (2002). Measuring the cost of reading recovery: A
          practical approach. Journal of Reading Recovery, Fall, 47-54.
•   McBride, M. (2010). Computing the cost of reading recovery to your
          district. Retrieved from

•   Ohio State University Reading Recovery . (2010). Requirements and
    costs for the training of reading recovery teachers in ohio. Retrieved

•   Reading Recovery Council of North America. (2010). Reading recovery:
          A guide for decision makers. Retrieved from

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