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					                             ALPMANN SCHMIDT




Wörlen / Balleis / Angress

Introduction to
English Civil Law
for German-Speaking Lawyers
and Law Students

           Vol. 1
                                   5th Edition
                                   2012
     Introduction to English Civil Law
for German-Speaking Lawyers and Law Students


                                 Vol. 1


                                  2012



                               Begründet von
                    Dr. iur. utr. Rainer Wörlen (†)
            ehemals Professor an der Fakultät Wirtschaftsrecht
                     Fachhochschule Schmalkalden


                               fortgeführt von
                       Dr. iur. Kristina Balleis
                     Dr. phil. Alexandra Angress
           Professorinnen an der Fakultät Wirtschaft und Recht
                       Hochschule Aschaffenburg



   ALPMANN UND SCHMIDT Juristische Lehrgänge Verlagsges. mbH & Co. KG
 48149 Münster, Annette-Allee 35, 48001 Postfach 1169, Telefon (0251) 98109-33
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Danke
Ihr AS-Autorenteam




                                   Prof. Dr. iur. Kristina Balleis
                                Prof. Dr. phil. Alexandra Angress
                              Introduction to English Civil Law, Vol. 1
                         for German-Speaking Lawyers and Law Students
                                      5th revised edition 2012
                                     ISBN: 978-3-86752-237-3

                       Verlag Alpmann und Schmidt Juristische Lehrgänge
                           Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG, Münster

                       Die Vervielfältigung, insbesondere das Fotokopieren
                  ist nicht gestattet (§§ 53, 54 UrhG) und strafbar (§ 106 UrhG).
                      Im Fall der Zuwiderhandlung wird Strafantrag gestellt.
                                        Vorwort

"Unfortunately, an individual’s life must come to an end as inevitably as any book. For
human beings the end is death. We do not know exactly what will happen to us after
death. The only thing we can be sure of is that ‘Death brings heirs.’ The end of a book
does not have to mean its death. Books may live endlessly. …” - „Menschen sterben, Bü-
cher können weiter leben“.
Mit diesen Worten hat Rainer Wörlen, der am 3. November 2009 unerwartet im Alter von
63 Jahren verstarb, zu seinem letzten Kapitel "Law of Succession" in Vol. 2 (3. Aufl.) über-
geleitet.
Rainer Wörlen hat eine große Zahl didaktisch herausragender Lehr- und Lernbücher hin-
terlassen. Wer ihn persönlich gekannt hat, weiß, dass seine Leidenschaft den beiden
Bänden zum englischen Zivilrecht ("Introduction to English Civil Law – for German-
Speaking Lawyers and Law Students, Vol. 1 + 2") galt. Das geniale Konzept dieser beiden
Bücher, dem (deutschen) Leser eine fremde Rechtsordnung zu erschließen und zugleich
die fremde (Rechts-) Sprache zu vermitteln, geht auf diese Begeisterung zurück. Wir ha-
ben es uns zur Aufgabe gemacht, dieses Konzept im Sinne Rainer Wörlens fortzuführen,
welches in seinem nachfolgend abgedruckten Vorwort zur ersten Auflage ausführlich
beschrieben ist. Diese Lektüre, insbesondere des Abschnittes „IV. Zur Arbeitsweise mit
diesem Buch“ sei allen Lesern, die mit dem Buch gewinnbringend arbeiten wollen,
nachdrücklich ans Herz gelegt.
Schon in dem Vorwort aus dem Jahr 1999 wurde auf die große Bedeutung des engli-
schen Rechts hingewiesen. Die Gültigkeit dieser Aussage findet sich durch die fortge-
schrittene Globalisierung und Öffnung der Märkte nach Osten und nach Asien heute,
über 10 Jahre später, bestätigt. Internationale Verträge werden heutzutage nicht nur
auf englisch verhandelt und abgeschlossen, sondern sehr häufig dem englischen Recht
unterworfen. Weltweit vertraut man in dieses über Jahrhunderte gewachsene, sehr be-
ständige Recht und setzt auf dessen Verläßlichkeit. Dass dem charakteristischen case
law der in unserer Rechtsordnung vorhandene hohe Abstraktionsgrad abgeht, wird da-
bei als Vorteil angesehen.
Band 1 möchte mit den ersten vier Kapiteln zum englischen Rechtssystem den Grund-
stein für ein umfassendes Verständnis (feeling) dieser fremdartigen Rechtsordnung des
common law legen. Kapitel 5 und 6 bilden mit "Persons in Law" und "Law of Contract"
den Auftakt zur Einführung in das materielle englische Recht, die in Band 2 mit weiteren
fünf Bereichen des englischen civil law fortgesetzt wird. Bei allem steht im Vordergrund,
dem Leser die zugrundeliegenden Rechtskonzepte anschaulich zu vermitteln, da sie oft-
mals nicht mit den vertrauten deutschen Konzepten vergleichbar sind.
Seit der 4. Auflage ist einige Zeit vergangen, weshalb eine grundlegende Überarbeitung
und Aktualisierung geboten erschien. Ganz neu eingebracht wurde die europäische Di-
mension, die auch vor dem Recht des Unionsmitglieds United Kingdom nicht halt
macht, und insbesondere den Verbraucherschutz prägt. Aufzunehmen war im Kontext
europäisch beeinflusster Rechtsquellen auch der Human Rights Act 1998. Einschneiden-
de Neuerungen im englischen Rechtssystem, die sich damals schon angedeutet hatten
(Constitutional Reform Act 2005), aber erst später Wirkung zeigten, wurden eingearbei-
tet. Dazu gehört die 2009 beendete Ära des House of Lords als Rechtsprechungsorgan
und des Lord Chancellors als Richter und head of judiciary. Bedeutsam sind darüber hin-
aus der Legal Services Act 2007, der den Markt für Rechtsdienstleistungen liberalisiert,
der Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Act 2007, diverse Änderungen in der berufsständi-
schen Gesetzgebung zur legal profession und der neue Companies Act 2006 im Gesell-
schaftsrecht, dessen Vertiefung im Kapitel "Persons in Law" sich als lohnenswert erwies.
Die sprachliche Fassung sowie die Vokabelübersetzungen erfuhren ebenfalls eine voll-
ständige Überarbeitung. Wo angebracht, wurden cases zugunsten der Lesbarkeit ver-
kürzt oder umformuliert.
Neu ist die Bearbeitung im Team. Kristina Balleis verantwortet als Juristin in erster Linie
die fachlichen Inhalte. Alexandra Angress als Sprachwissenschaftlerin hat die sprachliche
Fassung begleitet. Beraten und unterstützt wurden wir durch William Herbert, M.A.
(Hons) (Cantab.), Solicitor aus Birmingham, einem langjährigen Freund Rainer Wörlens
und Mitglied der Deutsch-Britischen Juristenvereinigung e.V. Ihm gebührt unser aller-
erster und aufrichtigster Dank für seine Vorschläge zu den Kapiteln 1, 3, 4 und 5 und für
die Einbringung seiner Freizeit, die er geduldig und unermüdlich für unsere vielen „klei-
nen und großen“ Fragen geopfert hat.
Besonders danken wir auch Solicitor Alison Turnbull, LL.M., LL.B., Senior Lecturer in Law
an der Birmingham City University, School of Law, für die kritische Lektüre der Kapitel 1,
4 und 5.
Weiterer Dank gebührt Petra Keiser und Susan Rastetter-Gies für die Durchsicht des
Manuskripts.
Für all die erfahrene großzügige Hilfe sind wir sehr dankbar. Etwaige Fehler oder Unge-
nauigkeiten haben gleichwohl wir allein zu verantworten. Konstruktiv-kritische Anre-
gungen und „Fehlermeldungen“ nehmen wir gern entgegen. Sie erreichen uns per Mail
unter kristina.balleis@h-ab.de und alexandra.angress@h-ab.de oder mit der Post unter
der Anschrift: Fakultät Wirtschaft und Recht, Hochschule Aschaffenburg, Würzburger
Str. 45, 63743 Aschaffenburg.


Aschaffenburg, im Juli 2012                          Kristina Balleis & Alexandra Angress
    Contents


               Vorwort
               Preface
               Vorwort zur ersten Auflage
               Table of Cases .......................................................................................................................................... IX
               Table of Statutes ..................................................................................................................................... XI
               Table of Diagrams ................................................................................................................................ XIII
               Abbreviations .......................................................................................................................................... XV
               Bibliography ......................................................................................................................................... XVII

                                                Part One: General Features of English Civil Law

                                                                                Chapter One
               Classification and Sources of English Law ..................................................................................1
               I. What is English law ...........................................................................................................................1
               II. Historical background .....................................................................................................................2
               III. Classification of English law .........................................................................................................3
                    1. Private law and public law ........................................................................................................3
                    2. Criminal law and civil law ..........................................................................................................4
                    3. Common law and equity ...........................................................................................................4
                    4. Case law and statutory law .......................................................................................................5
                    5. Common law and civil law ........................................................................................................5
                    6. Other legal classifications .........................................................................................................6
               IV. Sources of English law .....................................................................................................................7
                    1. Legislation ......................................................................................................................................9
                       a) Sovereignty of Parliament ...................................................................................................9
                       b) Legislative procedure ...........................................................................................................9
                       c) Delegated legislation ......................................................................................................... 11
                       d) Statutory interpretation .................................................................................................... 13
                          aa) The traditional rules ................................................................................................... 13
                          bb) The modern approach ............................................................................................... 13
                          cc) Other interpretation aids .......................................................................................... 14
                    2. Case law – judicial precedent ............................................................................................... 16
                       a) Meaning of precedent....................................................................................................... 16
                       b) Operation of the doctrine of precedent ...................................................................... 17
                       c) Hierarchy of the English courts ...................................................................................... 17
                       d) Deviating from precedents .............................................................................................. 19
                       e) Pros and cons of precedent ............................................................................................. 20
                    3. European Union law ................................................................................................................ 22
                       a) Sources of EU law ................................................................................................................ 22
                       b) The European Communities Act 1972 and Parliamentary sovereignty .......... 22
                    4. The Human Rights Act 1998 ................................................................................................. 24
                       a) The impact of the HRA 1998 ............................................................................................ 24
                       b) Constitutional Reform Act 2005 ..................................................................................... 25
                    5. Other sources of English law ................................................................................................ 25
               V. Further reading & references ..................................................................................................... 27



I
                                                                                                                                                                 Contents

                                                                  Chapter Two
Administration of Justice ................................................................................................................. 28
I. Common law and equity ............................................................................................................. 28
     1. Historical background ............................................................................................................. 28
     2. Common law .............................................................................................................................. 29
        a) Common law courts ........................................................................................................... 29
        b) The system of writs ............................................................................................................. 30
     3. Equity ............................................................................................................................................ 32
        a) Term and historical setting .............................................................................................. 32
        b) Maxims of equity ................................................................................................................. 34
           aa) "Equity shall prevail." .................................................................................................. 34
           bb) "Equity will not suffer a wrong to be without remedy." ................................ 34
           cc) "Equity follows the law." ........................................................................................... 35
           dd) "He who comes to equity must come with clean hands." ............................ 35
           ee) "Equity acts in personam." ....................................................................................... 35
           ff) "Equity will not assist a volunteer." ....................................................................... 35
II. The modern judiciary in England ............................................................................................. 36
     1. Basic structure of the English court system ..................................................................... 36
     2. The inferior courts ..................................................................................................................... 39
        a) County courts ........................................................................................................................ 40
        b) Magistrates’ courts.............................................................................................................. 41
     3. The superior courts .................................................................................................................. 41
        a) Crown Court .......................................................................................................................... 42
        b) High Court of Justice .......................................................................................................... 42
           aa) The Queen’s Bench Division .................................................................................... 43
           bb) The Chancery Division ............................................................................................... 44
           cc) The Family Division ..................................................................................................... 44
        c) Court of Appeal .................................................................................................................... 45
           aa) The Civil Division ......................................................................................................... 45
           bb) The Criminal Division ................................................................................................. 46
        d) Supreme Court of the UK .................................................................................................. 46
        e) The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council ............................................................. 47
     4. International courts .................................................................................................................. 49
        a) European Court of Justice ................................................................................................ 49
        b) European Court of Human Rights ................................................................................. 49
     5. Recent trends and reforms .................................................................................................... 49
III. Further reading & references .................................................................................................... 50

                                                                 Chapter Three
Legal Profession and Judiciary ...................................................................................................... 51
I. Introduction and history .............................................................................................................. 51
II. Solicitors ............................................................................................................................................ 53
    1. Fields of activity ......................................................................................................................... 53
    2. Organisation ............................................................................................................................... 55
    3. Training and qualification ...................................................................................................... 56



                                                                                                                                                                            II
      Contents


                      4. Fees ................................................................................................................................................ 57
                 III. Barristers ............................................................................................................................................ 58
                      1. Fields of activity ......................................................................................................................... 59
                      2. Organisation ............................................................................................................................... 60
                      3. Training and qualification ...................................................................................................... 61
                      4. Fees ................................................................................................................................................ 62
                      5. The Attorney-General and the Solicitor-General ........................................................... 62
                      6. The Crown Prosecution Service ........................................................................................... 63
                 IV. Summary of recent developments .......................................................................................... 63
                      1. The future of a divided profession of advocates ........................................................... 64
                      2. Legal Services Act 2007 .......................................................................................................... 64
                 V. Judiciary ............................................................................................................................................. 65
                      1. Training ........................................................................................................................................ 66
                      2. Appointment .............................................................................................................................. 66
                      3. Tasks and responsibilities ...................................................................................................... 68
                      4. Immunity...................................................................................................................................... 69
                      5. Retirement and removal from office ................................................................................. 70
                      6. Remuneration ............................................................................................................................ 70
                      7. Magistrates .................................................................................................................................. 70
                 VI. Further reading & references ..................................................................................................... 72

                                                                                   Chapter Four
                 How to Approach the Law ................................................................................................................ 73
                 I. Cases ................................................................................................................................................... 73
                      1. Finding cases .............................................................................................................................. 73
                      2. Law reporting in history and today .................................................................................... 74
                         a) Pre-1865 reports .................................................................................................................. 74
                         b) Modern reports (since 1865) ........................................................................................... 76
                            aa) The Law Reports .......................................................................................................... 76
                            bb) Other reports ................................................................................................................ 78
                            cc) Common and different features ............................................................................ 79
                         c) Cases on the Net .................................................................................................................. 79
                      3. Using modern law reports ..................................................................................................... 80
                         a) Citation and reference ....................................................................................................... 80
                         b) How to trace a particular case ........................................................................................ 82
                         c) How to read a case in a law report ................................................................................ 84
                 II. Statutes .............................................................................................................................................. 86
                      1. Finding statutes ......................................................................................................................... 87
                      2. Reading statutes ....................................................................................................................... 88
                      3. Citation of statutes and provisions ..................................................................................... 90
                 III. Further reading & references ..................................................................................................... 91




III
                                                                                                                                                                 Contents

                                    Part Two: Main Subjects of English Civil Law

                                                                  Chapter Five
Persons in Law ....................................................................................................................................... 92
I. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 92
II. Natural persons ............................................................................................................................... 92
     1. Minors ........................................................................................................................................... 93
        a) Minority and majority ........................................................................................................ 93
        b) Rights and duties of minors under civil law ............................................................... 93
           aa) Contract .......................................................................................................................... 93
           bb) Tort ................................................................................................................................... 94
           cc) Property .......................................................................................................................... 95
           dd) Marriage .......................................................................................................................... 95
           ee) Wills .................................................................................................................................. 95
           ff) Right of action .............................................................................................................. 95
        c) Miscellaneous rights and duties outside civil law ................................................... 96
     2. Unborn children ........................................................................................................................ 98
     3. Persons of unsound mind ...................................................................................................... 98
III. Juristic persons ................................................................................................................................ 99
     1. The concept of juristic personality ...................................................................................100
     2. Corporations – types and creation ................................................................................... 100
        a) One member or more – corporation sole or aggregate? ....................................100
        b) Means of creation ..............................................................................................................101
           aa) Royal Charter ..............................................................................................................101
           bb) Specific statute ..........................................................................................................102
           cc) Registration under the Companies Acts (Incorporation) ...........................102
     3. Public limited company (plc) ..............................................................................................103
     4. Private limited company (Ltd) ............................................................................................104
     5. Effects of incorporation ........................................................................................................105
        a) Constitution of the company ........................................................................................105
        b) Corporate personality and limited liability ..............................................................106
IV. Special Cases .................................................................................................................................. 108
     1. Unincorporated associations ..............................................................................................108
     2. Partnership law ........................................................................................................................109
     3. The limited liability partnership (LLP) .............................................................................110
V. Companies, LLPs and partnerships – compared and contrasted ...............................111
     1. Incorporation ............................................................................................................................111
     2. Legal personality .....................................................................................................................111
     3. Management ............................................................................................................................ 111
     4. Property ......................................................................................................................................112
     5. Liability .......................................................................................................................................112
     6. Profit ............................................................................................................................................112
     7. Members ....................................................................................................................................112
     8. Disclosure of information ....................................................................................................112
     9. Winding up ................................................................................................................................112



                                                                                                                                                                            IV
    Contents


               VI. English trading structures in brief .........................................................................................114
               VII. Further reading & references ..................................................................................................115

                                                                                   Chapter Six
               Law of Contract ...................................................................................................................................116
               I. Introduction and brief history .................................................................................................116
               II. Formalities ......................................................................................................................................118
                    1. Contracts which must be made by deed .......................................................................118
                    2. Contracts which must be in writing .................................................................................119
                    3. Contracts which must be evidenced in writing ...........................................................120
                    4. The Consumer Protection (Distance selling) Regulations 2000 .............................120
               III. Formation of a contract and consideration ........................................................................121
                    1. Offer ............................................................................................................................................. 122
                       a) Offer of a reward ................................................................................................................122
                       b) Invitation to treat ...............................................................................................................123
                       c) Communication of an offer ...........................................................................................125
                       d) Termination of an offer ...................................................................................................125
                    2. Acceptance ...............................................................................................................................128
                       a) Unconditional acceptance .............................................................................................128
                       b) Use of standard form contracts ....................................................................................129
                       c) Communication of acceptance ....................................................................................129
                       d) Stipulated methods of acceptance .............................................................................131
                       e) Agreement by use of post ..............................................................................................131
                       f) Acceptance in modern forms of communication .................................................132
                    3. Contractual intention ............................................................................................................133
                       a) Domestic and social agreements ................................................................................134
                       b) Commercial agreements ................................................................................................136
                       c) Advertisements...................................................................................................................138
                       d) Collective agreements .....................................................................................................138
                       e) Importance of contractual intention ..........................................................................138
                    4. Consideration ...........................................................................................................................139
                       a) What is consideration? ....................................................................................................140
                       b) Consideration must not be past ..................................................................................140
                       c) Consideration must move from the promisee .......................................................141
                       d) Consideration need not be adequate but must be sufficient ...........................142
                       e) Performance of existing duties ....................................................................................144
                       f) Problems with consideration – part payment of debt ........................................145
                       g) Equity: the doctrine of promissory estoppel ...........................................................148
               IV. Legal capacity to contract......................................................................................................... 152
                    1. Minors .........................................................................................................................................152
                       a) Valid contracts ....................................................................................................................153
                          aa) Contracts for necessaries ......................................................................................153
                          bb) Contracts of service for the minor’s benefit ....................................................154
                       b) Contracts voidable by minors .......................................................................................156
                       c) Void contracts .....................................................................................................................157


V
                                                                                                                                                             Contents

    2. Persons of unsound mind and drunkards ......................................................................158
    3. Capacity of corporations ......................................................................................................159
       a) Limited liability partnerships ........................................................................................160
       b) Chartered corporations ...................................................................................................160
       c) Statutory corporations ....................................................................................................160
       d) Registered (limited) companies ...................................................................................160
       e) The doctrine of ultra vires ..............................................................................................160
V. The contents of contract ............................................................................................................162
    1. Starting up .................................................................................................................................162
    2. Contractual terms ...................................................................................................................163
       a) Definition ..............................................................................................................................163
       b) Express terms ......................................................................................................................163
       c) Implied terms ......................................................................................................................167
           aa) Terms implied by statute ........................................................................................168
           bb) Terms implied by the court ...................................................................................169
           cc) Terms implied by custom .......................................................................................170
       d) Classification of terms ......................................................................................................171
           aa) Conditions.................................................................................................................... 171
           bb) Warranties ....................................................................................................................171
           cc) Innominate terms ......................................................................................................172
    3. Letters of intent – a special case ........................................................................................174
    4. Exemption clauses ..................................................................................................................175
       a) Control at common law ..................................................................................................176
           aa) Incorporation into the contract ...........................................................................176
           bb) Construction of exemption clauses.................................................................... 180
       b) Control under the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 ...............................................182
           aa) Scope .............................................................................................................................183
           bb) Invalid clauses under the UCTA ...........................................................................183
           cc) Exclusions and reasonableness ............................................................................184
       c) Control under the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contract Regulations 1999 .... 187
VI. Vitiating factors ............................................................................................................................188
    1. Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 188
    2. Mistake ........................................................................................................................................189
       a) Mutual mistake as to the terms of the subject-matter ........................................189
       b) Common mistake as to the existence, the title or the quality
           of the subject-matter .......................................................................................................190
       c) Unilateral mistake as to the nature of a signed document or the
           identity of one party or to the terms of the contract ...........................................191
    3. Misrepresentation ...................................................................................................................192
       a) Fraudulent misrepresentation ......................................................................................193
       b) Negligent misrepresentation ........................................................................................194
       c) Innocent misrepresentation ..........................................................................................195
       d) Remedies ..............................................................................................................................195
       e) Silence as misrepresentation ........................................................................................196
    4. Duress and undue influence ...............................................................................................197
       a) Duress ....................................................................................................................................197


                                                                                                                                                                        VI
  Contents


                          aa) Actual or threatened violence to the person ..................................................197
                          bb) Threats to property ...................................................................................................198
                          cc) Economic duress .......................................................................................................198
                      b) Undue influence ................................................................................................................199
                   5. Illegality ......................................................................................................................................201
                      a) Contracts illegal by statute ............................................................................................201
                          aa) Contracts forbidden by statute ............................................................................201
                          bb) Contracts performed in an unlawful manner .................................................202
                      b) Contracts illegal at common law .................................................................................203
                          aa) Contracts to commit a crime or tort ...................................................................203
                          bb) Contracts contrary to public policy .....................................................................204
                          cc) Effects of illegality at common law .....................................................................205
                      c) The failed reform of the illegality defence ...............................................................206
                      d) Contracts in restraint of trade .......................................................................................206
                          aa) Contracts of employment ......................................................................................206
                          bb) Contracts for the sale of a business ....................................................................207
                          cc) Exclusive trading or dealing agreements: solus agreements ...................208
             VII. Discharge of a contract ..............................................................................................................209
                   1. Performance .............................................................................................................................209
                      a) The strict rule ......................................................................................................................209
                      b) Exceptions to the strict rule........................................................................................... 210
                   2. Agreement ................................................................................................................................ 212
                   3. Breach .........................................................................................................................................213
                   4. Frustration .................................................................................................................................213
             VIII. Remedies........................................................................................................................................ 216
                   1. Damages ....................................................................................................................................217
                   2. Specific performance .............................................................................................................220
                   3. Injunction ...................................................................................................................................220
                   4. Rescission ...................................................................................................................................221
             IX. Third party rights and the privity rule ...................................................................................222
                   1. General rule of privity ............................................................................................................222
                   2. Statutory exceptions – Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999 ...................224
                   3. Exceptions at common law .................................................................................................225
             X. Structure of a contract of sale ..................................................................................................226
             XI. Further reading & references ...................................................................................................227

             Index..........................................................................................................................................................229




VII
                                                                                                                                            Table of Cases


Adams v Lindsell (1818) ................................................132            Earl of Oxford’s Case (1615) ........................................... 34
Alexander v Rayson (1936 ............................................203               Eliason v Henshaw (1819) .............................................131
Allcard v Skinner (1887 ..................................................199          Esso Petroleum Co Ltd v Harper’s Garage
Anderson Ltd v Daniel (1924)......................................202                     (Stourport) Ltd (1968) ...............................................208
Antons Trawling Co Ltd v Smith (2003) ...................145                           Evans v Cross (1938).......................................................... 15
Armhouse Lee Ltd v Chappell (1996) .......................205                          Experience Hendrix LLC v PPX
Ashbury Railway                                                                           Enterprises Inc (2003)................................................ 219
   Carriage Co Ltd v Riche (1875)...............................161
Atlas Express Ltd v Kafco (1989) .................................198                  Felthouse v Bindley (1862)...........................................130
                                                                                       Fisher v Bell (1960)...........................................................124
Balfour v Balfour (1919)............................................. 134 f.           Foakes v Beer (1884) .......................................................147
Bank of Credit and Commerce International                                              Foster v Mackinnon (1869) ...........................................191
   SA v Aboody (1990)....................................................200
Barry v Heathcote Ball Co (Commercial                                                  George Mitchell (Chesterhall) Ltd v
   Auctions) Ltd (2000)...................................................124            Finney Lock Seeds Ltd (1983).................................185
Barton v Armstrong (1975)...........................................198                Great Peace (Shipping) Ltd v Tsavliris (Salvage)
Beswick v Beswick (1967)..............................................224                International Ltd (2002)............................................190
Bettini v Gye (1876) .........................................................172
Bolton v Mahadeva (1972)............................................211                Hadley v Baxendale (1854)...........................................217
Brikom Investment Ltd v Carr (1979) ........................151                        Harlingdon & Leinster Enterprises Ltd v
Brinkibon Ltd v Stahag Stahl (1983)..........................133                         Christopher Hull Fine Art Ltd (1990)....................168
Bunge Corporation v Tradax Export SA (1981) .....173                                   Harris v Nickerson (1873) ................................... 117 , 124
Butler Machine Tool Co Ltd v ExCell-O                                                  Hart v O’Connor (1985) ..................................................159
   Corporation (England) Ltd (1979).........................129                        Hedley Byrne & Co Ltd v
                                                                                         Heller & Partners Ltd (1964) .................................... 194
Carlill v Carbolic Smoke                                                               Herne Bay Steamboat Co v Hutton (1903)..............215
  Ball Co (1893.....................................122, 124, 130, 138                 Heydon's Case (1584) ....................................................... 13
Cehave NV v Bremer Handelsgesellschaft mbH                                             HIH Casualty and General Insurance v Chase
  (The Hansa Nord) (1976) ..........................................173                  Manhattan Bank (2003) ............................................181
Central London Property Trust Ltd v                                                    Hochster v De La Tour (1853) ......................................213
  High Trees House Ltd (1947) ..................................150                    Hoenig v Isaacs (1952) ...................................................211
Chapleton v Barry Urban                                                                Hong Kong Fir Shipping Co Ltd v Kawasaki
  District Council (1940)...............................................178              Kisen Kaisha Ltd (1962)..........................................172 f.
Chappell & Co Ltd v Nestlé Ltd (1960)............ 143, 145                             Household Fire Insurance Co v
Collier v P&M J Wright (Holdings) Ltd (2008).........151                                 Grant (1879)..................................................................132
Combe v Combe (1951).................................................150               Hughes v Metropolitan Railway Co (1877) .............149
Cooper v Phibbs (1867) .................................................190            Hutton v Warren (1836) .................................................170
Cope v Rowlands (1836)................................................202              Hyde v Wrench (1840).................................................128 f.
Couchman v Hill (1947) .................................................164
Couturier v Hastie (1856) ..............................................190            Imperial Loan Co v Stone (1892) ................................159
Coward v Motor Insurers’ Bureau (1963).................136
Currie v Misa (1875).........................................................140       Jackson v Horizon Holidays Ltd (1975) ....................224
Curtis v Chemical Cleaning and                                                         Jones v National Coal Board (1967)............................. 68
  Dyeing & Co Ltd (1951) ............................................177               Jones v Padavatton (1969) ...........................................135
Cutter v Powell (1795)....................................................209
                                                                                       Krell v Henry (1903).........................................................214
Dann v Curzon (1911).....................................................203
Darlington Borough Council v Wiltshier                                                 Laemthong International Lines Co Ltd
  Northern Limited (1995)...........................................224                   v Artis (2005)................................................................. 225
Davis v Johnson (1979) .................................................... 19         Lampleigh v Braithwaite (1615).................................. 141
Davis Contractors Ltd v Fareham                                                        Lens v Devonshire Club (1914) ...................................136
  U.D.C. (1956) .................................................................214   L’Estrange v Graucob (1934)........................................176
De Francesco v Barnum (1890) ...................................155                    Lloyds Bank v Bundy (1979) ......................................... 200
Derry v Peek (1889) .........................................................193       London Street Tramways Co Ltd v London
Dickinson v Dodds (1876).............................................127                  County Council (1898) ................................................ 18
Dimmock v Hallett (1866) .............................................196
Doyle v White City Stadium (1935)............................155                       Mason v Provident Clothing and
Dunlop v New Garage Co (1915)................................219                         Supply Co Ltd (1913) .................................................207
Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Co Ltd v                                                         Merritt v Merritt (1970) ..................................................135
  Selfridge & Co Ltd (1915) ............................ 140, 223 f.                   Midland Bank v Shephard (1988)...............................200



                                                                                                                                                                                VIII
      Table of Cases


     Moore & Co’s and Landauer & Co’s Arbitration,                                            Raffles v Wichelhaus (1864)..........................................189
      Re (1921).........................................................................210   Reardon Smith Line Ltd
     Moorcock, The (1889) .....................................................169              v Hansen-Tangen (1976) ..........................................173
                                                                                              Roscorla v Thomas (1842) .............................................141
     Nash v Inman (1908) ............................................. 153, 158               Rose & Frank Co v Compton Bros. Ltd (1925).........136
     Nisshin Shippin Co Ltd v Cleaves (2003)..................225                             Routledge v McKay (1954) ............................................165
     Nordenfeldt v Maxim Nordenfeldt Guns &                                                   RTS Flexible Systems v Molkerei
       Ammunition Co (1894)..............................................207                    Alois Müller (2010)......................................................175
                                                                                              R.W.Green Ltd v Cade Bros. Farm (1978) .................186
     Occidental Worldwide Investment Corporation v
        Skibs A/S Avanti “The Siboen and                                                      Salomon v Salomon & Co Ltd (1897) .................... 107 f.
         the Sibotre” (1976)....................................................198           Saunders v Anglia Building Society (1970) .............191
     Olley v Marlborough Court Hotel (1949) ....... 177, 180                                  Scruttons Ltd v Midland Silicones Ltd (1962).........223
     Osborne v Rowlett (1880) ............................................... 17              Simpkins v Pays (1955)...................................................136
     Oscar Chess Ltd v Williams (1957)..............................165                       Spencer’s Case (1378)..........................................................2
     Overton v Bannister (1844)............................................. 35               Spice Girls v Aprilia World Service BV (2000)..........193
                                                                                              Steinberg v Scala (Leeds) Ltd (1923) .........................156
     Pao On v Lau Yiu Long (1980)......................................141                    Stevenson, Jacques & Co v Mc Lean (1880) ............128
     Parker v South Eastern Railway Co (1877)...............178                               Stone & Rolls Ltd v Moore Stephens (2009)............206
     Patrotrade Inc v Texaco Ltd (2000) ............................180
     Parkinson v The College of Ambulance Ltd                                                 Taylor v Caldwell (1843) ................................................214
        and Harrison (1925)....................................................204            The Prior’s Case......................................................................2
     Pearce v Brain (1929).......................................................158          Thomas v Thomas (1842) ..............................................143
     Pearce v Brooks (1866) ...................................................205            Thornton v Shoe Lane Parking Ltd (1971)...............179
     Petroleum Ltd v Commissioners of Custom                                                  Tweddle v Atkinson (1861) ..............................142, 222 f.
        and Excise (1976) ........................................................137
     Phillips v Brooks Ltd (1919)...........................................192               Van Gend en Loos (26/62) [1963] E.C.R.3 .................. 22
     Photo Production Ltd v Securicor                                                         Victoria Laundry v Newman
        Transport Ltd (1980) ..................................................181               Industrie Ltd (1949) ....................................................218
     Pinnel’s Case (1602).......................................... 146 ff., 212
     Planche v Colburn (1831) ..............................................211               Warlow v Harrison (1859)..............................................124
     Poussard v Speirs and Pond (1876) ...........................171                         Warner Brothers Pictures Inc v Nelson (1937)........220
     Proform Sports Management Ltd v Proactive                                                Williams v Roffey Bros & Nicholls
        Sports Management Ltd and                                                               (Contractors) Ltd (1991)........................................ 144 f.
         Another (2006) ...........................................................156        With v O’Flanagan (1936)..............................................196
                                                                                              Woodar Investment Development Ltd
     R. v McNaghten (1843).............................................. 80, 99                 v Wimpey Construction (UK) Ltd (1980) .............224
     R v Bow Street Metropolitan Magistrate and
        Others, ex parte Pinochet Ugarte (1999) .............. 69                             Young v Bristol Aeroplane Co Ltd (1944) ...............18 f.




IX
                                                                                                                                            Table of Statutes


Access to Justice Act 1999....................................... 40, 64                     Law of Property Act 1925..............................95, 119, 224
Access to Justice (Woolf Report) 1996 ....................... 49                             Law Reform (Frustrated Contracts) Act 1943.........215
Act of Settlement 1700 .......................................................9              Legal Services Act 2007 ........................55, 59, 60, 63, 64
Administration of Justice Act 1985.............................. 54                          Limited Partnership Act 1907.............................109, 110
Animal Welfare Act 2006................................................. 92                  Limited Liability Partnerships
                                                                                               Act 2000 ...................................................... 110, 114, 160
Bills of Exchange Act 1882. ..........................................224                    Limited Liability Partnerships
British Nationality and Status of Aliens                                                       Regulations 2001 ........................................................110
   Act 1943 ........................................................................... 92   Lord Woolf’s Practice Direction 2001 .....76, 77, 81, 82
British Telecommunications Act 1981......................102
                                                                                             Offensive Weapons Act 1959 ......................................124
Children Act 1989 ................................................ 40, 41, 49
Civil Procedure Rules 1998 ............................... 40, 49, 73                        Marriage of Lunatics Act 1811 ...................................... 98
Code of Conduct of the Bar of England                                                        Marriage with Foreigners Act 1906 ............................. 92
   and Wales ........................................................................ 60     Married Women's Property Act 1882........................ 224
Code Napoléon 1804...........................................................8               Matrimonial Causes Act 1973........................................ 90
Companies Act 1985...................................... 10, 102, 119                        Maximum Number of Judges Order 2003 ......... 42, 45
Companies Act 2006...................10, 101, 102, 103, 104,                                 Mental Capacity Act 2005........................................ 37, 98
   ..................................................... 105, 106, 114, 160, 161             Mental Health Act 1983 .................................................159
Competition Act 1998 .......................................... 206, 224                     Merchant Shipping Act 1970.......................................210
Constitutional Reform                                                                        Minors' Contracts Act 1987........... ........93, 94, 153, 158
   Act 2005 ....................25, 41, 44, 46, 47, 50, 66, 67, 68                           Misrepresentation Act 1967...................... 182, 194, 195
Consumer Credit Act 1974 ...........................................119
Consumer Credit Act 2006 ...........................................119                      Nottingham Parc Estate Act 1990................................ 10
Consumer Protection (Distance Selling)
   Regulations 2000 .............................................. 120, 133                  Partnership Act 1890.............................................109, 114
Contracts (Rights of Third Parties)                                                          Partnership Act 1907 ......................................................110
   Act 1999 ..................................................... 142, 224, 225              Powers of Attorney Act 1971.......................................119
Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental                                                   Practice Statement (Judicial Precedent) 1966......... 18
   Freedoms (ECHR) of 1950 ................................... 49, 68                        Practice Statement 1966 .......................................... 18, 19
County Courts Act 1846................................................... 40                 Provisions of Oxford 1258............................................... 31
County Courts Act 1984................................................... 40                 Representation of the People Act
Courts Act 1971 .................................................................. 42          (Reform Act) 1832......................................................... 29
Courts Act 2003. ................................................................. 50        Road Traffic Act 1930........................................................ 15
Courts and Legal Services Act 1990 ....... 49, 53, 55, 65                                    Road Traffic Act 1988......................................................224
Criminal Appeal Act 1966 ............................................... 46
Criminal Appeal Act 1995 ............................................... 46                  Sale and Supply of Goods Act 1994 .................168, 210
Crown Proceedings Act 1947 ...........................................3                      Sale and Supply of Goods to Consumers
                                                                                                Regulations 2002 ........................................................184
Electoral Administration Act 2006............................... 96                          Sale of Goods Act 1979....................... 93, 124, 153, 154,
Electronic Commerce (EC Directive)                                                              .................................. 158, 168, 169, 184, 190, 210, 220
   Regulations 2002 ........................................................133              Senior Courts Act 1981 .................................................... 70
European Communities Act 1972                                                                Solicitors Act 1974 ............................................................. 54
   (ECA) .................................................... 22, 23, 24, 25, 161            Solicitors’ Remuneration Order 2009 ......................... 57
European Community Directive on Unfair Terms                                                 SRA Code of Conduct 2011 ............................................ 55
   in Consumer Contracts 93/13/EC..........................187                               SRA Higher Rights of
European Convention on                                                                          Audience Regulation 2011........................................ 54
   Human Rights 1950 (ECHR)....................... 6, 8, 47, 50                              Statute of Frauds 1677 ..................................................120
European Directive 97/7/EC.........................................120                       Sunbeds (Regulation) Act 2010 .................................... 10
                                                                                             Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982 .........169, 184
Family Law Reform Act 1969 ......................................... 93                      Supply of Goods (Implied Terms) Act 1973............ 182
Further and Higher Education Act 1992..................102                                   Supreme Court Act 1981................................................. 42
Gambling Act 2005 .........................................................202
                                                                                             Trade Union and Labour Relations
Gaming Act 1845 .............................................................202
                                                                                                (Consolidation) Act 1992 ......................................... 138
Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) ........................ 24, 25, 66                              Transport Act 1962.......................................................... 102
                                                                                             Treaty of the European Union (TEU) ........................... 49
Industry Nationalisation Act 1946. ............................102                           Treaty of the Functioning of the European
Infant Life (Preservation) Act 1929 .............................. 98                           Union (TFEU).......................................................... 22, 206
Infants Relief Act 1874....................................................157               Tribunal, Courts and Enforcement
Interpretation Act 1978 ................................................... 14                  Act 2007 .................................................................... 37, 66

Judicial Pensions and Retirement Act 1999............. 70                                    Unfair Contract Terms
Judicature Acts 1873–1875 ................... 5, 29, 30, 33, 45                                Act 1977 (UCTA) ..............................175, 182, 183, 185
                                                                                             Unfair Terms in Consumer Contract
Law Commissions Act 1965 ........................................... 10                        Regulations 1999 ...............................................175, 187
Law of Property (Miscellaneous Provisions)
  Act 1989 .........................................................................119      Wills Act 1937................................................................ 90


                                                                                                                                                                                       X
      Table of Diagrams


      1. Classification of English Law ..........................................................................................................7
      2. Legislation.......................................................................................................................................... 12
      3. Statutory Interpretation................................................................................................................ 15
      4. Judicial Precedent........................................................................................................................... 21
      5. Sources of English Law.................................................................................................................. 27
      6. Common Law.................................................................................................................................... 32
      7. Equity................................................................................................................................................... 36
      8. Classification of English Courts .................................................................................................. 39
      9. The English Courts .......................................................................................................................... 48
     10. History of the Legal Profession................................................................................................... 53
     11. Solicitors ............................................................................................................................................. 58
     12. Barristers............................................................................................................................................. 63
     13. Judges ................................................................................................................................................. 71
     14. Handling Cases................................................................................................................................. 86
     15. Handling Statutes............................................................................................................................ 91
     16. Minors.................................................................................................................................................. 97
     17. Corporations ...................................................................................................................................105
     18. Effects of Incorporation...............................................................................................................108
     19. Companies, LLPs and Partnerships.........................................................................................113
     20. Persons in Law................................................................................................................................115
     21. History of Contract Law...............................................................................................................118
     22. Formalities .......................................................................................................................................121
     23. Offer ...................................................................................................................................................127
     24. Acceptance ......................................................................................................................................133
     25. Contractual Intention ..................................................................................................................139
     26. Consideration .................................................................................................................................148
     27. Doctrine of Promissory Estoppel .............................................................................................152
     28. Legal Capacity to Contract.........................................................................................................162
     29. Contents of Contract....................................................................................................................174
     30. Exemption Clauses........................................................................................................................188
     31. Mistake ..............................................................................................................................................192
     32. Misrepresentation.........................................................................................................................197
     33. Duress and Undue Influence.....................................................................................................201
     34. Illegality.............................................................................................................................................209
     35. Discharge of a Contract...............................................................................................................217
     36. Remedies..........................................................................................................................................221
     37. Third Party Rights ..........................................................................................................................226


XI
                             Classification and Sources of English Law                                    Chapter One


   Part One: General Features of English Civil Law                                             Merkmal/Charakteristikum

                                 Chapter One

        Classification and Sources of English Law                                              Einteilung – Quellen



I. What is English law
First of all, the term English law often stands for case law, as a                             Begriff – Fallrecht
method of finding the law not in written codes of law, but in the                              Gesetzbuch
jurisdiction of the courts. In this general and broader sense English                          Rechtsprechung – Gericht – weit
law can be found all over the world, particularly in those countries
which have a historical connection with England, such as the
United States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. It is
the purpose of this Introduction to English Civil Law, to give an                              Absicht/Zweck/Ziel
understanding of this global and general aspect of English law and
the worldwide spread of the English legal system as the mother                                 Ausbreitung – Rechtssystem
of all common law systems.

Nevertheless, we should be precise about what we mean by
English. One must distinguish carefully between the United                                     unterscheiden
Kingdom (of Great Britain and Northern Ireland), Great Britain
and England. Geographically, Great Britain comprises the whole
island including England, Wales and Scotland, whereas England by                               hier: dazu gehören
itself means without Wales and Scotland. From a legal point of view
within the United Kingdom, English law applies only in England and
Wales, while Scotland and Northern Ireland have their own legal
systems.

This book has the focus on English law in the latter sense – i.e. the                          sich schwerpunktmäßig beschäftigen
law as it applies to England and Wales.1                                                       mit


Part One of this Introduction to English Civil Law deals with                                  sich auseinandersetzen mit
general features of English civil law, in order to provide a sound                             eine gute Grundlage liefern
foundation for those familiar with the German system. Part Two
(which is continued in volume 2) then addresses some of the main                               sich beschäftigen mit/angehen
subjects of English civil law in more detail, namely the law of
contract, tort, property, succession, trusts and families.                                     Vertrag – unerlaubte Handlung –
                                                                                               Eigentum – Erbfolge – Treuhandver-
                                                                                               hältnis




 1 For reasons of simplification, we will mostly refer to England and English law throughout
   this book.



                                                                                                                                    1
             Chapter One                 Classification and Sources of English Law


                                        II. Historical background
bemerkenswert/beachtlich                The first point to note is that the English legal system is strikingly
kontinentaleuropäisch                   different from Continental legal systems (which tend to follow
wesentlicher Unterschied                the Romano-Germanic model). The essential difference is that,
gesetzlich (festgeschrieben)            whereas most Continental legal systems are based on statutory or
kodifiziert – hauptsächlich/in erster   codified2 law, the English legal system is primarily based on case
Linie
bezeichnen als – Richterrecht           law (also referred to as "judge-made law"). Today, the position of
Abschnitt                               legislation must not be neglected (see subchapter IV section 1).

verkörpern                              At this stage, we should note that English law and case law embody
                                        almost the same concept. Historically, the greater part of English
zahlreich – Grundsatz/Regel – an-       law consisted of numerous principles set out in cases decided in
ordnen/im Detail darlegen – gericht-    courts. The cases setting out those principles are known as judicial
licher Präzedenzfall                    precedents (see subchapter IV section 2). Therefore, the starting
                                        point for an English court on a point of law, is to see if the principle
früher/vorherig – vergleichbar          has already been decided in a previous (analogous) case which that
Herangehensweise                        court must follow. Contrast this with the German approach, which
                                        is to start with the codified law.

                                        To understand English law the historical background is of great
ausfindig machen/zurückführen auf       importance. There are few other legal systems which can trace
                                        principles first laid down in cases decided many centuries ago, and
zitieren – hier: Quelle                 which are still quoted today as the authority. One example is the
Vereinbarung/Vertrag abschließen        law of property, concerning the extent to which an agreement,
durchsetzen/Geltung verschaffen –       entered into for the benefit of a particular land or building, can be
Präzedenzfall                           enforced by a later owner. The leading cases on this point are The
                                        Prior’s Case (the date of which is unknown), followed in Spencer’s
                                        Case, decided in 1378.

                                        The difference between the English and the Continental approach
                                        is due to the historical roots of the two legal systems.

                                        The legal system of the Continental law family was developed by
Gelehrter/Wissenschaftler               scholars in European universities from the 12th and 13th centuries
                                        throughout to the Renaissance. There was a need for a legal
Kirchenrecht/kanonisches Recht – un-    system, independent of canon law, to replace inadequate
zureichend/ungeeignet – Gewohn-         customary law which was otherwise the only legal system but
heitsrecht                              operating differently in different places. The law at that time was
ziemlich                                seen as a fairly abstract concept of principles of justice.




                                          2 D.h. für einen bestimmten Lebensbereich geltendes Recht systematisch in einem
                                            zusammenhängenden Gesetzeswerk zusammenfassen.



2
                             Classification and Sources of English Law                                        Chapter One


Whereas on the Continent, Roman law was studied and refined over                                europäisches Festland – weiterent-
time into codes of law for the countries concerned, the contrary                                wickeln
was the case in common law countries. The English courts                                        richterrechtliches englisches
                                                                                                Gewohnheitsrecht/Landrecht – von
developed their own principles from an early date, which became
                                                                                                einem frühen Zeitpunkt an – starr –
very rigid and entrenched. There was little scope for Roman law to                              eingefahren/fest verwurzelt – wenig
have much influence. The royal judges were concerned with                                       Spielraum
finding a solution to the instant and individual case before them.
Thus, the principles they developed were derived from practical                                 herleiten
cases in real life, rather than being based on abstract principles.
                                                                                                richterliche Arumentation/Begrün-
Judicial reasoning in the English legal system is therefore said to be                          dung (e. Urteils)
"bottom up" while the Continental legal system is "top down".                                   von unten nach oben – von oben nach
                                                                                                unten
To take an example from criminal law, there has never been a
statutory definition of murder, but judges have no difficulty in                                Mord
explaining to a jury in a trial, what the prosecution must establish                            Geschworene – Prozess – hier:
                                                                                                Staatsanwalt
in order to prove a charge of murder.
                                                                                                Vorwurf


III. Classification of English law
As in all legal systems, the law can be categorised in different ways.


1. Private law and public law                                                                   Privatrecht – öffentliches Recht

Continental legal systems have a natural distinction between                                    selbstredend
private law and public law. Historically, the English legal system has
not recognised this distinction. The development of public law was
stifled for a long time by the common law rule that the Crown                                   unterdrücken/bremsen
could do no wrong, and therefore could not be sued in its own                                   verklagen/gerichtlich vorgehen
                                                                                                gegen
courts.3 It is only since the 1960s that public law has developed to
the stage of being a subject in its own right within English law, for                           selbstständig
example being taught at universities as constitutional and
administrative law. Today there is a separate section of the High                               wörtl.: Hohes Gericht (vgl. dt.
Court, called Administrative Court, which deals with appropriate                                Landgericht) – entsprechend
cases of public law, but that is still part of the normal court system.
There is no separate set of courts administering public law,                                    gesondert/unabhängig – Reihe/
comparable for example to the German „Verwaltungsge-                                            Zusammenstellung – hier: (Recht)
richtsbarkeit“.                                                                                 sprechen


Private law is that part of the law which applies to persons in law                             Rechtssubjekt
and governs primarily their legal position and their legal                                      regeln/steuern – Rechtsstellung –
relationships between each other. In German law terminology,                                    Rechtsbeziehung
private law is the law which deals with the rights and duties of

 3 The Crown Proceedings Act 1947 allowed for the first time civil actions against the Crown,    Zivilklage
   brought in the same way as against any other party.



                                                                                                                                    3
           Chapter One                    Classification and Sources of English Law


ebenbürtig/gleichrangig – Gebiet         coequal individuals. Private law includes most fields of English
VertragsR – SchuldR                      civil law, including: contract (the law of obligations in Continental
DeliktsR – SachenR – FamilienR –         legal systems), tort, property, family, succession and the law of
ErbR – Recht der Treuhandverhält-
                                         trusts. Private law also covers areas such as commercial and
nisse – HandelsR
ArbeitsR                                 employment law.

Aufbau – Befugnis – Aufgabe              Public law deals with the structure, powers and functions of
Regierung – Behörde – Ortsbehörde/       government and public authorities, such as local councils and their
Gemeindevertretung                       legal relationships with their subordinate citizens – and with each
– untergeordnet – VerfassungsR – Ver-
                                         other. Public law thus includes constitutional, administrative,
waltungsR
SozialR – SteuerR – Strafrecht           social security and tax law as well as criminal law.


                                         2. Criminal law and civil law

gängig                                   Another well-established classification is to divide the law into
                                         criminal law and civil law.

im Zusammenhang mit – Verbrechen         Criminal law means the law relating to crime and criminal offence.
– Vergehen – befasst sein mit –          It is concerned with legal rules that provide for that certain forms of
vorsehen – hier: nach sich ziehen        human conduct carry punishment by the state. As this book is an
                                         introduction to English civil law, criminal law will not be dealt with
weiter(gehend)                           in any further detail.

                                         Civil law, from a German point of view, is often used as a synonym
                                         for private law, but sometimes it is used to refer only to a part of
                                         private law, such as the German „Bürgerliches Recht“ as set out in
                                         the German BGB. In English textbooks civil law is often used as the
Lehr-/Fachbuch
Gegensatz – rechtswissenschaftliches     opposite of criminal law. Many subjects studied in a law degree,
Diplom – Grundstücksrecht –              such as tort, contract, land law, equity, most of public law and most
Billigkeitsrecht – Betonung              of EU law belong to civil law in this broad sense. The emphasis here
                                         is put on different courts (civil courts and criminal courts), different
pl.: Verfahren/Prozess – Anforderung –   proceedings, different standards of proof and different
Beweis                                   terminology between civil and criminal cases.


                                         3. Common law and equity

                                         We have explained above how the expression common law can be
                                         used as a way of describing English law as a whole. Within the
                                         English law itself, however, common law can also be used as a
Gegensatz zu/Kontrast zu                 contrast with the concept of equity. This subject will be addressed
                                         in more detail in chapter 2. At this stage, it suffices to note, that the
Gegensatzpaar                            pair of opposites – common law and equity – is a good example of
                                         the deep historical roots of English law. These two types of law



4
                             Classification and Sources of English Law                                     Chapter One


used to be separate systems of jurisdictions until they merged                                 Rechtsprechung – sich zusammen-
under the Judicature Acts 1873–1875. The common law courts                                     legen/vereinigen – etwa: Gerichts-
absorbed then the equitable jurisdiction.4                                                     fassungsgesetz – eingliedern/
                                                                                               aufnehmen – billigkeitsgerichtlich

Common law in this context means the general principles of
English law developed by the courts from medieval times onwards.
These principles were, as the name implies, common throughout                                  wie der Name schon sagt – verbreitet/
                                                                                               gebräuchlich
the country – i.e. not merely a local law. Common law was
                                                                                               Kommunalrecht/hier: regionales
particularly concerned with criminal law, contract and tort.                                   Recht

For historical reasons, a parallel system of jurisdiction gradually
evolved, administered by the Lord Chancellor on behalf of the                                  früher: Kanzler (des Königs)/später bis
Crown to ameliorate the harshness of the common law in certain                                 2009: Justizminister – verbessern –
                                                                                               Härte/Strenge
contexts. This system was called equity. It was concerned in
particular with trusts, aspects of land law and the law of property,                           etw. entwachsen/entspringen – für
and grew out of the royal power to provide justice where the                                   Gerechtigkeit sorgen
common law courts had failed to do so.                                                         versäumen



4. Case law and statutory law                                                                  Fallrecht – Gesetzesrecht

The distinction between case law and statutory law is crucial when                             äußerst wichtig/entscheidend
discussing the sources of English law. As English law is rooted in                             seine Wurzeln haben in
judge-made law, cases heard and decided by the courts are a
major source of law. Therefore the phrase "the common law" – in                                Hauptquelle – Ausdruck/Wendung
this context often synonymous with case law – usually signifies the                            bezeichnen/kennzeichnen
law that is created by the decisions of judges rather than by                                  und (eben) nicht
legislation.                                                                                   Gesetzgebung

The latter constitutes of statutory law, which also has an eminent                             bedeutend
place in English law. The most important type of legislation is the
Act of Parliament (also called a statute).                                                     Gesetz


Both, legislation and case law will be illustrated in subchapter IV.                           erklären/darstellen



5. Common law and civil law

Looking at the different legal systems across the world, the term
common law can also be used to contrast the English legal system,
based more on pragmatic case law principles, with Continental
civil law systems based on abstract principles often recorded in                               erfassen/schriftlich niederlegen
formal codes of law.


 4 Be aware, however, if there is a conflict between the rules of the common law and equity,
   "equity shall prevail", a principle that is true even today, cf. chapter 2.                 Vorrang haben/sich durchsetzen


                                                                                                                                     5
           Chapter One                     Classification and Sources of English Law


                                          6. Other legal classifications

                                          There are some other general methods of classifying the law which
beschränken auf                           are not confined to English law.

materielles Recht – Verfahrens-/for-      There is a distinction between substantive law and procedural law.
melles Recht – vorschreiben – ver-        Substantive law prescribes, proscribes and regulates areas of
bieten – regeln/ordnen                    human activity; it defines rights and duties, such as crimes and
                                          punishments in the criminal law, civil rights and responsibilities in
                                          the civil law. Procedural law provides a set of rules regarding the
Art/Weise – durchsetzen                   manner of enforcing substantive law – including the rules
Gerichtsverhandlung – bestimmen –         observed in a court hearing and determining the course of civil or
Ablauf – pl.: Prozess/Verfahren           criminal proceedings.

inländisches/nationales Recht             Another distinction is between domestic law and international law.
inländisch                                Domestic law (or national law) contains internal legal rules of a
anwendbar – durchsetzbar                  particular country. It is only applicable and enforceable within the
                                          frontiers of that country, such as English law is only applicable to
ausländisch/Auslands-                     England and Wales. International law applies to the external
                                          relationship of one country with another. It is contained in
Übereinkommen – Vertrag – ausar-          conventions and treaties devised, signed and ratified by countries
beiten – unterzeichnen – ratifizieren/    so as to regulate activites in which they have common interest or
(Vertrag) zustimmen
                                          which take place across national boundaries.

                                          A particular case of international law, closely associated with
Internationales Privatrecht/Kollisions-   English private law, is private international law – traditionally
recht                                     known in England as conflict of laws. Private international law
                                          generally stands for a proper field of law in every legal system. It is
Rechtsgebiet
geltend/einschlägig                       primarily concerned with determining the applicable law and
hier: Gerichtsstand – Rechtsfall mit      jurisdiction in cases involving a foreign element, for example a
Auslandsbezug                             contract agreed to by parties located in different countries.
zustimmen/akzeptieren
Europäische Union                         European law – whether derived from the European Union or the
Europäische Menschenrechtskonven-         European Convention on Human Rights – should be considered
tion                                      today as part of English law, as the relevant treaties have been
überführen                                transferred into English law by legislation passed by the UK
                                          Parliament. The details will be presented in subchapter IV.




6
                        Classification and Sources of English Law                      Chapter One


Diagram 1                                                                  graphische Darstellung/Schaubild

                                       Classification of English Law

                     Private law ...                                          Public law ...
                                                           deals with the structure, powers and functions of
         applies to persons in law and governs
                                                           government and public authorities and their legal
        primarily their legal positions and their
                                                             relationships with their subordinate citizens
        legal relationships between each other.
                                                                        – and with each other.

                       Civil law ...                                           Civil law ...
  means the law relating to crime and criminal offence
                                                            in a broad sense, used as the opposite of criminal
  and is concerned with legal rules providing for that
                                                           law: Its courts, proceedings standards of proof and
   certain forms of human conduct carry punishment
                                                          terminology differ from the ones under criminal law.
                      by the state.

                    Common law ...                                              Equity ...
                                                          was a parallel system of jurisdiction, administered by
      means the general principles of English law
                                                             the Lord Chancellor on behalf of the Crown to
     developed by the courts from medieval times
                                                            ameliorate the harshness of common law. It was
      onwards. It was particularly concerned with
                                                           particularly concerned with trusts, aspects of land
            criminal law, contract and tort.
                                                                          law and property law.

                      Case law ...                                           Statutory law ...
        is judge-made law and the major source                     comes from legislation and is also
                    of English law.                               an important source of English law.

                    Common law ...                                             Civil law ...
    is also used to contrast the English legal system,       Stands also for the Continental legal systems,
      based more on pragmatic case law principles,           based on abstract principles often recorded in
            with Continental civil law systems.                           formal codes of law.




IV. Sources of English law
The common law system in England is not set down in written codes          niederschreiben/-legen
of law. Instead, English law is drawn from a variety of different          beziehen von/in Anspruch nehmen
sources, which we shall set out below. This is in contrast to civil law
systems such as Germany, where legislation is primary and
exclusive source of law.

Historically, there are two main sources of law inside the English
legal system itself:

(1) (Domestic) legislation
(2) Case law (judicial precedent)


                                                                                                                   7
            Chapter One                  Classification and Sources of English Law


Rechnung tragen                         Today we need also to take into account the effect of lawmakers
                                        from outside the English legal system, so we have to add at least
                                        two other important sources of law such as:

Recht der Europäischen Union            (3) European Union law (EU law)
                                        (4) The European Convention on Human Rights
Abteilung
                                        These bodies of international law have been made part of English
                                        law by legislation, as mentioned above.

nebensächlich/ergänzend                 Less obvious sources of law have been subsidiary sources such as
Gewohnheitsrecht – etwa: Lehrmei-       customary law or books of authority, but these do not play an
nungen anerkannter „Autoritäten“        important role any longer. They will be shortly presented at the end
                                        of this subchapter.

den Modetrend bestimmen                 Since the fashion was set at the beginning of the 19th century by
                                        the Code Napoléon,5 many Continental countries have codified
                                        much of their law. On the Continent, therefore, there is a
überwiegen/vorherrschen                 preponderance of written – legislated – law.

                                        The situation in England is completely different. Over centuries the
                                        principal source of law has been the jugdements of the courts,
verabschieden                           because Parliament passed very few statutes applicable to the
                                        general legal system (as opposed to dealing with political issues).
Thema/Angelegenheit
                                        That remains the case for many areas of law – such as contract, tort
                                        and trusts: in other words, most of the areas dealt with in this book.
Vorstoß/Versuch                         There have been some small attempts at codification – for
Warenverkauf                            example, for the sale of goods and in the criminal law the law of
Diebstahl – umfangreich/weit-
                                        theft, but nothing as wide-ranging as the German BGB.
reichend
                                        Nevertheless, one should be careful about characterising all
                                        English law as a case law based system. Some areas of law are
SteuerR – UmweltR                       predominantly statute-based, such as tax and environmental law,
                                        and some involve statute law to a much greater extent than case
GesellschaftsR                          law, for example company law (cf. chapter 5).

Rangfolge – höchste Instanz             Moreover, there is an important order of priority. The ultimate
                                        authority in English law is Parliament. Therefore, an Act of
                                        Parliament can change the common law, but the common law
                                        cannot change an Act of Parliament. Whenever case law and
kollidieren/sich widersprechen – vor-
gehen/Vorrang haben                     statute law conflict, the latter takes precedence due to the concept
(Ober)-Herrschaft/höchste Staats-       of parliamentary sovereignty.
gewalt
                                        For this reason, we will look at legislation first.


                                          5 On 21, March 1804, Napoléon Bonaparte introduced the Code Civil (CC), re-named as Code
                                            Napoléon. This codification of the French civil law has been valid in basic parts until today
                                            in France.



8
                               Classification and Sources of English Law                                  Chapter One


1. Legislation

There are two types of English legislation, legislation in
Parliament creating statutes or Acts of Parliament6 and delegated                             (formelles) Gesetz – etwa: nach-
legislation prepared by the executive with the authority of                                   rangige Gesetzgebung (führt zu mate-
                                                                                              riellen Gesetzen)
Parliament. Both originate from a fundamental principle of the
                                                                                              herrrühren/herkommen von
English unwritten constitution: parliamentary sovereignty (also                               Parlamentssouveränität
called parliamentary supremacy).


a) Sovereignty of Parliament

The concept of parliamentary sovereignty means:
n the unlimited legislative competence of Parliament,

n and the absence of a competing legislative body.                                            Nichtvorhandensein – konkurrierend

The result of this is that any statute passed by Parliament cannot be
questioned or overruled by the courts. In particular, the courts                              in Zweifel ziehen – aufheben/außer
cannot test its constitutionality as can for example the Supreme                              Kraft setzen
Court in the United States. In Germany, the Federal Constitutional                            Bundesverfassungsgericht
Court has the explicit power to nullify statutes, and its decisions are                       für nichtig erklären
binding all constitutional bodies including the German Federal
Parliament. Therefore the concept of parliamentary sovereignty can
be contrasted with the concept of popular sovereignty, where the                              Volkssouveränität
people are sovereign. Furthermore, the English Parliament may
change or repeal any previous legislation and is not bound by its                             aufheben
predecessors, nor by any decision of the courts.                                              Vorgänger


The absolute sovereign power of Parliament derives from the Act of                            Hoheitsrecht/-macht – sich ableiten
Settlement 1700, making the monarch‘s powers conditional on the                               von
approval of Parliament, Parliament is supreme to all other
government institutions – including any executive (government)
or judicial bodies. To be conscious of this most important                                    von etw. wissen/sich etw. bewusst
constitutional principle is vital for understanding the English legal                         sein – unerlässlich
system and its role within the European context.


b) Legislative procedure                                                                      Gesetzgebungsverfahren

Parliament consists of the House of Commons, the House of                                     (brit.) Unterhaus
Lords (both sitting in London) and the Queen.                                                 (brit.) Oberhaus


Statutes can have different functions:
n  to create new law,                                                                         neues Recht schaffen

    6 Statutes and Acts (of Parliament) have the same meaning and are used interchangeably.



                                                                                                                                    9
           Chapter One                        Classification and Sources of English Law


Gesetze zusammenfassen/konsolidie-        n    to consolidate statutes: Where an area of law is covered by
ren                                            several different statutes, particularly where later statutes
ändern                                         amend earlier ones, a single replacement Act can be passed
ersetzen
                                               without debate, called a consolidating statute7 superseding the
wiederholen/wieder in Kraft setzen/
„neu inszenieren“                              former statute(s). The law is not changed, but is re-enacted.
das Recht kodifizieren                    n    to codify the law: This means replacing the rules of the
Thema/Gegenstand                               common law by a statutory version of the same subject-matter
Erlass als Gesetz                              (enactment). The same can be achieved where an area of law
                                               consists of a combination of common law, perhaps custom and
neu formulieren                                statute. The law can be re-stated as it is, or the opportunity can
                                               be taken to make changes.
überprüfen                                n    to review (amend or repeal) existing statutes.8

Entwurfsfassung – Gesetzesvorlage/-       All Acts of Parliament start off in draft form as a Bill. However, a Bill
vorschlag – Anhörung/Konsultation         may begin life as consultation paper, either as a white paper, which
                                          sets out the government’s proposals for the new legislation, or as a
sich ein Bild von der allgemeinen Mei-    green paper produced to canvass opinion before draft legislation is
nung verschaffen                          prepared.

Anwendungsbereich – Gesetzesvor-          Depending on their area of application Bills can be either Public
lage für ein allgemeingültiges Gesetz –   Bills or Private Bills.
Gesetzesvorlage im privaten Interesse
Regierungsvorlage                         Public Bills are usually Government Bills, introduced by the
                                          government as part of its programme of legislation. They are of
von allgemeiner Geltung                   general application. Another type of Public Bill is the Private
                                          Member’s Bill, proposed by an individual Member of Parliament of
Parlamentsabgeordneter
                                          either House. They often deal with relatively narrow issues.9

                                          Private Bills are legislation which attects a limited section of the
                                          population, either by reference to locality, to a particular family or
                                          a group of individuals.10 Private Bills are comparatively rare – on
                                          average less than 5 per year since 2000.

sich unterziehen/durchmachen              Before a Bill becomes an Act it must undergo five stages in each
                                          House, usually starting in the House of Commons. Private Bills have
                                          a slightly different procedure.



                                            7 E.g. the Companies Act 1985 replaced the Companies Acts 1948, 1967, 1976, 1980. Today
                                              superseded by the Companies Act 2006.
                                            8 Under the Law Commissions Act 1965, the Law Commission was set up as an independent
das Recht beobachten                          body with the responsability to keep the law under review and to recommend reform
                                              where needed with the aim to ensure that the law is fair, modern, simple, and as cost-
                                              effective as possible.
                                            9 E.g. the Sunbeds (Regulation) Act 2010 places a duty on sunbed businesses to prevent use
                                              by persons under 18.
                                           10 E.g. the Nottingham Parc Estate Act 1990 dealing with the maintenance of the common
Wohnsiedlung                                  parts of a privately-owned housing estate in that city, and how the costs are to be paid for
                                              the owners of the homes.



10
                              Classification and Sources of English Law                                      Chapter One


(1) First Reading – formal presentation of the Bill to Parliament                               Lesung
    which accepts it into the legislative procedure; the Bill is not
    debated at this stage.
(2) Second Reading – main debate dealing with the general                                       Debatte/Aussprache
    principles of the Bill.
(3) Committee Stage – the text of the Bill is examined clause by                                Ausschuss – Satz für Satz
                                                                                                Abänderungsantrag/Gesetzesände-
    clause and amendments are proposed.                                                         rung
(4) Report Stage – any amendments made at (3) are reported                                      zurückmelden
    back to the House and voted on.                                                             abstimmen
(5) Third Reading – final debate and vote on the Bill as amended.

Once the Bill has passed all these stages (within one session of                                durchgehen (Antrag/Gesetz) – Legis-
Parliament, which ends each year in late October/early November)                                laturperiode
it is finally presented to the Queen for her formal approval, the                               Zustimmung
Royal Assent. By constitutional convention, the monarch does not                                königliche Genehmigung
refuse Royal Assent. The last occasion when this happened was in
1708, when Queen Anne refused her assent to a Bill to raise an army
to resolve unrest in Scotland. In centuries past, the monarch has
signed Bills and/or attended Parliament to give Royal Assent in                                 anwesend sein/beiwohnen
person, but neither is the current procedure. In practice, Royal                                aktuell/jetzig
Assent is given by a committee of three Peers11 (Lords Temporal)                                weltlicher Lord
including the Lord Chancellor.

On the day the Bill receives Royal Assent it becomes an Act (it is
enacted). The Act comes into force immediately upon Royal
Assent, unless the Act itself states otherwise.


c) Delegated legislation

Most Acts of Parliament address complicated matters.
Consequently the Act itself – which had to be passed within the
fairly short time limit of a Parliamentary session – may only be able                           ziemlich
to lay down a framework of general principles. Therefore,                                       Grundstruktur/Rahmenbedingungen
Parliament may delegate the power to prescribe the details to the                               übertragen – vorschreiben/anordnen
government or to other suitable persons or bodies with the
sufficient knowledge and time to prepare the detailed provisions
which are then contained in a statutory instrument. The name of
a statutory instrument usually ends in Order or Regulations. The
advantage of this delegation is, above all, that Parliament is                                  von einer Last befreien
relieved from a burden. Indeed, statutory instruments form the                                  Löwenanteil
lion’s share of statutory law (on average 3,400 per year) rather than
Acts (about 40 per year).


 11 A Peer is a Member of the House of Lords. Some titles are hereditary but most Members are   vererblich
    Life Peers.



                                                                                                                                 11
           Chapter One                     Classification and Sources of English Law


                                          Law by statutory instrument is made with the authority of
Ermächtigungsgesetz                       Parliament granted by an enabling or parent Act. That Act
Voraussetzung – Umfang/Reichweite         provides the requirements and scope of the delegated legislation,
                                          also known as subordinate or secondary legislation.

Verhaltensregeln                          There are other types of delegated legislation, such as codes of
(örtliche) Verordnung/(Orts-)Satzung      practice, bye-laws of local authorities, rules of professional and
                                          other bodies, and orders in council, but these are beyond the scope
                                          of this book.

                                          Delegated legislation is subject to Parliamentary and judicial
                                          control. Often the parent Act provides that the statutory
                                          instrument has to be laid before Parliament for approval. Delegated
                                          legislation can be challenged in the courts on the ground of being
in Frage stellen
lat.: über die Befugnisse hinausgehen     ultra vires, i.e. beyond the powers of the person or body who made
richterliche Nachprüfung                  it. The process is called judicial review.

Diagram 2

                                                 Legislation

                                           Parliamentary sovereignty

                   Parliament consists of the Queen, the House of Lords and the House of Commons.
                   Parliament has an unlimited legislative competence.
                   There is no other competing legislative body.

             Making of Acts of Parliament                  Enabling government to issue Delegated legislation

   Statutes                                                  Statutory instruments
   About 40 per year                                         About 3,400 per year
   Can                                                       Is made
   – create new law                                          – with the authority of Parliament granted by a
   – consolidate statutes                                       parent Act, delegating powers to government or
   – codify the law                                             other suitable persons or bodies
   – review existing statutes                                – in order to relieve Parliament from burden
   Framework of general principles on a specific topic.      Prepares the detailed provisions for the topic.
   Can not be changed by common law.                         Can be challenged in the courts.

                Legislative procedure                                        Judicial review

   Bills (public or private)
   – First Reading -> formal presentation
   – Second Reading -> main debate on general
     principles
   – Committee Stage –> detailed examination
   – Report Stage -> vote on amendments
   – Third Reading -> final debate and vote on the Bill
     as amended
   Royal Assent -> enactment


12
      Index


              Acceptance ...............................................121, 128, 133                            citation and reference............................................81
                 communication of ................................................129                            citators.........................................................................82
                 made by post..........................................................132                       handling......................................................................86
                 mailbox rule ............................................................132                    on the Net...................................................................79
                 postal rule ...............................................................132               Case law ............................................................. 2, 5, 7, 16
                 stipulated methods of.........................................131                            Caveat emptor............................................................. 143
                 unconditional.........................................................128                    Central Criminal Court................................................42
              Administration of justice........................................... 28                         Certainty of terms...................................................... 163
              Administrative Court .................................................. 44                      Citation
              Administrative law ..................................................3, 36                         for cases ......................................................................81
              Advertisement ...............................................122 f., 138                           law reports .................................................................80
              Advocates....................................................................64 f.                 neutral (citation) ......................................................81
              Aliens................................................................................ 92          of statutes............................................................... 90 f.
              Alternative business structures ....................... 55, 65                                  City of London ........................................................42, 52
              Alternative dispute resolutions .............................. 38                               Civil jurisdiction.............................................................37
              Anglo-Saxon .................................................................. 28               Civil law ...........................................................................4 f.
              Animal.............................................................................. 92         Claimant...........................................................................80
              Appellate Committee of the                                                                      Classification of English courts ................................39
                 House of Lords .................................... 18, 41, 46, 74                           Classification of English law....................................1, 3
              Appellate courts........................................................37 f.                   Classificaton of terms (of contract) ............171, 174
              Assignment ..................................................................224                Commercial Court ........................................................44
              Association                                                                                     Common law courts ....................................................29
                 articles of..................................................................106             Common law...........................................................29, 32
                 memorandum of...................................................106                             historical background............................................28
                 unincorporated......................................................108                      Commonwealth ............................................................48
              Attorney ................................................................... 51, 53             Companies..........................................................111, 113
              Attorney-General .................................................. 34, 62                      Company law .....................................................110, 114
                                                                                                              Communication
              Bankrupt(s)..................................................................... 92                of an offer ................................................................ 125
              Bar, the...................................................................... 52, 61              of acceptance......................................................... 129
              Bar Standards Board ................................................... 60                      Conditions.................................................................... 171
              Barristers ........................................................... 51, 58, 63               Conflict of laws ................................................................ 6
                 chambers ................................................................... 60              Consideration .......................................... 121, 139, 148
                 fees ............................................................................... 62         definition of ............................................................ 140
                 fields of activity........................................................ 59                   executed .................................................................. 140
                 organisation.............................................................. 60                   executory................................................................. 141
                 training and qualification .................................... 61                              must need not be adequate but must
              Battle of forms.............................................................129                       be sufficient......................................................... 142
              Bill...................................................................................... 10      must move from the promisee ........................... 141
                 private ......................................................................... 10            must not be past..................................................... 140
                 private Members’ .................................................... 10                        part payment of debt.......................................... 145
                 public........................................................................... 10            performance of existing duties ....................... 144
              Bills of exchange ........................................................119                      rules of ...................................................................... 140
              Books of authority ....................................................... 26                   Constitution of the company................................ 105
              Breach of contract ........................................... 213, 216                         Constitutional conventions ......................................26
                 anticipatory.............................................................213                 Constitutional court .............................................36, 39
                 repudiatory .............................................................213                 Constitutional law .......................................................... 3
                 remedies......................................................... 216, 221                   Consumer........................................... 119 f., 182 f., 187
              Business liability .........................................................183                 Contents of contract .......................................162, 174
                                                                                                                 certainty of terms ................................................. 163
              Capacity (legal) to contract .......................... 152, 162                                   conditions ............................................................... 163
                corporations ...........................................................159                      contractual terms ................................................. 163
                drunkards.................................................................158                    exemption clauses ......................................175, 188
                minors .......................................................................152                express terms ......................................................... 163
                persons of unsound mind..................................158                                     implied terms......................................................... 167
              Cases.......................................................................... 73, 86             innominate terms................................................. 172



228
                                                                                                                                                                                              Index


  representations............................................163, 166                              domestic agreements..........................................134
  terms ................................................................163, 171                   social agreements.................................................134
  warranties ............................................................... 171                 Contractual terms ......................................................163
Contra proferentem rule........................................... 180                             conditions................................................................171
Contract ....................................................................116 ff.               inominate terms ....................................................172
  acceptance.............................................................. 121                     mere puffs................................................................163
  bills of exchange..........................................119, 224                              representation........................................................163
  breach of.........................................................213, 216                       warranties ................................................................171
  capacity (legal) .............................................152, 162                         Conveyancing/conveyances...........................54, 119
  contents of.....................................................162, 174                       Corporate personality ..............................................106
  consumer........................................119 f., 182 f., 187                            Corporation..................................................................100
  discharge of a ...............................................209, 216                           aggregate ................................................................100
  duress .................................................... 189, 197, 201                        capacity of ...............................................................159
  evidenced in writing ........................................... 119                             registration under the
  for necessaries ....................................................... 153                       Companies Acts (incorporation)....................102
  for the sale of a business.................................... 207                               Royal Charter ..........................................................101
  for the sale of goods...................................168, 183                                 specific statute .......................................................102
  formalities ......................................................118, 121                       creation................................................................. 100 f.
  formation of a ........................................................ 121                      sole ......................................................................... 100 f.
  freedom of .....................................................117, 167                         types ..........................................................................100
  frustration .....................................................213, 215                      Council of Europe ........................................................ 24
  history..............................................................116, 118                  County courts......................................................... 19, 40
  illegal by statute ................................................... 201                       track system ....................................................... 40, 49
  illegal at common law ........................................ 203                             Court hierarchy, cf. hierarchy
  illegality.......................................................... 201, 209                    of the courts
  in restraint of trade .............................................. 206                       Courts, the English....................................................... 39
  in the modern sense............................................ 116                            Courts............................................................................... 36
  in writing ................................................................. 119                 appellate .................................................................37 f.
  injunction ................................................................ 220                  civil ............................................................................... 38
  made by deed...............................................117, 118                              criminal ....................................................................... 38
  minors................................................................ 93, 152                   trial ...........................................................................37 f.
  misrepresentation............................. 189, 192, 197                                   Court of Appeal ..................................................... 18, 45
  mistake.........................................................188 f., 192                      Civil Division.............................................................. 45
  offer ........................................................................121 f.             Criminal Division ..................................................45 f.
  of agency ................................................................ 225                   Lords / Ladies Justices of Appeal....................... 45
  of employment.............................................120, 206                               Master of the Rolls .................................................. 45
  of guarantee........................................................... 120                    Court of Chancery.....................................................32 f.
  of sale........................................................................ 226            Court of Common Pleas ............................................ 30
  of service for the minor’s benefit.................... 154                                     Court of Exchequer ..................................................... 29
  privity of................................................................... 222              Court of Justice of the EU, cf. European
  rescission ................................................................. 221               Court of Justice
  rule of privity of..................................................... 222                    Court of King’s Bench ................................................. 30
  simple (informal)................................................... 117                       Court system (English) ............................................... 36
  solus agreement ................................................... 197                        Criminal jurisdiction.................................................... 37
  specific performance .......................................... 220                            Criminal law ......................................................................4
  terms of ...........................................................163, 171                   Crown Court................................................................... 42
  undue influence........................ 189, 197, 199, 201                                     Crown Prosecution Service ...................................... 63
  unenforceable against minors......................... 157                                      Curia regis................................................................. 29, 31
  unilateral.........................................................130, 140                    Current Law.................................................................... 82
    valid .................................................................................153     Current Law Case Citator, The ............................ 83
  voidable ................................................................... 188               Custom ............................................................................ 25
  voidable by minors ........................... 153, 155, 156
  void................................................ 153, 157, 188, 205                        Damages ................................................................33, 217
Contractual intention .................. 121, 133, 138, 139                                          unliquidated ................................................................. 218
  collective agreements ........................................ 138                                 liquidated ...................................................................... 218
  commercial agreements.................................... 136                                      mitigation of loss .....................................................217 f.



                                                                                                                                                                                                      229
      Index


              Deed ..................................................................117 f., 212          incorporation ......................................................... 176
              Defendant....................................................................... 80         control under the UCTA ..................................... 182
              Delegated legislation ................................................. 11                Express terms.............................................................. 163
              Denning, Lord .................................18 ff., 68, 129, 137,
                                                                 148 ff., 166, 179, 185                 Family
              Dining in Hall................................................................. 61          jurisdiction .................................................................44
              Digest, The ..................................................................... 82        matters ........................................................................41
              Discharge of a contract.................................. 209, 216                          proceedings...............................................................40
                agreement ...............................................................212            fees
                breach .......................................................................213         barristers .....................................................................62
                frustration ............................................................... 213           solictiors......................................................................57
                performance ...........................................................209              Formation of a contract .......................................... 121
                severable contracts ..............................................210                   Forms of action ......................................................... 30 f.
              Distinguishing precedents ....................................... 19                      Fraudulent misrepresentation.............................. 193
              Divisional court(s) ........................................................ 43           Freedom of contract........................................117, 167
              Doctrine                                                                                  Frustration...........................................................213, 215
                of consideration ................................................ 145 f.                Fundamental breach of contract......................... 181
                of frustration...........................................................215
                of fundamental breach of contract ............ 181 f.                                   General Council of the Bar ........................................60
                of innominate terms ............................................173                     George III (King)..............................................................87
                of precedent ..........................................................16 f.            Golden rule, the ............................................................13
                of promissory
                   estoppel............................................. 147 ff., 151 f.                Halsbury’s Statutes of England and Wales ..... 87 f.
                of substantial performance ...............................210                           Henry VIII (King)..............................................................74
                of ultra vires .............................................................160         Hierarchy of the courts.................................17, 37, 68
                of waiver...................................................................148         High Court (of Justice) .........................................19, 42
              Drunkards .....................................................................158          Chancery Division....................................................44
              Duress .........................................................189, 197, 201               Family Division .........................................................44
                economic .................................................................198             Queen’s Bench Division.........................................43
                                                                                                        House of Commons ....................................................... 9
              Equitable remedies ...................................................216                 House of Lords............................................ 9, 18, 46, 79
              Equity ................................................ 4, 28, 31 f., 36, 148
                Equity acts in personam ......................................... 35                    Illegality ..................................................... 189, 201, 209
                Equity follows the law ............................................. 35                    by statute................................................................. 201
                Equity shall prevail ................................................... 34                at common law...................................................... 203
                Equity will not suffer a wrong                                                             contracts in restraint of trade........................... 206
                  to be without a remedy ........................................ 34                       public policy ........................................................... 204
                Equity will not assist a volunteer.......................... 35                         Immunity (of judges)...................................................69
                   He who comes to equity must                                                          Implied terms.............................................................. 167
                    come with clean hands .................................... 35                          by the court ............................................................ 169
                historical setting...................................................... 32                by custom................................................................ 170
                maxims of .................................................................. 34            by statute................................................................. 168
                term.............................................................................. 32   Impossibility ................................................................ 214
              European (Union) law ....................................... 6, 8, 22                     Incorporation ........................................... 105, 108, 111
                supremacy ................................................................. 23             effects of .........................................................105, 108
              European Convention on                                                                    Inferior court(s)..................................................37 ff., 74
                Human Rights................................................8, 24, 49                   Injunction ..................................................................... 220
              European Court of Justice ................................. 22, 49                        Innocent misrepresentation.................................. 195
              European Court of Human Rights.......................... 49                               Innominate terms...................................................... 172
              Evidenced in writing                                                                      Inns of Court............................................................... 60 f.
              Exemption clauses........................................... 175, 188                        dining and education, in.......................................62
                and reasonableness .............................................184                        dining in Hall .............................................................62
                construction............................................................180             Insanity.............................................................................98
                control at common law ......................................176                         Insurance contracts .................................................. 224
                doctrine of fundamental breach                                                          Intention to create ...........................................................
                 of contract ......................................................... 181 f.               legal relations, cf. contractual intention



230
                                                                                                                                                                                      Index


International courts.....................................................49               King’s Council .......................................... 25, 28, 31, 46
International law ..................................................... 6, 25             King’s Counsel............................................................... 52
Interpretation of statutes, cf. statutory
   interpretation                                                                         Land law........................................................................226
Invitatio ad offerendum............................................ 123                   Law of contract, cf. contract
Invitation to tender .................................................. 124               Law reporting......................................................... 74, 86
Invitation to treat ...................................................... 123            Law report(s).................................................................. 73
Itinerant justices ...........................................................29             All England Law Reports....................................... 78
                                                                                             Case citator.............................................................83 f.
James I (King) .................................................................34           Current law.............................................................83 f.
Judges ..............................................................................71      English Reports, the ............................................... 75
  appointment .............................................................66                Incorporated Council of Law
  County courts (circuit/district)............................40                              Reporting of England and Wales, the ............ 76
  Court of Appeal (Justices of Appeal) ................45                                    Law Reports, the...................................................... 76
  High Court (puisne) ................................................42                     modern reports........................................................ 76
  immunity ....................................................................69            pre-1865 reports...................................................... 74
  impartiality.................................................................69            Weekly Law Reports, the ...................................... 78
  independence (judicial) ........................................67                         Year books ................................................................. 74
  magistrates’ courts (justices of                                                        Law Society .................................................................... 55
     the peace)..............................................................70           Lay
  removal .......................................................................70          magistrates......................................................... 50, 70
  remuneration............................................................70                 people ......................................................................... 41
  retirement ..................................................................70         Leap-frogging ............................................................... 47
  Supreme Court (Justices of the SC)...................46                                 Legal adviser.................................................................. 51
  tasks and responsabilities ....................................68                       Legal capacity to contract, cf. capacity
  training........................................................................66      Legal personality.............................................. 108, 111
Judicial Appointments Commission .....................67                                  Legal profession .................................................... 51, 53
Judicial College .............................................................66             history ......................................................................... 51
Judicial Committee of the                                                                 Legal Services Board................................................... 64
 Privy Council ................................................................47         Legal system, English ................................. 1, 9, 16, 28
Judicial precedent..................................... 2, 16, 21, 30                     Legislation .........................................................................7
  binding........................................................................17          delegated................................................................... 11
  deviating from precedents ..................................19                             legislative procedure ................................................9
  Court of Appeal........................................................18                  sovereignty of Parliament.......................................9
  distinguishing...........................................................19             Letters of intent ..........................................................174
  House of Lords..........................................................18              Licensed conveyancer................................................ 54
  overruling...................................................................20         Limited liability ................................................. 106, 110
  persuasive ..................................................................17         Limited Liability Partnership..................................110
  reversing.....................................................................20        Literal rule, the .............................................................. 13
  stare decisis, principle of........................................16                   Lord Chancellor ...................................... 5, 25, 32 f., 67
  Supreme Court of the UK .....................................18                         Lord Chief Justice.................................................. 46, 67
Judicial Studies Board.................................................66
Judiciary....................................................................36, 65       Magistrates..................................................................... 70
  Head of.................................................................67, 71          Magistrates’ courts ............................................... 19, 41
Jurisdiction                                                                              Majority ........................................................................... 93
  appellate.....................................................................37        Master of the Rolls ................................................ 33, 45
  family ...........................................................................44    Mere puff.......................................................................163
  in family matters......................................................41               Ministry of Justice ........................................................ 49
  in personam ...............................................................35           Minority ........................................................................... 93
  in rem ...........................................................................35    Minors ..............................................................93, 97, 152
Juristic persons.......................................................92, 99               contract ..................................................................... 93
  personality .............................................................. 100            marriage ..................................................................... 95
Justices                                                                                    property...................................................................... 95
  of Appeal ....................................................................45          right of action........................................................... 95
  of the Peace...............................................................41             tort................................................................................ 94
  of the Supreme Court .....................................46, 79                          wills .............................................................................. 95



                                                                                                                                                                                              231
      Index


                miscellaneous rights and duties                                                         Pleader ......................................................................51, 58
                   outside civil law .................................................. 96              Precedent, cf. judicial precedent
              Mischief rule, the.......................................................... 13           Price-fixing agreements.......................................... 224
              Misrepresentation ..................................189, 192, 197                         Private limited company......................................... 104
                fraudulent ................................................................193             share capital ........................................................... 104
                innocent ...................................................................195            director..................................................................... 104
                negligent..................................................................194             members.................................................................. 104
                remedies...................................................................195          Private law......................................................................... 3
                silence as ..................................................................196        Privity of contract, rule of ....................................... 222
              Mistake .............................................................188 f., 192             exceptions at common law............................... 225
                common ...................................................................190              general rule............................................................. 222
                mutual.......................................................................189           statutory exceptions............................................ 224
                unilateral ..................................................................191        Privy Council............................................................47, 79
              Mitigation of loss ................................................... 217 f.             Probate practitioners ..................................................55
                                                                                                        Procedural law................................................................. 6
              Natural persons ............................................................ 92           Promissory estoppel
              Negligent misrepresentation ................................194                              the doctrine of .......................................148 f., 151 f.
              Negotiable instruments ..........................................224                      Property (law) ..................................................88, 91, 98
                bill(s) of exchange....................................... 119, 224                     Public Bill .........................................................................10
              No writ no remedy......................................................... 31             Public law .......................................................................... 3
              Norman Conquest ....................................................... 28                Public limited company .......................................... 103
                                                                                                           company secretary............................................... 103
              Obiter dicta ..................................................................... 17        director..................................................................... 103
              Offer...................................................................121 f., 127          share capital ........................................................... 103
                and advertisement ........................................... 122 f.                       shareholders........................................................... 103
                invitation to treat ..................................................123               Public policy ................................................................ 204
                to the world at large ............................................122                   Puisne judges .................................................................42
                made by post..........................................................131               Purposive approach ....................................................14
                communication of ................................................125
                of a reward...............................................................122           Quantum meruit........................................................ 211
                revocation of....................................................... 125 f.             Queen, the ...............................................................9, 101
                termination of ........................................................125              Queen’s Counsel....................................................59, 62
              Old Bailey........................................................................ 42
              Ombudsman.................................................... 56, 64, 67                  Ratio decidendi ..............................................................17
              Open access to courts ................................................ 50                 Registered companies ............................................. 102
              Order of the Coif........................................................... 52           Registrar of Companies ........................................... 105
              Overruling precedents............................................... 20                   Regulaton Authority (SRA) ........................................55
                                                                                                        Remedies .................................................. 195, 216, 221
              Parliament..................................................................... 8 f.        breach of contract ................................................ 216
              Parliamentary sovereignty, cf. sovereignty                                                  common law........................................................... 216
                of Parliament                                                                             damages ........................................................... 33, 217
              Parol evidence rule....................................................164                  mitigation of loss ...............................................217 f.
              Parties (to the action) .......................................... 80, 84                   unliquidated........................................................... 218
              Part payment of a debt............................................145                       liquidated ................................................................ 218
              Partnership...................................................................109           equitable.................................................................. 216
                law ..............................................................................109     injunction ................................................................ 220
                limited liability partnership...............................110                           rescission ................................................................. 221
              Performance ................................................................209             specific performance........................................... 220
                of existing duties...................................................144                Representations ................................................163, 166
                specific ......................................................................220      Rescission ..................................................................... 221
                strict rule, the..........................................................209           Reserved legal activities......................................54, 64
                substantial performance, doctrine of ............210                                    Reversing precedents .................................................20
                tender of...................................................................212         Revocation of an offer ..........................................125 f.
              Persons in law ......................................................92, 115              Roll of Solicitors.............................................................56
              Persons of unsound mind................................98, 158                            Royal Assent ...................................................................11
              Plaintiff....................................................................80, 116



232
                                                                                                                                                                                          Index


Sale of goods (contracts for) ........................168, 183                              Trade Unions ...............................................................109
Serjeants-at-law ............................................................52             Trial (courts) ............................................................ 37, 38
Silence as misrepresentation................................ 196                            Third party rights ............................................. 222, 226
Simple (informal) contracts ................................... 117                         Trusts .......................................................................34, 224
Solicitor-General...........................................................62              Tudor dynasty ............................................................... 28
Solicitor-advocate ........................................................54
Solicitors ...................................................................51, 53        Uberrimae fidei...........................................................196
   fees ...............................................................................57   Ultra vires, the doctrine of .......................................160
   fields of activity ........................................................53            Unborn children ........................................................... 98
   organisation ..............................................................55            Undue influence............................ 189, 197, 199, 201
   Regulations Authority............................................55                      Unincorporated associations.................................108
   training and qualification.....................................56                        Unenforceable (contracts)...................157, 188, 205
Solus agreement ....................................................... 197
Sources of English law.......................................1, 7, 27                       Value in dispute ........................................................... 37
Specific performance............................................... 220                     Vitiating factors ..........................................................188
Sovereignty of Parliament ................................... 9, 22                            illegality .................................................189, 201, 209
Standard form contracts................................129, 184                                mistake............................................................ 188, 189
Stare decisis, principle of ............................................16                     misrepresentation .............................189, 192, 197
Statutes.....................................................................86, 91            undue influence and durness .......189, 197, 201
   citation .................................................................... 90 f.      Void contracts ................................................... 188, 205
   handling statutes ....................................................91                 Voidable contracts.....................................................188
   Halsbury’s statutes of England
      and Wales ......................................................... 87 f.             Waiver .................................................................. 148, 212
Statutory Interpretation......................................13, 15                          the doctrine of........................................................148
Statutory law.................................................................... 5         Warranties ....................................................................171
Substantive law............................................................... 6            Wig .................................................................................... 52
Superior court(s)......................................... 37 f., 41, 74                    William the Conqueror........................................ 28, 29
Supreme Court of Judicature............................33, 41                               Woolf, Lord ....................................................... 49, 76, 81
Supreme Court of the UK .....................18, 41, 46, 79                                 Writ.................................................................................30 f.
                                                                                              system of .................................................................... 30
Termination of an offer........................................... 125                        of assumpsit............................................ 31, 117, 139
Terms of a contract, cf. contractual terms                                                    of covenant ......................................................31, 117
Textbooks........................................................................26           of debt............................................................. 116, 139




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