PowerPoint Presentation - Themes Across Cultures_ Classical China

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					Themes Across Cultures:
     Ancient China

      AP World History
          LSW
       State-building, expansion, and conflict
              • Political structures and forms of governance
                                        • Empires
                               • Nations and nationalism
                                • Revolts and revolutions
           • Regional, transregional, and global structures and organizations

    –Xia:  2200-1767                          v  Encouraged the founding of 
                                                cities and development of 
     BCE                                        metallurgy (Bronze weapons 
v Established dynastic                          to maintain control)
  precedent                                   v Traded with nomadic groups 
                                                from Central Asia, offered 
v Form of Government:                           animals (horses esp.) in 
  Monarchy, Sage King Yu,                       exchange for agriculture and 
  Legend says tamed the                         metals
  Yellow River

v Large scale public work 
  projects helped to establish 
  recognized authorities and 
  formal political institutions
        State-building, expansion, and conflict
               • Political structures and forms of governance
                                        • Empires
                               • Nations and nationalism
                                • Revolts and revolutions
           • Regional, transregional, and global structures and organizations
                                              v Claimed surplus of agriculture 
                                                from conquered areas to 
– Shang:  1766-1122                             support the state and military
  BCE                                         v Rulers relied on local rulers who 
v Took over after replacing                     recognized Shang authority, at 
  despotic Xia ruler,                           one point Shang emperors may 
  originated to the South                       have controlled more than 1,000 
  and East of Xia                               towns
v Used bronze weaponry                        v Construction of immense city 
  and horse drawn                               walls (33 ft. high, 66 ft. wide) 
  chariots to extend rule                       around capital, Ao…required the 
v No codified law but                           labor of 10,000 workers for 20 
  rulers made decrees and                       years
  trusted military to                         v Shang emperors buried with 
  enforce                                       family, servants, others
               State-building, expansion, and conflict
                      • Political structures and forms of governance
                                                • Empires
                                       • Nations and nationalism
                                        • Revolts and revolutions
                   • Regional, transregional, and global structures and organizations

                                                      v Surrounding cities ruled by 
                                                        emperor’s family who paid tribute 
– Zhou: 1122-256 BCE                                    through taxes and appearances at 
v People that at one time allied with                   court
  the Shang and were rulers in the                    v Arranged marriages between newly 
  West                                                  conquered areas
v Shang dynasty declined under 
  foolish ruler, many cities                          v Eventually collapsed as leaders 
  transferred their loyalty to Zhou                     from outlying regions strengthened 
  rulers, eventually Zhou dynasty                       themselves and nomadic peoples 
  toppled Shang rule                                    from the West attacked
v Promulgated the “Mandate of 
  Heaven” idea (justified Zhou 
  dynasty in taking over)
v Dynasty so large that the dynasty 
  employed decentralized admin.: 
  entrusting power, authority and 
  responsibility to subordinates 
  who were loyal to central 
  government
       Interaction between humans and the
                    environment
                   • Demography and disease
                             • Migration
                     • Patterns of settlement
                           • Technology
Xia:
v Agricultural practices helped to fuel growth in 
  population around Yellow River (rich fertile soil)
v Building dikes to control the Yellow River
v Fine painted pottery
v Large oar propelled vessels
v Bronze implements and tools brought from 
  nomadic peoples from the West
      Interaction between humans and the
                   environment
                  • Demography and disease
                            • Migration
                    • Patterns of settlement
                          • Technology
      Shang Dynasty
v Height of bronze implements, used as tools, 
  weapons
v Chariots used in military campaigns to great 
  effect
v Large scale public works projects, continued 
  work on Yellow River, large city walls around 
  capital, burial tombs
v Beginning of writing (Oracle Bones)  
      Interaction between humans and the
                   environment
                    • Demography and disease
                              • Migration
                      • Patterns of settlement
                            • Technology


Zhou 
v Development of Iron for tools and weapons (worked in 
  favor of decentralized rulers)
v Jewelers, jade workers, embroiderers and 
  manufactures of silk textiles specialized in their 
  industry
v Navigation of ships by the stars 
v Books of poetry, history, manuals dealing with moral, 
  religious, philosophical and political themes
     Development and transformation of social structures
                       • Gender roles and relations
                            • Family and kinship
                     • Racial and ethnic constructions
                       • Social and economic classes

Xia, Shang, Zhou:                    – Some women recognized, Fu 
                                       Hao consort to the Emperor 
v  Emperor and ruling                    performed sacrificial rites and 
  family                                 led men into battle
v  Artisans, Peasants, 
  Slaves
v  Patriarchal
v Veneration of elders 
  (men)
   Theme: Development and interaction of cultures
                                   • Religions
                • Belief systems, philosophies, and ideologies
                            • Science and technology
                           • The arts and architecture

Xia:
– Organized religion did not play as important a role in 
  China as it did in other early societies
– Impersonal heavenly power- ‘tian’ 
– A few priests conducted ritual observances in honor of 
  royal ancestors at royal courts

Shang, Zhou:
– Writing with Oracle Bones, used by fortune tellers, 
  represented by pictographs and ideographs
– Books of History, Etiquette, Rites, Poetry and Songs

				
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posted:6/21/2013
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