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OECD GENDER INITIATIVE_ Gender equality in Education

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					Closing the Gender Gap
      ACT NOW


        Ana LLENA-NOZAL
  Economist, Social Policy Division, OECD




         27th February 2013
   OUTLINE



• The economic costs of gender inequality
• Policies to promote gender equality
         In labour force participation gender gaps persist

      Gender gap in labour force participation (male rates minus female rates), population aged 15-64
                     2010                  2000                  1990                 1980
Percentage points
60

50

40

30
                                                          12.0          14.0

20

10

 0




Source: OECD (2008), Growing Unequal?
             Even larger gaps persist in other employment
             outcomes: prevalence of part-time…
                    Percentage of men and women in part-time employment, 2010

                               Men                             Women
Percentage points
  70
  60
  50
  40
  30
  20
                                            7.3   8.2
  10
   0
     … career progression in the private sector…

         Women’s shares in the labour force and senior management, 2010

%               Senior manager share                  Labour force share
60

50

40
                               31.6    32.0

30

20

10

0
Gaps in employment outcomes are reflected in the
gender pay gap…
             Gender pay gap for full-time workers
The gender pay gap increases with age and
during childbearing…
        Gender pay gap by presence of children, 25-44 years old
     Differences in take-home pay are even larger
     because women work fewer hours…
           Gender pay gap for full-time and all workers (part-time and full-time)
%                Full-time workers                                All workers
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
    And pay gap contributes to lower
    pensions
Gender pension gap, mandatory schemes, selected OECD countries, 2009
2. Policy considerations
      Policy levers

•   Gender equality policies.
•   Family policies
•   Tax/benefit policies
•   Monitoring
•   Cooperate with developing and emerging countries to
    address the gender dimensions of poverty through
    women’s economic empowerment
      Provide paid employment-protected parental
      leave and promote more equal use among
      parents
•   Provide paid parental leave. Evidence
                                               Paid parental leave (supplementary to paid
                                                         maternity leave), 2008
    suggests that :
                                                Gender pay gap age 30-34
    –   extending parental leave                %
                                               30
        entitlements had a small positive                                                                 R² = 0.604
                                                                                              SVK
        effect on the female-to-male                                                                    AUT
        employment ratio but only up to two    25                   JPN
        years of leave; a longer leave has a                                                              CZE
        negative effect on both the female     20               CAN                               FIN
        employment rate;                                           KOR DEU

    –
                                                    USA
        extending paid parental leave had a    15
        small positive effect on weekly                 AUS
                                                                    DNK         NOR
        working hours among women but it       10       GBR
        was associated with an increase in              IRL
                                                              BEL
        the gender pay gap among full-time      5 NZL
        workers;
•   Encourage fathers to take available         0
    parental leave, also by reserving part          0                 50           100              150            200
    of the parental leave entitlement for                       Number of paid weeks of parental leave
    the exclusive and non-transferable
    use by fathers.
       Invest in childcare

The OECD gender report shows               Gender pay gaps and enrolment rates in
                                                   formal childcare 2008
that:                             Gender pay gap age 30-34
                                  %
•   Higher enrolment in formal   30
                                     SVK                                                   R² = 0.564

    childcare increases female   25             AUT           JPN
                                          CZE
    employment on a full-time    20                         CAN
                                                                        FIN
                                                                         KOR
    and part-time basis, and                          DEU
                                                                  USA
                                 15
    reduces pay gaps.                                         AUS             GBR          DNK
                                                                                     NOR
                                 10                               IRL               BEL
                                                                         NZL

                                  5


                                  0
                                      0              20             40             60            80
                                                Enrolment rates of children in formal care, 2008 %

                                  Sources: OECD Family database
                                  (www,oecd.org/els/family/database) and OECD
                                  Earnings database.
       Increase the representation of women in
       decision-making positions

 Tools:                                       Share of women on boards in
                                                 listed companies, 2009
    corporate governance codes, target-
     setting for leadership positions,
     disclosure and monitoring of progress
     in both public and private sectors;
    Some countries have introduced
     quotas for women in executive and
     supervisory boards of listed and public
     companies;
    campaigning and raising awareness to
     encourage greater participation and
     representation of women in politics.
                                               Source: OECD (2012), Closing
                                               the Gender Gap Act Now.
                                               (www.oecd.org/gender)
THANK YOU and FURTHER READING!




 “Closing the Gender Gap: Act Now”
   (17 December 2012 at www.oecd.org/gender)

				
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