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					Graduate School of Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering




           Interaction in Land Use and Transport:
                    Based on Case Studies
                   Curitiba and Singapore

                                        Group 5
                                    Oscar Millewski
                                     Ahmed Mosa
                                     Edson Asafu
                                  Puspita Dirgahayani
Graduate School of Engineering       Outline of Presentation
Department of Civil Engineering




    •     Urban Form and Transportation
    •     Transportation and Sustainability
    •     Study Cases of Integrating Land Use and Transportation
          Planning:
             – Curitiba, Brazil
             – Singapore
Graduate School of Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering




         URBAN FORM AND TRANSPORTATION
    Graduate School of Engineering                    Urban Form and Transportation
    Department of Civil Engineering


•    The invention of means of transportation – mainly the car – had
     the biggest impact on the urban form than anything that came
     before it.
•    Before the means of transportation became widely available to
     the public, industrial cities’ sizes were determined by the walking
     distance from one’s house to one’s work place.
•    But along with means of transportation came new challenges for
     the urban forms. There was a sudden surge of uncontrolled
     development in the suburbs and other remote areas, often
     referred to as ‘sprawl’. Thus the geographical growth of cities has
     stopped being relevant to their population levels.
•    The basic, underlying reason for this was not the transportation
     itself directly but rather what today is called the Land Rent Rule.
•    The structure of land use has an important impact over transport
     demand and over the capacity of transport systems to answer
     such needs.
•    Though the main objective of transportation is to overcome the
     friction of space, it also is a great consumer of space – which is      Rent
     most expensive in urban areas. In some cities as much as 60% of
     overall space is dedicated to road infrastructure (vs. 10% in the
                                                                                    a Retailing
     pre-automobile era).                                                           b Industry/commercial
                                                                               a    c Apartments
•    At the urban level, demographic and mobility growth have been
     shaped by the capacity and requirements of urban transport                 b   d Single houses
     infrastructures, let it be roads, transit systems or simply walkways.
     Consequently there is a wide variety of urban forms, spatial                             City limits
     structures and associated urban transportation systems.
                                                                                             d
                                                                                        c
    Graduate School of Engineering                       Urban Form and Transportation
    Department of Civil Engineering


•    Urban form is determined by the spatial imprint of an urban
     transport system as well as the adjacent physical
     infrastructures and activities. Jointly, they confer a spatial
     arrangement of cities.
•    Since originally cities have been restricted by walking
     distances, their urban forms were compacted and activity
     nodes agglomerated. Many European and Asian cities
     inherited urban form under such circumstances.
•    Urban transportation is thus associated with a spatial form
     which varies according to models being used. Many cities in
     turn (mainly in America) develop a spatial structure that
     increases reliance on mechanized transportation.
•    There is also a strong and varying relationship between urban
     density and car use. For instance, between 1950 and 1990
     while the population of Chicago grew by 38% its build area
     grew by 124%.
•    Finally, transport technology plays a very important role in
     defining urban form, i.e.., the spatial extent of the build up
     area and the spatial pattern of various activities.
•    As a means of transportation, car has the lowest capacity
     and consumes the greatest amount of space – since it lays
     idle for about 98% of its time – but it also is the fastest, placing
     a heavily car dependant America at the top of the fastest
     commuters to work.
Graduate School of Engineering                    Urban Form and Transportation
Department of Civil Engineering

•   The major components of the spatial imprint of urban transportation are:
    pedestrian, roads and parking, cycling, transit systems, transport terminals.
    Large variations of the spatial imprint of urban transportation are observed
    between different cities as well as between different parts of a city, such as
    between central and peripheral areas.
•   Rapid and expanded urbanization occurring around the world involve a
    greater number of people living in cities and increased numbers of trips in
    urban areas. Cities have traditionally responded to growth in travel demand
    by expanding the transportation supply, by building new highways and/or
    transit lines. In the developed world, that has meant building more roads to
    accommodate an ever-growing number of vehicles, therefore creating new
    urban structures. Several urban spatial structures have emerged, with the
    reliance on the car being the most important discriminatory factor. Four major
    types can be identified at the metropolitan scale [Thomson, 1977]:
•   Type I – Completely Motorized Network – Representing a car-dependant city
    with limited centrality (ex: Los Angeles).
•   Type II – Weak Center – Representing the spatial structure of many American
    cities where many activities are located in the periphery (ex: Boston, Chicago)
•   Type III – Strong Center – Representing high density urban centers with well-
    developed urban transit systems, particularly Europe and Asia.
•   Type IV – Traffic Limitation – representing urban areas that have efficiently
    implemented traffic control and modal preference in their spatial structure.
    Commonly the central area is dominated by public transit. There cities were
    planned in advance to achieve just that, taking advantage of the “funnel
    effect” – that is: public transport is used in the central area, while individual
    transportation takes a greater importance in the periphery.
Graduate School of Engineering                      Urban Form and Transportation
Department of Civil Engineering

•   The previously mentioned spatial structure can also be
    expressed at different scales where transportation systems
    influence the structure of communities, districts and the
    whole metropolitan area. For instance, one of the most
    significant impacts of transportation on the urban
    structure has been the clustering of activities near areas
    of high accessibility.
•   Facing the expansion of urban areas and the increasing
    importance of inter-urban movements, several ring roads
    were built around major cities. They became an important
    attribute of the spatial structures of cities, notably in North
    America. Highway interchanges in suburban areas are
    notable examples. The extension (and the over-extension)
    of urban areas have created what may be called peri-
    urban areas. They are located well outside the urban core
    and the suburbs, but are within reasonable commuting
    distances.
Graduate School of Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering




      TRANSPORTATION AND SUSTAINABILITY
Graduate School of Engineering           Transportation and Sustainability
Department of Civil Engineering


    Ø       How Can We Think?                                     Unstable Situation
            Current Situation

        A                       T
                                                                                  To
                                                                  A
  Demand                  Supply                                  o
  Land use/Transport Approach
                                                           Land use/Transport Integration
    Conventional Approach
                                    Sustainability Limit


                                                Reduce The
                                               Need to Travel
            A1                 T1                                  A2            T2
        Ao                To                                      Ao             To
Graduate School of Engineering                    Transportation and Sustainability
Department of Civil Engineering

  Sustainability Initials                          Impact cycle
    Economy                         Social                                          Ecology
    •Level of economic growth.      •Socio-demographic Characteristics.             •Natural Recourses.

    •Economic Related activity.     •Travel needs Preference/ attitudes .           •Environment spatial quality.
    Feed Back




                                                          Land Use/ Transport system
                   Policy
                                               Land Use                                        Transport
Sustainability Impact                        Activity Location              Transport
                                                                             Demand         Passenger Travel

  Economy
  •Level of economic growth,                                              Accessibility
                                                 Land Use                                       Transport
  Consumer welfare                                                                            Infrastructure

  Social
  •Equity, Opportunities, Health.                                            Mobility.          Internal Impact
                                                                        Accessibility
  Ecology
                                                                             .                   External Impact
  •Emission, noise.
Graduate School of Engineering               Transportation and Sustainability
Department of Civil Engineering



                       q     Smart Growth Management for Planning


  Smart growth is a general term for land use practices that create more accessible land use
      patterns which reduce the amount of travel needed to reach goods and services. (Mobility
      Management, GTZ 2003)

  How Can We Achieve

  1.   Create more self-contained communities (Reduce average trip distances, and encourage
       walking, cycling and transit travel, by locating schools, shops and recreation facilities in or
       adjacent to residential areas).
  2.   Encourage quality, compact development. (Allow and encourage higher density
       development, particularly around transit and commercial centers. Demand high quality
       design to address problems associated with higher density).
  3.   Concentrate activities. (Encourage walking and transit by creating “nodes” of high-density,
       mixed development linked by convenient transit service. Concentrate commercial
       activities in these areas. Retain strong downtowns and central business districts. Use access
       management to discourage arterial strip commercial development.)
  4.   Encourage transit-oriented development. (Encourage dense development within walking
       distance (0.4 to 0.8 km) of transit stops, and provide high quality pedestrian and cycling
       facilities in those areas).
Graduate School of Engineering           Transportation and Sustainability
Department of Civil Engineering


             Table: Comparing Smart Growth and Sprawl Development

                             Smart Growth                            Sprawl

         Density            Higher density.                      Lower density

                                                          Urban periphery (Greenfield)
     Growth pattern       Infill development
                                                                development

      Land use mix          Mixed land use                  Homogeneous land uses

                          Human scale. Smaller
                          buildings, blocks and       Large scale. Larger buildings, blocks,
                          roads. Careful detail,      wide roads. Less detail, since people
          Scale
                       since people experience      experience the landscape at a distance,
                       the landscape up close,                    as motorists
                              as pedestrians

                               Multi-modal          Automobile-oriented transportation and
                             transportation           land use patterns, poorly suited for
      Transportation
                            support walking,                       walking,
             
                       cycling and public transit             cycling and transit
Graduate School of Engineering               Transportation and Sustainability
Department of Civil Engineering



            Table : Sustainability Impact of Sprawl and Automobile Dependency


           Economic                             Social                        Environmental
 p   Reduced accessibility and      p   Reduced accessibility for      p   Increased impervious
     higher transportation costs.       people who are transport           surface.
 p   Increased land devoted to          disadvantaged.                 p   Reduced green space
     roads and parking              p   Reduced housing options.           and habitat.
     facilities.                    p   Increased external             p   Increased energy
 p   Increased costs to provide         transportation costs (crash        consumption and
     public services.                   risk, pollution, etc.).            pollution emissions.
 p   Reduced regional business      p   Degraded public realm.         p   Aesthetic degradation.
     activity and employment.       p   Reduced neighborhood           p   Increased water pollution.
 p   Reduced economies of               interaction and community      p   Increased “heat island”
     agglomeration.                     cohesion.                          effects.
 p   Reduced economies of           p   Reduced opportunities to                       
                                                                                       
                                                                                       
     scale in transit and other         preserve cultural resources.                   
                                                                                       
                                                                                       
     alternative modes.             p   Reduced exercise by                            
                                                                                       
 p   Threats to environmentally-        walking and cycling.
                                                       
     sensitive businesses (e.g.                     
                                                    
     farming and resorts .
Graduate School of Engineering          Transportation and Sustainability
Department of Civil Engineering



                    Table : Sustainability Impact of Smart Growth Planning.


              Economic                           Social                    Environmental
                                       Improved transport options
                                                                        Green space & habitat
     Reduced development costs.          and mobility, particularly
                                                                              preservation.
                                              for non-drivers.

     Reduced public service costs.     Improved housing options.        Reduced air pollution.

                                                                          Increased energy
    Reduced transportation costs.        Community cohesion.
                                                                               efficiency.
                                        Preserves unique cultural
                                           resources (historic sites,      Reduced water
     Economies of agglomeration.
                                         traditional neighborhoods,            pollution.
                                                     etc.)
                                                                        Reduced “heat island”
     More efficient transportation.
                                                                                effect.
    Supports industries that depend
       on high quality environments                                                
         (tourism, farming, etc.).
Graduate School of Engineering              Transportation and Sustainability
Department of Civil Engineering


                   Ø     Impact of Land Use On Activity Participation
 Binary Logit Model for Shopping Activity Participation under income level 1 and car available
  Explanatory Variable                B                    Wald                df   Sig
  Household size                                 -0.1087            10.0552     1            0.0015
  No. of workers                                 -0.6244            73.6895     1            0.0012
  No. of children <6 years                       -0.1609               4.821    1            0.0028
  Female                                         0.8313             33.3023     1            0.0034

  Age                                            -0.0181            12.3023     1            0.0011
  Population density                             -0.0521            40.1423     1            0.0043
  Retail employment density                      0.8781             53.2073     1            0.0000
  Employment density                             -0.0031            12.3023     1            0.0000

  Constant                                       -1.1044             9.8402     1            0.0017
  N                                                3655
                                                            
  LOG LIKLE HOOD                               2271.943     


  Restricted log likelihood                   3467.3253
Graduate School of Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering




                   INTEGRATING LAND USE AND
                   TRANSPORTATION PLANNING
                   Case Study I : Curitiba, Brazil
Graduate School of Engineering    Case Study I : Curitiba, Brazil
Department of Civil Engineering
Graduate School of Engineering       Case Study I : Curitiba, Brazil
Department of Civil Engineering



                                  Urban Planning-Urban Form

                                        1943 - Agache Plan
                                          1953 - Introduction of Zoning




                                        1965/66 - Serete Plan
                                          1975 - Zoning update
                                          1985 - PMDU - Municipal Plan
                                               for Urban Development
                                          2000 - Master Plan update
Graduate School of Engineering      Case Study I : Curitiba, Brazil
Department of Civil Engineering



                                  Agache Plan Concentric Model
                                  Traffic System - “Plan of Avenues” attempted to
                                  organize traffic by defining main avenues

                                  Zoning   - Definition of functional centers
                                           - Definition of Residential, Commercial
                                             and Industrial Zones
Graduate School of Engineering        Case Study I : Curitiba, Brazil
Department of Civil Engineering



 Agache Plan                              Problem
                                          a) In 1955, the quality of public transportation was very
 Transportation System                            low.
                                          b) There was no timetable established for the buses.
                                          c) Conflict among the 150 bus owners, who were
             1           2                        operating public transportation in the city.

                                          Plan
                                          Public transport system was not included in Agache Plan.

                                          Implementation
                                          Curitiba issued the following regulations:
                                          1)      Fares, timetable and frequency of buses were to
     9                       3            2)
                                                  be established by the municipality;
                                                  Municipality now responsible for the planning of
                                                  the public transportation;
                                      4   3)
                                          4)
                                                  The city was divided into 9 operation sectors;
                                                  The 150 bus owner were to be grouped into 13
                                                  companies and each company was given
                                                  permission to operate with exclusivity in a portion
 8                                                of the city.
                                          Results
                                          a) With this system, anyone who wished to go to a sector
                     6                            operated by a different company, had to go to
                                                  the center first, and there take another bus. One
                                                  company could not circulate in another
         7                        5               company’s sector.
                                          b) A consensus was reached among the companies.
                                          c) The quality of transportation was improved.
Graduate School of Engineering            Case Study I : Curitiba, Brazil
Department of Civil Engineering


     Growth & Increasing Problems
      1)   “Plan of Avenues” was not executed, traffic system was
           not improved

      2)   Traditional Center
           - concentration of 50% of business activites;
           - concentration of 50% of job places;
           - increasing traffic problems;

      3)   Scattered pattern of occupation:
           - low density (16 inhab/ha);
           - elevated costs to provide infrastructure;

      4)   Zoning was not able to organize the occupation and
           distribution of activities:
           - no criteria for high rise buildings location;
           - industrial and commercial activities in residential
           areas;
           - uncontroled/illegal land development;

      5)   Populational growth rate: 7%/year
Graduate School of Engineering                  Case Study I : Curitiba, Brazil
Department of Civil Engineering



  Serete Plan             Linear Growth Model

   1)   From a concentric model to a linear growth model, through “structural
        axis”.
        STRUCTURAL AXIS: structural corridors to guide development and growth of the city.

   2)   Growth to be managed, based on:
        - Land use;
        - Traffic system;
        - Public transportation

   3)   Policies for economic and social development, and environmental
        preservation.

        Public transportation:
        1) priority for mass transportation instead of private car;
        2) priority for man, with the creation of pedestrian streets and historical preservation in
        the traditional central area, keeping its human scale.
Graduate School of Engineering    Case Study I : Curitiba, Brazil
Department of Civil Engineering




                                   Serete Plan Zoning
                                    Zoning Map (2000)

                                    -   Traditional Center high rise building/
                                        high density/
                                        residential,commercial,service uses
                                    -   Structural Axis high rise building/ high
                                        density/ residential,commercial,service
                                        uses (compulsory existence of
                                        commercial activities at street level)
                                    -   Medium (ZR3/ZR4) and Low (ZR1/ZR2)
                                        Density Zones
                                    -   Industrial District
                                    -   Environmental Preservation Zones
                                        Iguacu River and Passauna River: water
                                        supply
Graduate School of Engineering         Case Study I : Curitiba, Brazil
Department of Civil Engineering



                                           Serete Plan    Traffic System

                                  Hierarchy of Streets         Hierarchy
                                  - Pedestrian streets   to organize traffic flow
                                  - Local streets                   &
                                  - Collector Roads      to schedule infrastructure
                                  - Express Roads           implementation
                                  - Rapid Roads
Graduate School of Engineering    Case Study I : Curitiba, Brazil
Department of Civil Engineering




                                   Serete Plan                 Transportation System


                                   Transportation system was planned to be
                                   implemented in the land use/traffic system
                                   framework.

                                   -   Main arteries along the Structural Axis
                                   -   Interchange stations
                                   -   Feeder lines (orange)
                                   -   Perimetral lines - “Interdistrict”(green)
                                   -   Direct Lines - “Speedy” (gray)
Graduate School of Engineering     Case Study I : Curitiba, Brazil
Department of Civil Engineering



                            Serete Plan   Structural Axis




                                                3 Road System:
                                                    - Central Road with dedicated lanes
                                                    for buses
                                                    - External Roads: outbound and
                                                    inbound fast flow roads
Graduate School of Engineering    Case Study I : Curitiba, Brazil
Department of Civil Engineering



                   Serete Plan    Resulting Urban Landscape
Graduate School of Engineering            Case Study I : Curitiba, Brazil
Department of Civil Engineering



                           Serete Plan            Implementation Process


                           Scheduled Implementation and Continuous Improvement


                           1974
                           - North-South Axis
                           - Normal bus (80 passengers)
                                                      1979
                                                      - Perimetral Lines
                                                        (Interdistricts)



                                               1980’s
                                               - Articulated bus
                                               (160 passengers)
                                               - Integration
Graduate School of Engineering          Case Study I : Curitiba, Brazil
Department of Civil Engineering



                                       Serete Plan           Implementation Process


                                  1991 Direct Line (Speedy) & Tube Station
Graduate School of Engineering        Case Study I : Curitiba, Brazil
Department of Civil Engineering



                                  Serete Plan            Implementation Process

                                  1992     Bi-Articulated Bus (270 passengers)
                                           Tube Stations in the Structural Axis

                                  1995     Integration to
                                  the Metropolitan
                                  Region

                                  2001 Articulated bus
                                  also in Feeder and
                                  Perimetral Lines
Graduate School of Engineering    Case Study I : Curitiba, Brazil
Department of Civil Engineering



                         Serete Plan   Elements of the system
Graduate School of Engineering             Case Study I : Curitiba, Brazil
Department of Civil Engineering




                                  Characteristics
    RIT - Rede Integrada de Transporte
    (Integrated Transportation Network)

    One Fare System

    - Internal Cross subsidy: Short distance
    travelers pay for long distance travelers;

    - Operational Costs covered by fare revenues
    (Self-sustainable system)
Graduate School of Engineering             Case Study I : Curitiba, Brazil
Department of Civil Engineering




                              Characteristics

    -   Environmental friendly: Fuel (Alcohol Etilico Anidro Carburante (8.0%) + Co-
        solvente (2.6%) + Diesel Oil (89.4%)

    -   Environmental Gain        -35.0 % Black smoke
                                  - 2.6 % CO2
                                  - 1.0 % CO
                                  - 5.0 % NO
                                  - 8.0 % Emission of Particles
                                  -30.0 % Emission of Smoke with particles
Graduate School of Engineering     Case Study I : Curitiba, Brazil
Department of Civil Engineering




                              Characteristics

 Transportation Capacity
Graduate School of Engineering    Case Study I : Curitiba, Brazil
Department of Civil Engineering




                      User’s satisfaction survey
Graduate School of Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering




                    INTEGRATING LAND USE AND
                    TRANSPORTATION PLANNING
                      Case Study II : Singapore
Graduate School of Engineering    Case Study II : Singapore
Department of Civil Engineering




  SINGAPORE’S CHALLENGE                 •   Singapore has 3.6 million people
                                            living in a total area of just 646
                                            square kilometers, making it one
                                            of the most densely populated
                                            and urbanized countries in the
                                            world.
                                        •   Rapid industrialization and
                                            intensive development have
                                            required a corresponding growth
                                            in transport infrastructure.
                                        •   Roads currently take up about
                                            12% of total land area.
                                        •   Given the scarcity of land, the
                                            push factor is to develop a
                                            comprehensive rapid transit
                                            network with dedicated rights of
                                            way, transporting large numbers
                                            of people to their destination
                                            quickly and reliably.
Graduate School of Engineering          Case Study II : Singapore
Department of Civil Engineering




     SINGAPORE’S STRATEGY (1)

    • Singapore has chosen integrating the goals of transportation
      planning with land use planning which had been set out since the
      Concept Plan 1971. As travel is always made with a purpose, the
      amount and number of travels can be reduced by means of
      effective land use and transport planning. For example, by proper
      location of homes, offices and other uses in relation to the transport
      system.
    • Singapore’s government used ‘land banking’, buying land around
      the metro rail transit system before and during construction, and re-
      selling some of this land at a profit which in turn financed the
      construction of high density moderate income housing around the
      MRT stations.
    • Singapore’s government also developed a network of bike and
      pedestrian paths to MRT stations, and provided extensive bicycle
      parking facilities at the MRT stations.
Graduate School of Engineering          Case Study II : Singapore
Department of Civil Engineering




   SINGAPORE’S STRATEGY (2)
       In the 1991 Revised Concept Plan, transport considerations resulted
       two key land use planning strategies:

   • Decentralizing commercial and other economic activities through
     the development of regional, sub-regional, fringe centers of MRT
     stations. This has resulted in better utilization of MRT network in both
     directions during peak hours. Therefore, Singapore aimed for a
     proper mix of residential, industrial, and even institutional
     developments, and the highest plot ratios at and around MRT stations
     (White Paper of Transportation Planning, 1996).
   • Reducing the need for people to travel by locating employment
     centers like in industrial estates, business park and commercial
     centers near residential areas. Specifically, more homes would be
     built in the western part of island while more employment centers
     would be created in the eastern part of the island.
Graduate School of Engineering           Case Study II : Singapore
Department of Civil Engineering




   • Central to the success of Singapore model is high density urban
     development that is closely integrated around the transit system.
     Singapore’s basic urban structure plan shows a series of radial and
     circumferential mass transit and light rail lines with major and minor
     sub-center nodes developed at high densities around the
     intersection of all these lines (Kenworthy et al., 1994).
   • The success of Singapore in integrating development around their
     respective rail systems is shown by high percentage of city’s total
     activities lying within walking distance of stations and the ease with
     which stations are reached either on foot or by transit.
   • The story of Singapore’s successful transit system is not without its
     battles, nor is it without the support of highly successful policies aimed
     at restraining car use, such as (i) Area Licensing Scheme (ALS)
     introduced in 1975 to reduce morning peak commuting into CBD; (ii)
     long history of steep vehicle taxes; and (iii) the more recent
     Certificate of Entitlement (COE) system, which requires would-be car
     owners to bid for the right to buy a vehicle. The price of COE varies
     continously, but in the early 1994 it was as high as US$ 47,000, on top
     of the car purchase price (Straits Times, December 17, 2003).
Graduate School of Engineering                    Case Study II : Singapore
Department of Civil Engineering



   Table – Integration of Land Use with Transit in Singapore

   Descriptor                                           % Population/Passengers

   Percentage of Singapore population living within
                                                        30.0%
   walking distance of MRT station
   Percentage of Singapore population living within 1
                                                        50.0%
   km of the line
   Percentage of all businesses and industrial areas
                                                        40.0%
   located near stations
   Percentage of passengers who walk to and from
                                                        65.0%
   MRT stations
   Percentage of passengers who transfer to or from
                                                        35.0%
   buses at MRT stations

   TOTAL                                                100.0%

   Source: Letter from Singapore MRT Ltd, July 5, 1994, quoting Transit Link Figures,
   and Introduction to “The MRT Story” (Singapore: MRT Corporation, 1988).
Graduate School of Engineering           Case Study II : Singapore
Department of Civil Engineering



   FUTURE EXPECTATIONS (1)

   • Singapore will continue to ensure high quality of living. The Concept
     Plan 2001 will provide a variety of housing choices and a comfortable
     living environment. The concept also includes initiatives to be flexible
     and responsive to the needs of businesses, to support value-added
     industries, and to provide for the growth of Singapore into an
     international business hub.
   • These future expectations will create:
       – More intensification : industries and businesses close to MRT
          stations to optimize the use of land around these important
          transport nodes. This will allow people to enjoy the convenience
          of working near an MRT station.
       – More jobs closer to homes : more jobs will be provided in the
          North, North East, and East regions. In addition, there will be more
          housing in the West and in the city so that more can live to their
          workplace.
Graduate School of Engineering                Case Study II : Singapore
Department of Civil Engineering


         New Homes in                                     More Choices
                                  High-Rise City Living
         Familiar Places                                  For Recreation




         Greater Flexibility       A Global Business       An Extensive
           for Businesses               Centre             Rail Network
Graduate School of Engineering                   Case Study II : Singapore
Department of Civil Engineering



  FUTURE EXPECTATIONS (3)
   •   Boundaries between businesses and
       services are blurring.
   •   One of the key new ideas in the
       Concept Plan 2001 is to have a new
       zoning system in the future: New
       Business Zone and New White Zone.
        – Under the new zoning system,
            industrial and business activities
            will be grouped according to
            their impact on the surrounding
            environment. New business zones
            will be introduced, with B1 for
            non-pollutive uses and B2 for
            pollutive uses.
        – This new "impact-based" zoning
            approach will allow businesses to
            house different uses under one
            roof and change activities easily
            without rezoning.
        – A new white zone will be
            introduced, allowing all uses
            except pollutive ones.
Graduate School of Engineering    Case Study II : Singapore
Department of Civil Engineering



  FUTURE EXPECTATION (4)
                                    The Concept Plan plans for new orbital
                                    and radial lines in future. Radial lines will
                                    enable the community to travel to the
                                    city directly. Orbital lines will enable them
                                    to get from one place to another outside
                                    the Central Area more quickly. The
                                    existing 93 km of rail lines will increase to
                                    about 500 km in future.




             Singapore’s
               Extensive
             Rail Network
Graduate School of Engineering               Case Study II : Singapore
Department of Civil Engineering



   CONCLUSIONS FROM SINGAPORE’S LESSONS LEARNED

   •   Intensifying developments around MRT stations alone is not sufficient to ensure
       good accessibility. Planners must fully integrate MRT stations with building
       developments and other transport modes.
   •   Factors influence the success of creating a transit-based urban form which
       expected to overcome automobile dependence are:
         – Developing Non-auto-dependent land uses
         – Favoring alternate modes
         – Utilizing economic penalties
         – Creating traffic calming
   •   To follow the success of Singapore, it is necessary to build:
         – Commitment to building up quality transit, preferably rail;
         – Some preparedness to introduce physical and economic restraint on
           private transportation that support the investment in transit; and
         – Investment in relatively inexpensive improvements in the environment for
           pedestrians and cyclists.
Graduate School of Engineering
Department of Civil Engineering




                    The End and Thank You

				
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