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41.2 An Animals Diet Must Supply Carbon Skeletons and Essential

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41.2 An Animals Diet Must Supply Carbon Skeletons and Essential Powered By Docstoc
					41.2
An Animal’s Diet Must
Supply Carbon Skeletons and
Essential Nutrients

Fatima Roman
  Intro
n An animal’s diet must also supply all the raw
  materials needed for biosynthesis.
n To build the complex molecules it needs to grow,
  maintain itself, and reproduce an animal must
  obtain organic precursors from its food
n From a source of organic carbon and organic
  nitrogen animals fabricate a variety of organic
  molecules
n Essential nutrients are obtained in preassembled
  form because the animals cell can not make
  them from a raw material
n Malnourished-an animals who’s diet is missing
  one or more essential nutrients
Essential Amino Acids
n Animals require 20 amino acids to make
  proteins: many can synthesize half of these
  w/ organic nitrogen
n Remaining ones are obtained from a
  prefabricated form
n Protein deficiency-a diet that provides
  insufficient amount of one or more essential
  amino acids
n Ex of protein malnutrition: Kwashiorkor-
  provides enough calories but not enough
  proteins
n Sources of E.A.A-meat, eggs,cheese, and
  other animal products
Essential Fatty Acids
n Animals can synthesize most fatty acids they
  need
n Essential fatty acids- the ones that they can
  not make are unsaturated fatty acids
n In humans linuleic acid must be present in
  diet: to make phospholipids in membranes.
Vitamins
n Vitamins-organic molecules required in the
  diet in small amounts compared to amino
  acids and fatty acids
n 13 vitamins essential to humans
n Vitamins have two categories: water soluble
  vitamins and fat soluble vitamins
n Water soluble include the B complex (function
  as coenzymes in metabolic processes
n Vitamin C required for production of
  connective tissue
n Excess of water soluble excrete in urine
Vitamins continued
n Fat soluble vitamins are A, D, E, and K
n Vitamin A aids pigments in eye
n Vitamin D aids in calcium absorption
n Vitamin K is required for blood clotting
n Vitamin E=C : protects phospholipids in
  membranes
n Fat solubles are not exited so they can be
  toxic.
n People who eat a balanced diet are not likely
  to develop symptoms of vitamins deficiency
Minerals
n Simple inorganic nutrients
n Humans and other vertebrates required relatively
    large quantities of calcium and phosphorous for
    bones
n   Calcium- normal function of nerves and muscles
n   Phosphorous-ingredients of ATP and nucleic acids
n   Iron is a component of the cytochromes in cellular
    respiration and hemoglobin
n   Magnesium ,iron, zinc, copper, manganese,
    selenium, and molybdenum are cofactors built into
    enzymes
Minerals continued
n Vertebrates need iodine to make thyroid
  hormones
n Sodium, potassium, and chlorine are
  important in nerve functioning
n People ingest far more salt than needed
  n Excess of salt can upset homeostasis balance
    and cause toxic side effects
  n Can cause liver damage

				
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posted:6/19/2013
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