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					MONITORING AGRICULTURE USING
 REMOTE SENSING AT THE SEBELE
          DAR FARM
         PRESENTATION
               BY
     MMOLOKI G. MOLWANTWA
                 Introduction
• The issue of monitoring crop performance and
  productivity is one of the major challenges facing
  the agricultural sector in Botswana. Often
  difficulties arise in monitoring the agricultural
  sector in pastoral or arable commercial farms
  especially where there is limited in situ data.
  Remote sensing has been identified to be used
  widely for monitoring agriculture in areas where
  there is limited in situ data and also offers
  farmers the opportunity to evaluate the crop
  productivity level of large areas more efficiently
  and cost effectively (Flynn, 2008).
            Need of the study
• Monitoring is an important aspect in
  agriculture because with it we can predict
  seasonal outlook of crops.
• In Botswana monitoring crop performance
  and productivity using remote sensing is not
  done at a satisfactory level, therefore a need
  then arises to monitor crop performance and
  productivity using remote sensing.
                    Aim
• The aim of this study was to use remote
  sensing products to monitor crop
  performance in the Department of Agriculture
  Research Content Farm in Sebele.
               Methodology
• Study Area (Sebele DAR Farm, Gaborone Botswana)
         Methodology cont`d
qShape file
           Methodology cont`d
• Data requirements
q Rainfall products
The rainfall products were derived from FEWSNET
Rainfall Estimation (RFE) dekadal imagery.
q Yield data
The yield data was obtained from the DAR archive. This
was record of yield from the 2008-09 growing season
up to the 2011-2012 cropping season.
           Methodology cont`d
q Vegetation products
 The vegetation products were derived from the SPOT-
Vegetation NDVI at 1km spatial resolution provided by
DevCoCast (www.devcocast.eu). The data is obtained
from the BCA remote sensing station which is under
African Monitoring of the Environment for Sustainable
Development (AMSED) Organisation.
           Methodology cont`d
qShape file and NDVI Overlay
          Methodology cont`d
• Data analysis
Regression analysis model for long term
average NDVI against long term average rainfall
for the years 2008-2010 were made using
Microsoft excel whereby the rainfall was an
independent variable and NDVI a dependent
variable.
                                                                 Results
                                             Long term average VS current average NDVI
              0.700



              0.600



              0.500



              0.400
NDVI values




                                                                                                                           current average(2011)
                                                                                                                           long term avg(2008-2010)
              0.300



              0.200



              0.100



              0.000
                      1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
                                                               Dekadals
                  Results cont`d




Image a                      Image b
November 7 2011              November 13 2011
                   Results cont`d




Image c                       Image d
November 18 2011              December 10 2011
                   Results cont`d




Image e                       Image f
December 20 2011              December 15 2011
                                                           Results cont`d
NDVI long term average and Rainfall time series for DAR Farm(2008-2010)




                0.60                                                                                                        70




                                                                                                                            60
                0.50




                                                                                 rainfall (mm)
                                                                                                                            50
                0.40
                                                                                                                                 long term average rainfall(2008-
                                                                                                                                 2010)
                                                                                                                            40
  NDVI values




                0.30

                                                                                                                            30


                0.20                                                                                                             long term avg(2008-2010)NDVI
                                                                                                                            20



                0.10
                                                                                                                            10




                0.00                                                                                                        0
                       1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36


                                                                Dekadals
                                                         Results cont`d
                                                                  Current Rainfall and NDVI for 2011



              0.70                                                                                                        70




              0.60                                                                                                        60




                                                                                          Rainfall(mm)
              0.50                                                                                                        50




              0.40                                                                                                        40
NDVI values




                                                                                                                               Current Average Rainfall
              0.30                                                                                                        30   ( 2011)




              0.20                                                                                                        20


                                                                                                                               Current Average NDVI
                                                                                                                               (2011)
              0.10                                                                                                        10




              0.00                                                                                                        0
                     1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36



                                                                  Dekadals
                                 Results cont`d
                                              Yield and NDVI time series
    25                                                                                 0.368


                                                                                       0.366




                                                    NDVI values
    20                                                                                 0.364


                                                                                       0.362


    15                                                                                 0.360
Yield (tonnes)




                                                                                       0.358


    10                                                                                 0.356   Long term avg NDVI


                                                                                       0.354


          5                                                                            0.352   Yield (tonnes)


                                                                                       0.350


          0                                                                            0.348
                 2008/2009   2009/2010                     2010/2011       2011/2012
                                         Cropping seaon
                             Results cont`d
                RFEs and Recorded Longterm Average Rainfall for DAR farm(2008-2010)
rainfall (mm)




                                                                                                                                 70


                                                                                                                                 60


                                                                                                                                 50


                                                                                                                                 40                                Long term average RFES
                                    12
                                         34
                                              56
                                                   78                                                                                                              recorded long term average rainfall
                                                        91                                                                       30
                                                             11
                                                                  11
                                                                       11
                                                                            11                                                   20
                                                                                 12
                                                                                      22
                                                                                           22
                                                                                                22                               10
                                                                                                     22
                        Dekadals                                                                          23
                                                                                                               33
                                                                                                                    33            0
                                                                                                                         33   rec orded lo
                                                                                                                               Long te rm ng te rm
                                                                                                                                           average avFE g
                                                                                                                                                   R era e rainf
                                                                                                                                                       S
                                                                  Results cont`d
                                            long term average rainfall(2008-2010) Line Fit Plot
                               1.00

                               0.90


                               0.80

                               0.70
long term avg(2008-2010)NDVI




                               0.60
                                                                                                                 long term avg(2008-2010)NDVI
                               0.50


                               0.40

                               0.30

                                                                                                                 Predicted long term avg(2008-2010)
                               0.20
                                                                                                                 NDVI

                               0.10


                               0.00
                                      0.0   10.0   20.0           30.0          40.0        50.0   60.0   70.0
                                                          long term average rainfall (mm)
                Conclusion
• The aim of this project was to monitor
  agriculture in DAR farm using remote sensing
  products. From the results it shows that
  monitoring has been achieved as rainfall
  estimates and NDVI can be used to make
  inferences about crop performance.
           Recommendations
• The commercial farms particularly those that
  produce large crop outputs should adopt the
  use of remote sensing products to monitor
  crop performance in Botswana.

				
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