Mao’s Great Leap Forward
and Cultural Revolutions
• Mao wanted collective ownership of all
farms and factories.
• Private ownership was eliminated and
productions quotas were set for all
agriculture and industry.
• 1958 – All farms would be large collectives
where ALL ownership and decisions would
be in the hands of the government.
• Mao’s program was known as the Great
Leap Forward. He felt there would be
great positive change for China.
• Many Chinese farmers didn’t like this new
• They were forced to give up their land, they no
longer owned anything and had no reason to
• Many farmers were forced to go to work in
• There was a period of crop failure.
• Famine follow where thousands died.
• Mao began to see his idea of a classless society
where everyone was equal slipping away.
• Mao responded with the Cultural
Revolution in 1966 –
1. He urged students to leave school and make
war on anything in Chinese society that
encouraged class difference.
2. He organized the Red Guard made up of
young adults and children.
• The Red Guard was to –
– Single out and report anyone who was
preventing China from being a classless
• Business managers, college professors,
government officials who did not follow
the Cultural Revolution were put in prison
• The chaos in China came to an end in
1976 after Mao’s death and the Cultural
• 1980 Deng Xiaoping was named the new
leader of China.
• He allowed farmers to own some land and
make decisions on what they would
• He also allowed some private businesses
• He opened China to foreign trade.
• A student ran demonstration to protest for
continued economic reform and liberation
but later evolving in to a movement for
political reforms and freedom of the press.
• The movement last for 7 weeks when
martial law was declared (military comes
in and takes over)
• The military troops came in and opened fire on
the crowd to clear the square of the protestor.
• Several hundred civilians were killed.
• The Western governments responded by
imposing economic sanctions and arms
• The Chinese government had a wide
spread arrest of protestors.
• They cracked down on future protest.
• They banned foreign press from the
county and had strict control of the
• This would delay further market reforms.