World War II Major Battles - +IB History I _HL_ by fjzhangweiyun

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									WWII Major Battles
                   Pearl Harbor




• December 7th, 1941.
• Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
• Japanese surprise attack on US Pacific fleet
  designed to knock the US out of power in the
  Pacific.
            Impact of Pearl Harbor




• Casualties
  – 2,403 Americans killed
  – 11 major warships sunk
• US declared war on Japan
  – Germany and Italy declared war on the US three days later
                Allied War Strategy
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• The United States decided to use a “Hitler First”
  strategy by trying to defeat Germany first and
  then to focus on Japan
            Allied War Strategy




• Germany was more technologically advanced, and
  the allies feared the new weapons.
• Germans were working on jet aircraft, early
  missiles and the atomic bomb.
       Allied War
        Strategy
• Germany was also
  very close to
  completing their
  conquest of Europe.
  – Battle of Britain
  – Invasion of USSR
              Allied War Strategy
• The Japanese occupied
  a huge territory and
  each island was well
  defended.
• Attacks would take
  longer in the Pacific.
                 Axis War Strategy

• Hitler’s goal was to gain control of Soviet oil
  fields and force Britain out of the war through a
  bombing campaign and submarine warfare
• They wanted to accomplish this before
  America’s industrial and military strength could
  turn the tide of the war
              Axis War Strategy
• Following Pearl Harbor, Japan invaded the
  Philippines and Indonesia and planned to
  invade both Australia and Hawaii.
• Japan’s leaders hoped that America would then
  accept Japanese predominance in Southeast
  Asia and the Pacific, rather than conduct a
  bloody and costly war to reverse Japanese
  gains.
   The North African Campaign (1942)




• The Germans and Italians were trying to
  seize Egypt and the Suez Canal
• October 23rd – November 5th, 1942
• The British defeated the Germans at the Battle of El
  Alamein
     The North African Campaign (1942)




• Turning point of the North African campaign
• This defeat prevented Hitler from gaining
  access to Middle Eastern oil supplies and from
  attacking the Soviet Union from the south
    The Battle of Stalingrad (1942)

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• Since 1941, the German Army had pushed
  deeply into the Soviet Union
        The Battle of Stalingrad (1942)




• The German and Soviet Armies battled in the
  rubble of the city of Stalingrad from July 17th,
  1942 – February 2nd, 1943
    The Battle of Stalingrad (1942)




• The Russian winter helped defeat the Nazis
     The Battle of Stalingrad (1942)
• The battle of
  Stalingrad was one
  of the longest and
  bloodiest battles
  in history.
• Over 1.5 million
  soldiers died.
     The Battle of Stalingrad (1942)




• This was the turning point of the war in the east
  against Germany
• The defeat prevented Hitler from seizing the
  Soviet oil fields
   D-Day: Allied
Invasion of Europe.
• The Allies wanted to
  invade mainland
  Europe.
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• Roosevelt wanted to keep a promise to Stalin to create a
  second front against Germany to help keep some pressure
  off the Soviet Union.
• To do this, they had to break through the
  “Atlantic Wall”.
The Atlantic Wall
      D-Day (The Normandy Landing)




1) American and Allied troops under Gen. Dwight
    D. Eisenhower landed in German occupied
    France on June 6th, 1944
                 D-Day (con’t)
• Began in the early
  morning hours when
  American and British
  paratroops dropped
  behind the intended
  invasion beaches to
  disrupt German
  communications.
                 D-Day (con’t)
• By the end of the
  day, the Allies had
  established a
  stronghold and
  driven the Germans
  back.
                   D-Day




• This stronghold would be continuously expanded
  over the next weeks and ultimately lead to the
  Nazi defeat.
               D-Day Casualties
• About 5,000 US soldiers killed on June 6th.
• 3,000 German Soldiers killed.
• Thousands more surrendered.
      D-Day (The Normandy Landing)




• This began the liberation of western Europe and
  the defeat of Germany in 1945
                  End of the War




• Hitler committed suicide on April 30th, 1945.
• Germany surrendered on May 8th, 1945.
• This is known as V-E (Victory in Europe) Day.
Pacific Theatre of War
     General Douglas MacArthur




He commanded the U.S. military in the Pacific
            Allied Strategy
• Allies counter attack Japan with strategy
  called Island Hopping.
            Pacific (con’t)
• Island Hopping was jumping over
  fortified islands and cutting them off
  from supply lines while slowly working
  their way toward Japan.
• The major weapon in the war in the Pacific
  was the Aircraft Carrier.
     Allied strategy in the Pacific




SUBMARINE WARFARE = in the Pacific the U.S.
 would cut off Japanese supplies through
 submarine warfare against Japanese shipping
        “The Miracle of Midway” (1942)




•   Japan attacked Midway island and the U.S. naval
    forces luckily defeated a much larger Japanese force
•   Japanese victory at Midway would’ve enabled Japan
    to invade Hawaii
        “The Miracle of Midway” (1942)




•   Midway was a TURNING POINT in the Pacific
    that led to more American victories that led
    U.S. forces closer and closer to Japan
Battle of Iwo Jima and Okinawa
       Battle of Iwo Jima and Okinawa




•   Both battles were victories that led U.S. forces
    very close to Japan
•   Both invasions were very costly resulting in
    very high U.S. and Japanese casualties
• As the American army got closer to the Japanese
  home islands, the Japanese put up more of a fight.
• The Japanese began to use kamikaze pilots to
  destroy US ships.
• Kamikaze: In Japanese it was known as
  “Divine Wind”. They were suicide pilots that
  flew their planes directly into Allied ships.
Kamikaze
• The fierce resistance by the Japanese at Iwo Jima and
  Okinawa convinced President Truman to use the atomic
  bomb on Japan rather than invade.
           Atomic bombing
• The first atomic
  bomb was dropped
  on August 6, 1945
  on Hiroshima.
• Japan did not surrender, so the US dropped the
  second bomb on Nagasaki on August 9th, 1945.
• Japan agreed to surrender on August 15th.
• This is known as V-J (victory over Japan) Day.

								
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