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					                                                                                              Overview
                 Federal Land
             Management Agencies                                         • Outline key federal agencies charged with
                                                                           implementing ecological restoration
                and Ecological                                           • Identify policy relevant to each agency
                                                                           and their process of ecological restoration
                  Restoration                                            • Arrive at conclusions as to how
              Human Dimensions of Ecological                               restoration ecology is carried out by each
                      Restoration                                          agency and the role policy plays in
                                                                           guiding restoration ecology practice
                   Lesson 4-Module 2

                                                                                         Human Dimensions of Restoration E cology   2




                Overview of Federal
                                                                                    Agency Websites
                    Agencies
        •   Bureau of Land Management (BLM)                              •   BLM: http://www.blm.gov/nhp/index.htm
        •   U.S. Forest Service (USFS)                                   •   USFS: http://www.fs.fed.us/
        •   National Park Service (NPS)
                                                                         •   NPS: http://www.nps.gov/
        •   U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)
                                                                         •   USFWS: http://www.fws.gov/
        •   National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)
        •   U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)                         •   NMFS: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/
        •   Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)                        •   USACE: http://www.usace.army.mil/
                                                                         •   EPA: http://www.epa.gov/
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      Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
                                                                                       FLPMA (1976)
       • Formed in 1946, when the Grazing Service was merged
         with the General Land Office within the Department of         • Authorizes the Secretary of Interior to prepare and
         the Interior.                                                   maintain an inventory of all public lands and their
       • Manages 264 million of land and about 300 million               resource values (including aesthetic and
         additional acres of subsurface mineral resources.               recreational)
       • Most acreage is in the western United States, including
                                                                       • Also establishes
         Alaska, and are dominated by extensive grasslands,
         forests, high mountains, arctic tundra, and deserts             –   Organization of the BLM and Grazing Advisory Boards
       • The BLM administers public lands within a framework of          –   Management guidelines for public lands
         numerous laws, the most comprehensive of these is the           –   Right of way, boundary, and access guidelines
         Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976                  –   Wilderness review procedures for BLM roadless areas
         (FLPMA).

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RRT 404/504 Human Dimensions of
Restoration Ecology Univ. of Idaho                                                                                                      1
                                                                        Four levels of organization
        • The U.S.D.A. Forest Service is a Federal agency that          • Ranger District
                                                                           – 600 ranger districts with staff of 10 to 100 people
          manages public lands in national forests and
                                                                           – District ranger directs the district
          grasslands.
                                                                        • National Forest
        • Founded in 1905 with Gifford Pinchot as the first                – 155 national forests and 20 grasslands, each with several ranger
          Chief of the Forest Service.                                       districts
        • The largest forestry research organization in the                – Forest supervisor oversees the national forest
          world, and provides technical and financial                   • Regional Level
          assistance to State and private agencies.                        – 9 regions numbered 1-10 (7 was eliminated)
                                                                           – Forest Supervisors report to Regional Forester
        • Manages 191 million acres (77.3 million hectares) of
          land.                                                         • National Office
                                                                           – Chief of the Forest Service (Dale Bosworth) reports to the Under
                                                                             Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment
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          National Forest Management
                                                                       National Park Service (NPS)
               Act (NFMA) (1976)
                                                                        • This "Organic Act" of August 25, 1916, states that
      • Guides USFS management actions                                    "the [NPS] thus established shall promote and
      • Amends Forest and Rangeland Renewable                             regulate the use of Federal areas known as national
        Resources Planning Act of 1974 and the Organic                    parks, monuments and reservations . . . by such
        Administration Act of 1897.                                       means and measures as conform to the fundamental
                                                                          purpose of the said parks, monuments and
      • Provisions of Act require:
                                                                          reservations, which purpose is to conserve the
        – Public participation in the planning process                    scenery and the natural and historic objects and the
        – Regulations for the preparation revisions of                    wild life therein and to provide for the enjoyment of
          management plans                                                the same in such manner and by such means as will
        – Guidelines for controversial actions such as clear              leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future
          cutting
                                                                          generations."
        – Economic analysis of management alternatives
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                                                                           U.S. Fish and Wildlife
      National Park Service (NPS)                                            Service (USFWS)
       • Manages 384 areas covering more than 83
                                                                       • "The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's mission
         million acres in 49 States, the District of
                                                                         is, working with others, to conserve, protect
         Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, Puerto
                                                                         and enhance fish, wildlife, and plants and their
         Rico, Saipan, and the Virgin Islands.
                                                                         habitats for the continuing benefit of the
       • Numerous designations under the national                        American people."
         park system
                                                                       • Only agency of the U.S. Government with that
          – National: park, monument, preserve, historic site,
            historical park, memorial, battlefield, cemetery
                                                                         primary mission.
       • 1970 Congress declared all have same legal
         standing within national system

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RRT 404/504 Human Dimensions of
Restoration Ecology Univ. of Idaho                                                                                                              2
           U.S. Fish and Wildlife                                                  U.S. Fish and Wildlife
             Service (USFWS)                                                         Service (USFWS)
        • USFWS created by the Fish and Wildlife Act                           • Key Policy: Endangered Species Act
          (1956)                                                                 (1973)
        • Manages the 93 million-acre National Wildlife                        • Conservation of ecosystems for threatened and
          Refuge System                                                          endangered species of fish, wildlife, and plants.
           – 520 National Wildlife Refuges                                     • The Act:
           – Thousands of small wetlands and other special
             management areas.                                                    – authorizes the determination and listing of species as
                                                                                    endangered and threatened;
           – 66 National Fish Hatcheries
                                                                                  – prohibits unauthorized taking, possession, sale, and
           – 64 fishery resource offices                                            transport of endangered species;
           – 78 ecological services field stations.                               – provides authority to acquire land for the conservation
                                                                                    of listed species, using land and water conservation
                                                                                    funds;
                         Human Dimensions of Restoration E cology         13                    Human Dimensions of Restoration E cology   14




          National Marine                                                         National Marine
         Fisheries Service                                                       Fisheries Service
              (NMFS)                                                                  (NMFS)
        • The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries (USFWS)                            • Managed by Regional Fishery
          was transferred to the Department of Commerce                           Management Councils
          and renamed the National Marine Fisheries
                                                                                   – Commercial and recreational fishermen, marine
          Service (1970)                                                             scientists, and state and federal fisheries
        • Five regional offices in the Northeast, Southeast,                         managers
          Southwest, Northwest, and Alaska.                                     • Key Policy
        • Strategic plan contains three goals:                                     –   Magnuson Fishery Conservation Act
           – Rebuild and maintain sustainable fisheries                            –   Endangered Species Act
           – Promote the recovery of protected species
                                                                                   –   Marine Mammal Protection Act
           – Protect and maintain the health of coastal marine habitats
                                                                                   –   Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act
                                                                                   –   Federal Powers Act
                         Human Dimensions of Restoration E cology         15                    Human Dimensions of Restoration E cology   16




          National Marine
                                                                               U.S. Army Corps of
         Fisheries Service
              (NMFS)
                                                                               Engineers (USACE)
                                                                               • Mission
       • How are Rules and Regulations Made                                      – Planning, designing, building and operating water
          – Fisheries Management Council identifies problem and                    resources and other civil works projects
            proposes alternatives.
                                                                                   (Navigation, Flood Control, Environmental
          – Council hold public hearings and collects comments                     Protection, Disaster Response, etc.)
          – Council then reviews, approves fishery management plan or
                                                                                 – Designing and managing the construction of
            amendment and submits it to Commerce Secretary for
            formal review.
                                                                                   military facilities for the Army and Air Force.
                                                                                   (Military Construction)
          – Commerce Department published proposed rule on plan or
            amendment and seeks further public comment.                          – Providing design and construction management
          – Upon further review, Commerce Secretary makes final                    support for other Defense and federal agencies.
            decision on plan or amendment, NOAA Fisheries                          (Interagency and International Services)
            implements rules.


                         Human Dimensions of Restoration E cology         17                    Human Dimensions of Restoration E cology   18




RRT 404/504 Human Dimensions of
Restoration Ecology Univ. of Idaho                                                                                                              3
      U.S. Army Corps of                                              U.S. Army Corps of
      Engineers (USACE)                                               Engineers (USACE)

       • Comprised of 34,600 civilian and 650 military                Example of Recent USACE Study:
         men and women.
       • Chief of Engineers leads a major Army                        • Identify ways to recover salmon on
         command that is the world's largest public                     the Snake River in Idaho (ESA)
         engineering, design and construction
         management agency.                                           • Assessed three main alternatives,
       • Organized into 8 divisions in the US and 41                    one which proposed the removal of
         subordinate districts throughout the US, Asia
         and Europe. The districts oversee project                      four dams
         offices throughout the world

                     Human Dimensions of Restoration E cology   19                   Human Dimensions of Restoration E cology   20




     Pathway 1: Maintain existing system



                                                                     Pathway 2




                     Human Dimensions of Restoration E cology   21                   Human Dimensions of Restoration E cology   22




     Pathway 3                                                            Environmental
                                                                     Protection Agency (EPA)

                                                                       • Mission
                                                                         – Protect human health and to safeguard the natural
                                                                           environment--air, water, and land--upon which life
                                                                           depends.
                                                                       • Formed in July 1970 to consolidate agency
                                                                         missions and make more efficient the
                                                                         monitoring of the U.S. environment.
                                                                       • 18,000 employees in 15 program offices and
                                                                         10 regional offices.

                     Human Dimensions of Restoration E cology   23                   Human Dimensions of Restoration E cology   24




RRT 404/504 Human Dimensions of
Restoration Ecology Univ. of Idaho                                                                                                   4
      Environmental Protection                                         Environmental Protection
           Agency (EPA)                                                     Agency (EPA)
       Specific Functions                                                • Key Policy
       • Establishment and enforcement of environmental
         protection standards consistent with national                      – Clean Air Act (1970)
         environmental goals.                                               – Clean Water Act (1972)
       • Conduct research on the adverse effects of pollution
         and on methods and equipment for controlling it
                                                                            – Safe Drinking Water Act (1974)
       • Assisting others, through grants, technical assistance          • Formed the Office of Policy, Economics,
         and other means in arresting pollution of the                     and Innovation in 2000
         environment.
                                                                           – Integrate regulatory approaches with voluntary
       • Assisting the Council on Environmental Quality in
                                                                             actions that encourage environmental stewardship
         developing and recommending to the President new
         policies for the protection of the environment.

                       Human Dimensions of Restoration E cology   25                  Human Dimensions of Restoration E cology   26




                       Conclusions
        • Outlined key Federal agencies who play
          a role in ER
        • Traced the role policy plays in guiding
          agency ER
        • Provided examples of how ER can be
          approached from multiple perspectives
          (agencies) driven by multiple mandates
          (policy) for multiple environmental
          contexts (forests, wetlands, lakes,
          rivers, watersheds)

                       Human Dimensions of Restoration E cology   27




RRT 404/504 Human Dimensions of
Restoration Ecology Univ. of Idaho                                                                                                    5

				
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