; Aim_ Why was there a Second Industrial Revolution_ _1870-1914_
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Aim_ Why was there a Second Industrial Revolution_ _1870-1914_


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									  Aim: Why was there a
      Second Industrial
Revolution? (1870-1914)
I. America as Industrial Power
 A. 1865-1914- Gross National Product rose
  4% per year (average)
 B. 1900- US economy exceeds Britain and
  Germany combined
 C. 1880-50% of Americans farmed (25% in
  1920; 2% today)
I. America as Industrial Power
C. Causes
 1. Abundance of key natural resources
 2. Innovation
 3. Urbanization
 4. Entrepreneurs
 5. Cooperative national government
 6. Large domestic market for manufactured

       1st Oil Well in Titusville, PA (1859)
II. New Resources
 A. Petroleum
    1. 1859- Oil drilling begins (in
 Pennsylvania). Gasoline was thrown away.
Growth of the Oil Empire
                  John D. Rockefeller (1839-
  Kerosene Lamp             1937)
II. New Resources
 A. Petroleum

     2. Oil used for kerosene (heat and light)
 and as lubricant
    3. 1863- Standard Oil Company (John D.
      4. 1877- Standard Oil controlled 95% of
 oil refinery business
World Oil Reserves Today
II. New Resources
 B. Steel
    1. 1850-Bessemer Process (England):
 removed carbon from iron efficiently
     2. William Kelly develops process
 independently in the U.S.
The Steel Empire
 Bessemer Process (1850)   Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919)
II. New Resources
 B. Steel
    1. 1850-Bessemer Process (England): to
 remove carbon from iron efficiently
     3. Steel for railroad tracks, farm machines,
 bridges and the frames of skyscrapers
     4. 1892- Carnegie Steel Company becomes
 largest producer in U.S. (produced ¼ of
 nation’s steel)
The Brooklyn Bridge (1883)
The Home Insurance Building, Chicago (1885-10 floors-138 ft)
New York Tribune Building (1875- 18 stories- 260 ft.)
New York Municipal Building (1914- 34 stories- 580 ft. )
The Woolworth Building (1913- 57 floors- 792 ft.)
 Dueling Skyscrapers

Chrysler Building (1930- 77 floors)   Empire State Building (1931- 102 floors)
New Communications
 Telegraph (1844)   Telegraph Pole
II. New Innovations
 A. Communication

        1. Telegraph

              a. By Samuel Morse in 1844

              b. 1st transatlantic cable in 1858

              c. 1860- 50,000 miles of cable

              d. 1861- Transcontinental Telegraph
 Line               connects NY to SF
Pony Express (1860-1861)
Alexander Graham    First Telephone
       Bell        Microphone (1876)
II. New Innovations
A. Communication
     2. Telephone- Alexander Graham Bell
     3. Phonograph- Thomas Edison (1877)
Pearl Street Power Station (1882)
II. New Innovations
 B. Electricity

        1. 1879- Edison invents the incandescent light

     2. 1882- Pearl Street power station (for
 electric lights)

      3. 1900- 2,774 stations powered 2 million
 lights nationwide

        4. 1904- Electric subway opens in NY
NY Elevated Railway (6th Ave. Line)- 1886
New York’s First Subway (1904)

           City Hall Station
  First Subway
   Line (1904)
The first line begins at
City Hall, runs north to
42nd St., swings west to
Times Square and then
 up Broadway to 145th

The fare was 5 cents,
and stayed that way
     until 1948
III. New Ideas
 A. Scientific Management
    1. Developed by Frederick Taylor
     2. Sought to make human work more
    3. Workers resisted end of “flexibility”
The Assembly Line (1908)
Model T Ford (1909)   Early Ford Factory
III. New Ideas
    B. Assembly Line
           1. Developed by Henry Ford
           2. Faster and more efficient
           3. Monotonous, de-skilling of
Ford’s Assembly Line in Action
III. New Ideas
 C. Standardization
      1. Standard Gauge (4 ft. 8.5 in between
    2. Railroad Time
          a. 1870- Divided earth into 24
 time zones
         b. By 1918, railroad time had
 become the standard.
Mass Consumption- Department Stores

Original Macy’s- 6th and 14th (1857)   Macy’s Herald Square (1902)
Mass Consumption- Advertising
III. New Ideas
 D. Society
    1. Urbanization
           a. Mass consumption and
         b. Poor living conditions
III. New Ideas
 D. Society
    2. Women
           a. New opportunities for women in
 white-collar jobs (secretaries, retail,
          b. Worked with new technologies
 (typewriter, telephone, cash register,
 sewing machine)
IV. Impact
A. Standard of living rose sharply (highest in
  the world)

B. Urban centers mushroomed as labor
  demand increased

C. American agriculture eclipsed by
IV. Impact
D. Free-enterprise eclipsed by monopoly

E. Income gap most pronounced in U.S.
  history (By 1900, 10% controlled 90% of the

F. Foreign trade developed as result of
Sports and Industry
Sports and Industry
Sports and Industry
Sports and Industry
Sports and Industry

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