INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECTS OF PROCESS PARAMETERS ON DELAMINATION-2 by iaemedu

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									  International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 –
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
  6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME
                         AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)

ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print)
ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online)
                                                                               IJMET
Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), pp. 136-148
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   INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECTS OF PROCESS PARAMETERS
   ON DELAMINATION DURING DRILLING OF BD-CFRP COMPOSITE
     USING TAGUCHI DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS AND RESPONSE
                   SURFACE METHODOLOGY

                         Nagaraja*1, Mervin A Herbert1, Divakara Shetty2,
                                Raviraj Shetty2 and Murthy BRN2
      *1
           (Corresponding Author: Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of
               Technology Karnataka, Srinivasa Nagar, Surathkal, Mangalore-575025, India)
            2
              (Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Manipal Institute of
                  Technology, Manipal University, Manipal-576 104, Karnataka, India)



   ABSTRACT

           Delamination is an inter-ply failure phenomenon induced by drilling and has been
   recognized as a major damage encountered when drilling composite laminates. The damage
   caused at the entry and exit of the drilled hole is characterized by delamination factor. In this
   study, the effects of process parameters such as spindle speed, feed rate, drill diameter and
   point angle on delamination during drilling of bidirectional carbon fiber reinforced polymer
   (BD-CFRP) composite laminate have been investigated by using Taguchi design of
   experiments (DOE). The results obtained are analyzed and validated using response surface
   methodology (RSM) and analyses of variance (ANOVA). The study reveals that drill
   diameter and spindle speed are the main contributing process parameters for the variation in
   the drilling induced delamination of BD-CFRP composite laminate. It is evident from the
   investigation that feed rate and point angle are least sensitive to the drilling induced
   delamination of BD-CFRP in high speed steel drills. The study shows that both experimental
   and the predicted results of delamination factor are in good agreement.

   Keywords: Drilling, delamination, feed rate, thrust force, torque, high speed steel,
   bidirectional carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite.


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1.     INTRODUCTION

        Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites are well recognized for their
superior mechanical properties such as low weight, high strength and stiffness, excellent
fatigue and corrosion resistance and low thermal expansion [1]. CFRP composite laminates
find wide applications in aerospace industries, defense, ships, automobiles, machine tools,
sports equipments, transportation structures, power generation, and oil and gas industries [1,
2]. Composite materials are synergistic combination of two or more micro-constituents that
differ in physical form and chemical composition. The objective of having two or more
constituents is to get the benefit of superior properties of all the constituents without
compromising on weakness of either [3]. Although CFRP composites are produced to near-
net shape, machining is often needed to fulfill the requirements related to tolerances of
assembly needs. Among all machining processes, drilling is the most indispensable method
for fabrication of products with composite panels. The performance of these products is
mainly dependent on surface quality and dimensional accuracy of the drilled hole. The
quality of drilled hole is influenced by the cutting conditions, tool material and geometry
[4].The material anisotropy resulting from fiber reinforcement considerably influences the
quality of the drilled hole. Hence, precise machining needs to be performed to ensure the
dimensional stability and interface quality [5].
        The quality of the drilled hole is also influenced by the thrust force and torque
generated during drilling, which in turn is affected by the factors such as tool geometry,
speed, feed etc. Higher the value of thrust force and torque higher will be the structural
damage and tool wear. Therefore, many researchers have attempted to minimize the
generation of the thrust force and torque by designing different types of drilling tools [6]. The
drilling operation of CFRP composites has several undesirable effects such as fiber breakage,
de-bonding, pull-out, stress concentration, thermal damage, micro cracking, delamination etc.
[7, 8, 9]. Among the problems caused by drilling, delamination occurs mainly due to
localized bending in the zone situated at the point of attack of the drill. The delamination
drastically reduces assembly tolerance and strength against fatigue, thus degrading the long-
term performance of composites [10, 11]. In practice, it has been found that the delamination
associated with push-out is more severe than that associated with peel-up [12]. Hence most of
the researchers paid attention to the push-out delamination. Several investigators have studied
analytically and experimentally the cases in which delamination in drilling have been
correlated to the thrust force during exit of the drill. The higher thrust force induces more
extensive delamination to the work piece [13].It was reported that the rejection of parts due to
delamination damage during the final assembly was as high as 60% in aircraft industries
[14].Chen proposed delamination factor to characterize the delamination in drilling of CFRP
composite [10].
         It is observed that there is very little work that has been reported on the influence of
process parameters on delamination during drilling of BD-CFRP composite laminate with
HSS drills, using Taguchi’s DOE, ANOVA and RSM. Hence, an attempt has been made in
this work for optimization of process parameters such as spindle speed, feed rate, drill
diameter and point angle on delamination in drilling of BD-CFRP composite through
integration of Taguchi’s design of experiments and RSM based mathematical model.




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2.     MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1. Preparation of Test Specimen
       The BD-CFRP composite specimen of 200 mm × 200 mm × 4 mm was fabricated by
hand lay-up followed by compression moulding technique at room temperature. The resin
content of the composite laminate is maintained around 50 weight % and post curing of the
composite laminate is carried out for about 8 hours at 80°C. Bidirectional plain weave type
carbon fiber of arial density of 200 g.m-2 is used as reinforcement.




                         Figure 1 BD-CFRP composite specimen.

         The resin used for the preparation of composite material is Bisphenol A based epoxy
resin L-12 and the hardener used is Amino K-6. The advantage of using BD-CFRP composite
laminate is that it has maximum stiffness and strength in all direction. The scanned image of
the test specimen is shown in Figure 1.
2.2. Experimental Method
          A Matsuzawa micro-hardness testing machine (Model No MMT-X7A, Japan) is used
for measuring Vickers hardness of the BD-CFRP composite specimen. Tensile strength of the
specimen is measured as per ASTM: D 638, using a Universal Testing Machine (Lloyd
LR100 K, UK).




                               Figure 2 Experimental set up

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         The three point bending technique is used for measuring the flexural properties of the
test specimen as per ASTM: D 790-10. The inter-laminar shear strength (ILSS) is
investigated according to ASTM: D 2344 (short beam shear test method) by Universal
Testing Machine (Instron 3366). The displacement method is used for measuring the density
of the composite specimen as per ASTM: D 792-08, using an electronic balance (Mettler
Toledo USA). The drilling experiments on BD-CFRP composite specimen are carried out
using CNC vertical (TRIAC VMC) machining centre as shown in figure 2.
        The thrust force generated during drilling of BD-CFRP composite is measured by
9257BA KISTLER dynamometer. The mechanical properties of the BD-CFRP composite
laminate are given in Table 1.

                         Table 1 Mechanical Properties of BD-CFRP Composite
     Density    Vickers     Tensile    Young’s   Elongation   Flexural   Flexural    Inter-laminar
     (g.cm-3)   hardness    strength   modulus      (%)       strength   modulus     Shearstrength
                             (MPa)      (GPa)                  (MPa)      (MPa)          (MPa)

      1.302       18.2       427.46      5.9       13.32      109.35     861.19130        20

Delamination factor (Fd) of the BD-CFRP composite laminate is estimated by using the
equation:

Fd = Dmax/Dnom                                                                                  (1)

where, Dmax is the maximum delaminated diameter and Dnom is the nominal diameter of the
drilled hole.

3.        DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT

3.1. Taguchi Method
        The traditional method of experimentation, i.e. varying one parameter at a time and
studying its effects is considered expensive and time consuming. Hence, the design of
experiments (DOE) technique has been selected which requires minimum number of
experiments to be conducted. Taguchi’s robust DOE is used to formulate the experimental
layout, analyze the effect of each cutting parameters and optimize the process parameters
which are least sensitive to the causes of variation.Taguchi’s approach to design of
experiments is easy to adopt and apply for users with limited knowledge of statistics; hence it
has gained a wide popularity in the engineering and scientific community [15].
        Taguchi recommends analyzing the means and S/N ratio using conceptual approach
that involves graphing the effects and visually identifying the factors that appear to be
significant, without using ANOVA, thus making the analysis simple. The analysis is made
using the popular software specially used for design of experiment applications known as
MINITAB 15. The S/N ratio characteristics can be divided into three categories:

                                           S          y
Nominal is the best characteristic           = 10 log 2                                         (2)
                                           N         sy


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                                        S          1
Smaller is the best characteristic        = −10 log ( ∑ y 2 )                          (3)
                                        N          n

                                       S        1   1 
Larger is the better characteristic      = − log  ∑ 2                                (4)
                                       N        n y 

Where, y the average of observed data,            s2
                                                   y    is the variation of y, n is the number of
observations, and y is the observed data. For each type of the characteristics, with the above
S/N ratio transformation, the smaller the S/N ratio the better is the result when we consider
delamination factor, surface roughness, thrust force, torque and stress [16]. In this work, in
order to identify the best cutting parameters and to obtain minimum delamination, S/N ratio
characteristic andL27 orthogonal array are used. Table 2 indicates drilling test parameters and
levels.

                                      Table 2 Level and Factors
                        (A)                  (B)                (C)              (D)
        Levels     Spindle Speed           Feed rate        Point angle    Drill diameter
                       (rpm)              (mm/min)           (degree)          (mm)
          1            1200                  10                  90              4
          2            1500                  15                 104              6
          3            1800                  20                 118              8

3.2.     Response Surface Methodology
         Response surface methodology (RMS) is a collection of mathematical and statistical
techniques that are useful for modeling and analyzing problems in which a response of
interest is influenced by several variables. The main goal of RSM is to optimize the response
that is influenced by various process parameters [17]. In this study, central composite design
is used to develop empirical relationships between the drilling parameters. Central composite
design is one of the important design methods used in RSM for establishing relationship
between the parameters and responses by using the smallest possible number of experiments
without losing accuracy. The number of experiments conducted in the present case is 30 and
the number of drilling parameter considered is 4.The second degree response surface
representing the delamination factor (Fd) can be expressed as follows:

Fd = β0 + β1(A)+β2(B)+ β3(C)+ β4(D)+ β5(A2)+ β6(B2)+ β7(C2)+ β8(D2)+
β9(AB)+β10(AC)+ β11(AD)+ β12(BC)+β13(BD)+ β14(CD)                                            (5)

From the observed data for delamination factor (Fd), the response function is given as
follows:

Fd= 0.156332 + 0.000558847A + 0.0125514B + 0.00446767C + 0.0737923D – 2.02189E-
07 2
  A – 1.47879E-04B2 – 2.39641E-05C2 – 0.00367424D2 –1.08333E-06AB + 4.76190E-07AC
– 9.16667E-06AD – 1.96429E-05BC – 4.37500E-04BD + 6.25000E-05CD                (6)


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4.        RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

        Delamination in drilling is a highly undesirable problem and has been recognized as a
major defect encountered in drilling operation. Delamination not only reduces assembly
tolerance, but also weakens the structural integrity of the composite materials. To have a
better surface finish of the drilled holes, it is necessary to control the influence of process
parameters such as spindle speed, tool feed rate, drill diameter and the point angle on
delamination during drilling in industry. In this study, the drilling experiments are conducted
at different cutting conditions using HSS drills and the results of delamination factor of BD-
CFRP composite laminate are shown in Table 3.

                Table 3 Experimental and predicted results of delamination factor
                                                                   Experimental     Predicted
 Trial      Spindle     Feed rate       Point           Drill                                    Error
                                                                   Delamination   Delamination
 No.      speed(rpm)   (mm/min)     angle(degree)   diameter(mm)                                 (%)
                                                                    factor (Fd)    factor (Fd)
      1     1200          10             90                4          1.059          1.072       1.22
      2     1200          10             90                6          1.132          1.127       0.44
      3     1200          10             90                8          1.155          1.152       0.25
      4     1200          15            104                4          1.102          1.097       0.45
      5     1200          15            104                6           1.15          1.149       0.08
      6     1200          15            104                8          1.168          1.172       0.34
      7     1200          20            118                4            1.1          1.103       0.27
      8     1200          20            118                6          1.156          1.152       0.34
      9     1200          20            118                8          1.165          1.172        0.6
     10     1500          10            104                4          1.074          1.083       0.83
     11     1500          10            104                6          1.136          1.134       0.17
     12     1500          10            104                8          1.149          1.155       0.52
     13     1500          15            118                4          1.084          1.097       1.19
     14     1500          15            118                6          1.147          1.146       0.08
     15     1500          15            118                8          1.159          1.165       0.51
     16     1500          20             90                4          1.107          1.104       0.27
     17     1500          20             90                6          1.148          1.145       0.26
     18     1500          20             90                8          1.152          1.156       0.34
     19     1800          10            118                4           1.04          1.052       1.15
     20     1800          10            118                6          1.104          1.099       0.45
     21     1800          10            118                8          1.118          1.117       0.08
     22     1800          15             90                4          1.065          1.058       0.65
     23     1800          15             90                6          1.095          1.097       0.18
     24     1800          15             90                8          1.115          1.107       0.71
     25     1800          20            104                4          1.068          1.075       0.65
     26     1800          20            104                6           1.11          1.111       0.09
     27     1800          20            104                8          1.113          1.118       0.44

        The main effect plots for Signal to Noise ratio (S/N) of delamination factor (smaller is
the better) is shown in figure 3.It is observed from the plots that the drill diameter and the
spindle speed are the most significant design parameters that influence the delamination as
the slope of these plots are large and variation of S/N ratio is also large. The feed rate and
point angle are the least contributing process parameters for push down delamination as the
slope gradient is smaller.

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              Figure 3 Main effect plots for SN ratios of delamination factor




Figure 4 Delamination damage in drilling of BD-CFRP composite laminate for drill diameter
    of 6 mm, spindle speed of 1800 rpm, feed rate of 15 mm/min and point angle of 90°

        It is evident from the main effect plots of delamination factor (figure 3) that the
optimum parametric conditions for minimum push down delamination in drilling of BD-
CFRP composite are obtained for drill diameter of 4 mm, feed rate of 10 mm/min, spindle
speed of 1800 rpm , and point angle of 90°. Since the point angle does not have significant
influence on delamination, it can be set at the convenient value to get better surface
finish.The response table 4 for S/N ratio of delamination factor also indicates that drill
diameter is the dominant factor which influences the delamination in drilling of BD-CFRP
composite laminate followed by spindle speed. The figure 4 shows the image of drilling
induced delamination obtained by using HP high resolution scanner (4800dpi).

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        Table 4 Responses for S/N ratio (smaller is the better) of delamination factor
                     Spindle Speed         Feed rate        Point angle         Drill diameter
      Level
                         (rpm)            (mm/min)           (degree)               (mm)

        1                -1.0718           -0.8810              -0.9353            -0.6480
        2                -1.0465           -0.9845              -0.9720            -1.0669
        3                -0.7619           -1.0147              -0.9729            -1.1654
      Delta              0.3099            0.1336               0.0375             0.5174
      Rank                 2                    3                 4                   1


            Table 5 Analysis of variance for S/N ratios of delamination factor (Fd)

     Source        DF      Seq SS      Adj SS        Adj MS         F       P         P (%)

   ( A) Spindle
                    2     0.53293     0.53293        0.266467     80.05   0.000       26.270
   Speed(rpm)

     (B) Feed
                    2     0.08843     0.08843        0.044214     13.28   0.006       4.358
  rate(mm/min)
    (C) Point
                    2     0.00827     0.00827        0.004134     1.24    0.354       0.406
  angle(degree)
     (D)Drill
    diameter        2     1.35843     1.35843        0.679213    204.04   0.000       66.962
      (mm)
      A*D           4     0.01410     0.01410        0.003526     1.06    0.451       0.347
       B*D          4     0.05636     0.05636        0.014090     4.23    0.058       1.388
       C*D          4     0.01075     0.01075        0.002688     0.81    0.563       0.265
  Residual Error    6     0.01997     0.01997        0.003329
      Total         26    2.08924                                                         100

         The analysis of variance (ANOVA) for S/N ratio of delamination factor is carried out
for a significance level of α = 0.05, i.e. for a confidence level of 95%.The P values in the
ANOVA table 5 is the realized significance levels , associated with Fischer’s F test for each
source of variation. The sources with P values less than 0.05 are considered to have
statistically significant contribution to the performance measures. It can be seen from Table 5
that drill diameter has the highest contribution (P = 66.96%), followed by spindle speed (P =
26.27%). The interaction effects of process parameters on delamination factor during drilling
of BD-CFRP composite have no statistical and physical significance as shown in the
Table 5.The investigation reveals that ANOVA results of delamination are in good agreement
with the conceptual S/N ratio approach used for data analyses.
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         The observed results of drilling induced delamination of BD-CFRP composite for
HSS drills, obtained from Taguchi DOE are validated and analyzed by using RMS model
(Eqn.6). It is evident from the Table 3 that the error between the experimental and the
predicted results of delamination factor is less than 2.5%, indicating that there is a good
agreement between the observed results of delamination factor and the predicted results of
delamination factor as per RSM model. The results obtained from Taguchi DOE can also be
verified by drawing a comparison plot as shown in figure 5. The figure indicates a very close
relationship between the experimental results and predicted results of delamination factor.




     Figure 5 Comparison of experimental and predicted values of delamination factor.

         The adequacy of RSM model has been tested through ANOVA method at 5%
significance level, i.e., for a level of confidence of 95% [17]. Result of ANOVA for the
response function delamination factor (Fd) is presented in Table 6. The sum of squares is
usually performed into contributions from regression model and residual error. Mean square
is the ratio of sum of squares to the degrees of freedom and F-ratio is the ratio of mean square
of regression model to the mean square of residual error. From the analysis of Table 5, it is
apparent that, the calculated value of F-ratio of the developed model (26.38) is greater than
the F-table value (F 0.05, 14, 15 =2.46) and hence the second degree response function model
developed is quiet adequate.
         The delamination tendency of BD-CFRP composite laminate is analyzed by
generating 3D response surface plots and the corresponding contour plots. Figure 6 shows the
interaction effects of feed rate and the spindle speed on delamination factor with drill
diameter (8 mm) and point angle (118°) are held constant.

           Table 6 ANOVA for response function of the delamination factor (Fd)
                 Source      DF     Seq SS       Adj MS       F        P
               Regression    14    0.034670 0.002476 26.38 0.000
             Residual Error  15    0.001314 0.000094
                  Total      29    0.035984




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                      (a)                                           (b)

  Figure 6 Interaction effects of feed rate and spindle speed on delamination factor for drill
    diameter of 8 mm and point angle of118° (a) Response surface plot (b) Contour plot


        It is observed from the response surface plot of figure 6(a) that the increase of feed
rate increases the drilling induced delamination due to the increase of thrust force in drilling
[18]. From the contour plot of figure 6(b), it is clear that with feed rate kept at low value,
minimum delamination can be achieved with higher spindle speed during drilling of BD-
CFRP composite laminate using HSS drills. This is due to the reason that the increase in
spindle speed increases the temperature produced in drilling of composites, which softens the
matrix material and shearing, intern the delamination is reduced. The result presented is
correlated with the result presented by Palanikumar et al [19].
        Figure 7(a & b) illustrates the interaction effect of feed rate and drill diameter on
delamination with spindle speed (1800 rpm) and point angle (118°) are held constant. It is
evident from the figures that increase in drill diameter increases the delamination damage
during drilling of composite materials. The reason is that the increase of drill diameter
increases the contact area of the hole produced which increases the thrust force during
drilling of composites.The increase in thrust force leads to the increase of drilling induced
delamination [20, 21]. The results reveal that the increase in feed rate and drill diameter
increases the delamination factor and vice-versa. The influence of drill diameter and point
angle on delamination with feed rate (20 mm/min) and spindle speed (1800 rpm) are held
constant as illustrated in figure 8 (a & b).
        It is noticed from the figure that the minimum delamination in drilling of BD-CFRP
composite is observed at lower drill diameter and minimum point angle. It is also noticed
from the figure 8 that the delamination factor of BD-CFRP composite is least sensitive to the
variation in point angle.From the analyses of the figures, it is concluded that the maximum
spindle speed, minimum drill diameter, minimum feed rate and minimum point angle are
preferred to reduce the drilling induced delamination of BD-CFRP composite laminate.




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                    (a)                                          (b)
Figure 7 Interaction effects of feed rate and drill diameter on delamination factor for spindle
    speed of 1800 rpm and point angle 118° (a) Contour plot (b) Response surface plot




                   (a)                                           (b)
Figure 8 Interaction effects of point angle and drill diameter on delamination factor for feed
rate of 20 mm/min and spindle speed of 1800 rpm (a) Contour plot (b) Response surface plot


5.     CONCLUSIONS

       Based on the experimental results, the following conclusions can be drawn in drilling
of BD-CFRP composite laminate using HSS drills:
    1. The model generated by means of the design software (MINITAB 15) package shows
       the influence of the process parameters on delamination.
    2. The results reveal that the drill diameter is the most influencing design parameter on
       delamination followed by spindle speed.
    3. The interaction plots reveal that the minimum delamination damage is obtained at
       higher spindle speed, lower drill diameter and lower feed rate.

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     4. The investigation reveals that there is a perfect correlation between the experimental
        results of delamination factor and the predicted results of delamination factor as per
        RMS.
     5. The results show that the drilling induced delamination is not influenced the variation
        in point angle.
     6. The results of ANOVA for S/N ratio for delamination factor are in good agreement
        with the responses obtained from S/N ratio of Taguchi analysis.

6.      ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

        The authors are very grateful to the department of Mechanical Engineering, Manipal
Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal for the support rendered for conducting
the drilling experiments.

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6340(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) © IAEME

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