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Genetics Lesson_ Chromosomes and Genetics

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					Unit 4 – Plant Reproduction Lesson: Lesson 8 Chromosomes and Genetics

Colorado Agriscience Curriculum

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Unit 4, Lesson 10 Chromosomes and Gentics PP

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Chromosomes and Genetics
 What do I know about chromosomes?  What do I think I know about chromosomes?  What don’t I know about chromosomes?

Unit 4, Lesson 10 Chromosomes and Gentics PP

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Objectives
 1. Identify the anatomy of chromosomes. 2. Understand how chromosomes determine gender.  3. Identify chromosome structure and identify chromosome mutations.

Unit 4, Lesson 10 Chromosomes and Gentics PP

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I. Chromosome Terminology
 A) Self – Replicating genetic structure of cells containing DNA that bears genes  B) Chromatids
2 exact copies of DNA that makes up a chromosome

 C) Centromere
– Place where chromatids are attached to form a chromosome
Unit 4, Lesson 10 Chromosomes and Gentics PP 5

I. Chromosome Terminology
 D) Homologous Chromosome
Chromosomes that are similar in size, shape, and genetic content

 E) Genes
– 1. Fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity – 2. Found on chromosomes

 F) Gametes
– 1. Organisms reproductive cells (sperm/egg)

 G) Somatic cells
– 1. All cells besides sex cells
Unit 4, Lesson 10 Chromosomes and Gentics PP 6

I. Chromosome Terminology
 H) Diploid
– A cell that contains two sets of like chromosomes

 I) Haploid
– A cell that contains one set of like chromosomes

 J) Zygote
– A fertilized ovum

Unit 4, Lesson 10 Chromosomes and Gentics PP

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E - Moment
Hieroglyphic Moment

II. Gender
 A) Autosomes
– 1. Chromosomes that are not involved in determining the gender of an individual

 B) Sex Chromosomes
– 1. One pair of chromosomes that determine gender
 A. X chromosome = FM = XX  B. Y chromosome = M = XY
Unit 4, Lesson 10 Chromosomes and Gentics PP

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III. Number of Chromosomes
      Humans = 46 Cattle = 60 Sheep = 54 Swine = 38 Horses = 64 Corn = 20  2 chromosomes are sex chromosomes  1/2 of the total # of chromosomes is contributed by the male and 1/2 by the female

Unit 4, Lesson 10 Chromosomes and Gentics PP

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V. Chromosome Structure
 Down load or scan picture

Unit 4, Lesson 10 Chromosomes and Gentics PP

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VI: Chromosome Mutations
 A) change in an organisms chromosome structure
– 1. Deletion
 A. piece of a chromosome breaks off (often fatal)

– 2. Duplication
 A. fragment of a chromosome attaches to its homologue

– 3. Inversion
 Fragment reattaches to its chrom. ???? Is placed their backwards
Unit 4, Lesson 10 Chromosomes and Gentics PP 12

IV. Genetic Disorders
 A. Usually caused by mutations
– 1. Fainting Goats
 a. defect in muscle tissue that causes temporary tetanus when under stress

– 2. www.faintinggoat.com
 Research history of the breed to decide if all genetic mutations are bad.

Unit 4, Lesson 10 Chromosomes and Gentics PP

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posted:11/12/2009
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