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					         Science Education for
    Innovation-Driven Societies

                                            Francesco Avvisati




 OECD Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI)
Paris, Educating for Innovation-Driven Societies, 26 April 2012
                             Outline
                               • How does science
                                 education contribute to
                                 individual skills for
         Education               innovation?
            and
          training             • Do education systems
                                 foster all skills for
Skills                           innovation?
                               • Are certain science
                Innovation
                                 pedagogies more effective
                                 in that respect?
                               • How can technology and
                                 informal learning help?
HOW DOES SCIENCE
EDUCATION CONTRIBUTE TO
INDIVIDUAL SKILLS FOR
INNOVATION?
   Innovation intensity by field of study
• Traditional views emphasise role of STEM graduates,
  but...                             innovation intensity: any type
    100                                                                                          product or service
     90                                                                                          technology or tools
          & computing
           engineering




                                                                         social sciences
     80                  architecture                                                            knowledge or methods
          sciences
          & maths



                                        agriculture



                                                             education
     70




                                                                                                               humanities
                                                                                           business
                                                      arts
     60




                                                                                                      health




                                                                                                                                  other
     50




                                                                                                                            law
     40
     30
     20
     10
      0
                                                                                                                                          4
  Non-disciplinary skills and innovation
• Critical skills according to tertiary educated workers
                                         1   2                  4
  come up with new ideas/solutions                                  4.1
      willingness to question ideas                   3.1
          present ideas to audience                 2.9
           alertness to opportunities              2.8
                 coordinate activities           2.6
                   analytical thinking
             acquire new knowledge
      mobilize capacities of others
          make your meaning clear
            master of your own field
         write reports or documents
     work productively with others
    write/speak a foreign language
                  use time efficiently
        use computers and internet
             perform under pressure              Odds ratio (innovative
                           negociate             vs non-innovative
           knowledge of other fields             graduates); based on
                assert your authority            Reflex and Hegesco       5
Science education and Innovation Skills
  • need to consider learning outcomes that
    go beyond mastery of content knowledge
    and of procedural knowledge:
    – Skills in thinking and creativity, positive
      habits of mind (curiosity, perseverance,...)
      and social skills;
  • Science, as a subject, offers excellent
    opportunities for developing these...
  • ... but how far are they really fostered in
    today’s schools?
DO EDUCATION SYSTEMS
FOSTER ALL SKILLS FOR
INNOVATION?
                               Do countries foster simultaneously subject-based and
                                        behavioural skills? Not necessarily
Example: Science scores and interest in science
                               640
                                       LOW SCORE                                                               HIGH SCORE
  Interest in Science Topics




                                       HIGH INTEREST                                                         HIGH INTEREST
                               620
                                           IDN    MEX
                               600
                                           BRA                CHL
                               580
                                                                           PRT
                               560
                                                                           GRC
                               540                      TUR           RUS      ESP              HKG
                                                                     ITA
                                                                               FRA    MAC
                               520                                       SVK            DEU
                                                                               HUN
                                                                    ISR    LUX AUT SVN JPN
                               500
                                                                             POL BEL CHE EST
                                                                                  CZE    KOR
                               480                                              USA IRL
                                                                        NOR          GBRAUS CAN
                                                                          ISL
                               460                                         DNK              NZL
                                       LOW SCORE                                                    FIN         HIGH SCORE
                                                                              SWE         NLD
                                       LOW INTEREST                                                           LOW INTEREST
                               440
                                     380    400   420     440       460   480    500   520   540   560      580    600   620

                                 Source: OECD, based on PISA 2006                                        Science Score
                      Robustness
partial correlation coefficents between science interest and
science score
                         (1)     (2)      (3)      (4)      (5)      (6)
partial correlation      -0.74 -0.71 -0.66 -0.69 -0.74 -0.56


controls:
GDP p/c                          X        X                          X
Luxembourg                                X                          X
Self-concept (mean)                                X                 X
Self-efficacy (mean)                               X                 X
Culture (Hofstede 4-
dim)                                                        X        X


N                           34       34       33       34       32       31
                                                0


                                   -1
                                                          1




                                         -0.5
                                                    0.5
                                                                                                                                 -0.3
                                                                                                                                        1E-15
                                                                                                                                                0.3
                                                                                                                                                      0.6




                                                                                                                          -0.6
                                    CHL                                                                                          CHL
                                     USA                                                                                          POL
                                      PRT                                                                                                  MEX
                                       ISR                                                                                                 HUN
                                        ITA                                                                                                PRT
                                        POL                                                                                                USA
                                        BEL                                                                                                EST
                                        NZL                                                                                                TUR
                                        MEX                                                                                                SVK
                                        TUR                                                                                                CZE
                                        NLD                                                                                                 ITA
                                         SVK                                                                                                ESP
                                         ESP                                                                                                ISR
                                         CZE                                                                                                GRC
                                        HUN                                                                                                  LUX
                                         AUT                                                                                                 AUT




Source: OECD, based on PISA 2006
                                          EST                                                                                                DEU
                                                GBR                                                                                          BEL
                                                SVN                                                                                          NZL
                                                GRC                                                                                           NLD
                                                CAN                                                                                           GBR
                                                DEU                                                                                           IRL
                                                FIN                                                                                           CHE
                                                 IRL                                                                                          FRA
                                                 AUS                                                                                           AUS
                                                 CHE                                                                                           CAN
                                                  LUX                                                                                          KOR
                                                  FRA                                                                                          SVN
                                                  DNK                                                                                          DNK
                                                   SWE                                                                                         JPN
                                                   NOR                                                                                          SWE
                                                    ISL                                                                                         FIN
                                                     JPN                                                                                         NOR
                                                              between-school correlation of average interest and scores
                                                                                                                                                            within-school correlation of individual interest and scores




                                                      KOR                                                                                        ISL

                                        BRA                                                                                      BRA
                                         RUS                                                                                     RUS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Test-Score/Interest Paradox




                                                    HKG                                                                                         IDN
                                                     IDN                                                                                         MAC
                                                     MAC                                                                                          HKG
ARE SOME PEDAGOGIES
MORE EFFECTIVE IN
FOSTERING ALL SETS OF
SKILLS FOR INNOVATION?
            A within-country analysis
Teaching indicators in PISA 2006 based on 4 clusters of activities:

   • Interaction                   • Hands-on
      – Collaboration and             – Guided activities
        participatory                   around lab
        exchanges                       experiments


   • Application                   • Investigation
      – Drawing connections           – Autonomous student
        between school                  inquiries
        science and the
        outside world
        Pedagogies for innovation skills

              Science score                 Interest in Science Topics
  0.3                                 0.3

0.25                                0.25
                                              20
  0.2                                 0.2

 0.15                                0.15

  0.1                                 0.1
                  8                                          3
0.05      4                         0.05                             6

   0                     1
         -1      -2                    0
                        -2                            -2     -1      -1
-0.05                               -0.05

 -0.1                         -10    -0.1

-0.15
                                    -0.15
     Effective Science Pedagogies
• The current teacher has more impact on interest
  than on scores;
• Structured inquiry (“hands-on”) dominates
  unstructured inquiry for scores
• Interest and curiosity are nurtured with
  “applications”: i.e. when the teacher…
  – …explains how a school science idea can be applied to a
    number of different phenomena
  – …uses science to help students understand the world
    outside school
  – …explains the relevance of science concepts to our lives
  – … uses technological applications to show how school
    science is relevant to society
Leverage technology, harness informal learning opportunities,...

INNOVATING SCIENCE
EDUCATION
Francesco.Avvisati@oecd.org

THANK YOU
www.oecd.org/edu/innovation

				
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