Higher Education Reform in Albania - Petrovac Conference on by pptfiles

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									Higher Education Reform in
         Albania
 Ministry of Education and Science,


             Arjan Shahini
                   Outline
• Public Management: Central Authorities

• Priorities (Gov.  National Strategy for Higher
  Education 2008-13)

• Expansion: Example  Private Education
  (approach + current state)
              Central Authorities
I.   Public management and governance of higher education

                                          Central Authorities:
      - Government / MoES
         - Accred. Council
         - Council of Higher Education and Research
         - National Examination Center + Immatriculation
      - Parliament
         - Committee on Education and Means of Public
           Information
         - the Committee on Work, Social Issues and Health
      Objectives of the strategy
• Develop the society and promote democratic
  standards.
• Develop economically and equally the country
  through education of a qualified work force.
• Fulfill the development aspirations of the young
  generations.
• Develop and consolidate a wide and adequate
  knowledge base for the benefit of the country.
               Strategic priorities
I.   Expand the system (increase supply)  meet
     the needs of the country and create higher education
     opportunities for all .
II. Ensure diversity in education offers  in line with the
     requirements of the future development of the country.
III. Improve the quality of teaching and learning 
     continuous training of human resources and fostering a
     culture of quality.

IV. Improve governance mechanisms  grant HEIs
     adequate autonomy conditional upon the achievement of
     quality management, accountability and transparency.
V. Develop methods, schemes and levels of
   financing  student’s based (need and merit – SL) for
     teaching and competitive for research institutions (SDF).
Approach: Reform & Innovation




                          BOTTOM-UP
Main Areas of Reform
     Strategy Evaluation: Problems
1.   Increase in environment’s complexity
2.   Resistance to change
3.   Difficulty predicting future
4.   Increasing number of variables
4.   Rate of obsolescence of plans
5.   National and global events
6.   Decreasing time span for planning certainty
7.   Lack of capacities for the implementation
      II. Expansion: Instruments
• Liberalization of the education market: allow
  private providers (profit and non-profit).
• Increase capacities (“consolidation and
  growth of the capacities of the existing
  institutions”)
• Concentrated only in some fields of study
  (economic priority sectors: tourism,
  agricultural, food industry).
• Gradual increase of the number of students.
• Support regional universities
II. Expansion: e.g private education (a)
• Approach:
    – Mix: Laissez –faire with market competition*
         • No funding; tax incentives for students
         • Private sector free to set tuition fees
         • Limited regulation, but regular auditing
         • No special laws
         • state introduces market elements in the higher
           education market
         • creates open market structure
         • state encourage private-public competition
* Zumeta W. (1997) State Policy and private Higher Education: Past, Present and
Future. In: J. Smart (ed) Higher Education Handbook of Theory and Research. Volume
XII. New York: Agathon Press: 43-106
   II. Expansion – Private Education (b)
• Policies
   -   Introduction of market elements (marketization) in the education
       system
   -   Permissive policy for private providers to enter the market (licensure
       procedure)
   -   Substitute funds and / public funding (in the future!)
• Results
  – Increase in private education institutions (46 by 2012)
  – Profilization of higher education institutions (study programs, professional
    colleges).
  – Increase in enrollment in private education (23 500 by 2011).
• Consequences
  – Few elite HEIs
  – Public universities are more selective than private (due to state matura
    exam)
  – Private might go bankrupt or merge
II. Expansion: Categories of private
                HEIs
    II. Expansion: Improve quality
• Accreditation & quality assurance (new quality
  standards & benchmarks)
• Inform the students about the quality of the
  supply (Ranking)
• Encourage the establishment of professional
  colleges (less restrictive licensing procedure)
• Prepare students of secondary level for the
  university (2+2 obligatory state examination)
• Obligatory certificate in English for the master-
  level (law)
• Internationalize the HEIs
             Private Education II
• Quality Assurance
  –   Accreditation Agency
  –   Accreditation Council
  –   Ministry of Education and Science
  –   State Standards of Evaluation and Accreditation
  –   Yearly monitoring / inspection
• Informing students about the quality: Ranking!
  – CHE
  – Methodology: Multidimensional
  – Results
    I. Expansion: Improve quality
• Accreditation & quality assurance (new quality
  standards & benchmarks)
• Inform the students about the quality of the
  supply (Ranking)
• Encourage the establishment of professional
  colleges (less restrictive licensing procedure)
• Prepare students of secondary level for the
  university (2+2 obligatory state examination)
• Obligatory certificate in English for the master-
  level (law)
• Internationalize the HEIs
          II. Curriculum Reform
• Evaluate the implementation of Bologna
  Standards
• Follow the Bologna Process: 3-cycle system;
• Competence based learning;
• Flexible learning paths;
• Recognition & mobility (internationalize curricula)
• Adapt/restructure content, structure, teaching
  methods and materials;
• Establish joint study programmes;
• Establish links with the labour market (two year
  vocational schooling/college).
               III. Governance
• Increase the autonomy of universities
• Modernise the capacity, management and governance
  of higher education institutions and at the Ministry.
• Management of students’ services
• Build strategic partnerships, international and
  domestic relations with the private und state actors
  etc.
• Ensure the quality of education (QA)
• Promote a quality assurance culture
• Increase accountability (toward government and the
  public)
• Ensure equality and transparency in accessing the
  higher education
    III. Governance: Accountability
• Appointment (government or board)
• Representation (internal + external)
• Financial accountability (budget)
• Differentiated functions between academics
  and executives.
• Performance – (reporting + monitoring +
  ranking + accreditation)
• Responsiveness toward market needs
       IV. Research and Development:
           Strategy and Instruments
• Document: National Strategy of Science, Technology and Innovation,
  2009
• Integration of the research institutes in the higher education system
• Innovation (applied research)
• Establishment of interdisciplinary centers (Technology Transfer
  Centers and Agencies)
• Assist in the development of the local community and businesses
• Set up networks of cooperation with the most important industries
• Share costs with the private sector and attract funds from
  international research programs.
• Raise public awareness
• Achieve excellence in the priority areas of development (agro-food
  and tourism)

								
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