The Atlantic

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					       The Atlantic
    Honors World History (B)
       Coach Simmons

Main Ideas: Cultural Interactions,
Economics, and Empire Building
Europeans in the Americas
• Spain’s Christopher Columbus’ voyage
• Called natives Indians (mistakenly)
• Took control of all the islands
• Planned to colonize all contacted lands
• Amerigo Vespucci colonized S America
• Spain’s Magellan first to circumnavigate
  the globe (3 year journey) Magellan didn’t
Spanish in Mexico
• The conquistadores
• Hernando Cortes conquers the Aztecs
• Use of brutal techniques of converting natives
• Encomeinda – legalized enslaving natives
• Francisco Pizzaro conquers the Incans
• Brutal ambush defeated the larger Incan forces
• Spanish lived among natives (peninsulares)
Spain moves North

• Juan Ponce de Leon claimed Florida
• Claimed modern-day SW United States
• Francisco Vasquez and de Soto led
  expeditions into N America
• Converting natives along the way and
  exploiting resources
Opposition to Spanish

• Spanish priest pushed for better treatment
  of Native Americans
• Bartolome de Las Casas – leading
• Brutal labor practices (main focus)
• Natives started to organize and revolt (St.
Review Questions

1. Why were the Spanish able to take
   control of the Americas so quickly?
2. Why would Spanish priest “tattle” on the
3. Why else besides goods did the Spanish
   want control of the Americas?
Competition in N America
• Many European countries wanted to establish colonies in
    N America when no route to Asia was found
•   France established colonies along the mouth of the
•   Making profit was main goal of France
•   England set up colonies along E coast
•   Jamestown in 1607
•   Pilgrims and Puritans found colonies at Plymouth and
    Massachusetts Bay (religious freedom)
•   Colonies weren’t successful @ first
•   Dutch in the New Netherlands
Competition continues

• European countries begin to fight over
  control of lands
• Natives were pushed further to the West
• French Indian War – Sven Years War
• Natives start to organize and fight back
• Disease factor
Review Questions

1. How did the European colonies differ?
2. Why was Britain more successful than
   any other European power?
3. How could Native Americans better
   defended themselves?
The Slave Trade
• Slavery existed in Africa for centuries
• Need for labor in the Americas
• Slaves became the largest “good” traded
• Spanish, Portuguese, and English
  dominate the slave trade
• Overall about 3 million slaves were
  brought to the Americas
• African rulers cooperate
Brutal Journey

• Middle Passage (p.135)
• Triangular Trade (p.134)
• Ahmastad
• Harsh life in colonies
• Struggle to hold on to heritage
• Slave resistance
Consequences of slave trade

• Lost African generations
• Introduced new weapons to Africa (guns)
• Africans brought culture into the Americas
• The exchange of goods from each
  continent involved
• Modern day populations
Review Questions

1. How did slavery in the Americas differ
   from that in Africa?
2. Why did the slave trade flourish for so
3. Why do you think African rulers
   cooperated with this industry?
Columbian Exchange

• Columbian Exchange – transfer of food,
  animals, and plants during the colonization
  of the Americas (p.138)
• Most important were corn and potatoes
• Flow of goods goes both ways
• Helped boost world’s population
• Negative was the disease (p.139)
Rise of Capitalism

• Private ownership and investment of
  resources for purpose of profit
• Reinvestment of capital
• Supply and Demand
• Joint-stock companies – shares of
• Risk exist

•    Power depends on wealth
•    Two ways to increase wealth:
1.   Obtain gold and silver
2.   Favorable balance of trade
3.   Rise of merchant class
4.   Created national identity
5.   Colonies played huge role by providing
     markets and producing goods
Review Questions

1. Why were the colonies so important to
   European nations?
2. What do you think the growth of
   mercantilism will lead to?
3. What effects did the Columbian
   Exchange have on the world?

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