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					      THE AGE OF
     EXPLORATION
  TH     TH
15 AND 16 CENTURY
     AN OVERVIEW
                       TH
BACKGROUND- 15
CENTURY
l   RISE OF NATIONALISM AMONG THE
    NEW NATION-STATES OF EUROPE
l   EMERGENCE OF POWERFUL NEW
    NATION-STATES WITH ASSERTIVE
    MONARCHS
l   INVENTION OF THE PRINTING PRESS
l   EXPANSION OF TRADE AND BUSINESS
    ACTIVITY
l   RENAISSANCE QUEST FOR
    KNOWLEDGE
l   Crusades
MOTIVATING FACTORS FOR
EUROPEAN EXPANSION
l   DESIRE TO ENHANCE NATIONAL PRESTIGE
    (NATIONALISM)
     – NATIONAL WEALTH AND TERRITORY
     – PRESTIGE FOR MONARCHS
l   POSSIBILITY OF PERSONAL WEALTH, FAME,
    AND SOCIAL PRESTIGE
l   QUEST FOR NEW GEOGRAPHICAL
    KNOWLEDGE
l   DESIRE TO SPREAD CHRISTIANITY
l   INTENSIFYING INTERNATIONAL
    COMPETITION AMONG THE POWERFUL
    NATION-STATES OF EUROPE
l   DESIRE TO FIND NEW TRADE ROUTES TO THE
    EAST – INCREASE PROFITS
NEW TECHNOLOGIES THAT
IMPACTED EXPLORATION
l   BETTER AND FASTER SHIP DESIGN
l   PRINTING PRESS
l   MORE RELIABLE MAGNETIC COMPASS
l   THE INVENTION OF THE CLOCK
    –   ALLOWED FOR NEW NAVIGATIONAL
        METHODS- EVENTUALLY LONGITUDE
l   ASTROLABE- LATITUDE NAVIGATION
l   MORE ACCURATE MAPS
l   GUN POWDER AND NEW WEAPONS
    –   CANNONS AND MUSKETS
CARAVEL
A Viking Ship
PRINTING PRESS
ASTROLABE
NEW WEAPONS
IMPROVED COMPASS
MAJOR NATION- STATES
    INVOLVED IN
   EXPLORATION
           PORTUGAL

WEST AFRICA
PARTS OF ASIA
SOUTH AMERICA (Brazil)

MAJOR EMPHASIS WAS ON TRADE
 GOLD
 SLAVE TRADE-WEST AFRICA
 NEW PRODUCTS AND SPICES
PRINCE HENRY THE
NAVIGATOR OF PORTUGAL
l   National policies
    strongly supported
    exploration and trade
l   Portugal had a long
    tradition of navigation
    and trade
l   Sets up trading ports
    called factories
l   Sets up school for
    navigators
Portuguese Explorers
               l   Bartolomeu Dias 
                   rounds the Cape of 
                   Good Hope. 


               l   Vasco de Gama 
                   reaches India and 
                   returns with a ship 
                   full of goods. 
Spain
l   Envious of 
    Portugal's success, 
    Christopher 
    Columbus 
    convinces the King 
    and Queen to 
    commission a trip 
    west to find a better 
    trade route to India.
l   Tensions between 
    Spain and Portugal 
    grow.
LINE OF DEMARCATION
The Dutch & English
l   Own the largest        l   Elizabeth I, 
    fleet in the world.        established the 
    20,000 vessels             English East India 
l   Dutch East India           Company in a 
    company develop a          attempt to drive the 
    stronger.                  Dutch out.
Confucian culture
l modern concept of political nation state
l Chinese defined by Confucian culture
l civil service exam (605-1905)
  –   social mobility
  –   reward diligence, discipline, and 
      willpower, but not talent or innovation
l law of avoidance
          China Limits European Contacts


The Rise of the Ming
• Hongwu—peasant’s son who leads army that forces 
  Mongols from China
• First Ming emperor, he begins agricultural and 
  government reforms
• His son, Yonglo, becomes next emperor; moves 
  royal court to Beijing
• In 1405, he launches first of voyages of exploration
China Under the Powerful Ming Dynasty

      The Voyages of Zheng He
      • Chinese admiral Zheng He leads seven long 
        voyages
      • Distributes gifts to show China’s superiority


      Ming Relations with Foreign Countries
      • In 1500s, Chinese government controls all 
        contact with outsiders
      • Government policies favor farming over 
        manufacturing and merchants
      • Christian missionaries bring European ideas to 
        China 
 Zheng He’s fleet (1405 - 1433)
l Over 300 ships & 20,000 men
l trade and commerce
l Southeast Asia, South Asia, 
 West Asia, and East Africa
Zheng He’s expeditions
Zhou Man
l He was born into a wealthy merchant 
  family in the year 1378
l when he was six years old, his father 
  died on an overseas voyage to Korea
l  explored wide reaches of the Indian 
  Ocean
l mapped the Pacific coast of North 
  America
    Japan Returns to Isolation

A New Feudalism Under Strong Leaders
Local Lords Rule
• In 1467, civil war destroys old feudal system in 
  Japan
• Period from 1467 to 1568 is called time of the 
  “Warring States” 
• Daimyo—warrior-chieftains—are lords in new feudal 
  system
• Emperor is figurehead with no real   
power
• Daimyo build armies of mounted 
samurai and gun- bearing infantry
Japanese Explorers
l Tanaka Shosuke
  –   important Japanese technician and trader 
      in metals from Kyoto
  –    He is the first recorded Japanese to have 
      travelled to the Americas in 1610 
  –   helped establish trade and diplomatic 
      relations between Japan and the Spanish 
      Empire
Japanese Explorers
l Naomi      Uemura
  –   He was particularly well known for doing 
      alone what had previously been achieved 
      only with large teams. 
       l For example, he was the first person ever to 
         reach the North Pole solo
       l  the first ever to raft the Amazon solo
       l  and the first ever to climb Mount Mckinley 
         solo. 
Japanese Explorers


l Yamada      Nagamasa
  –   adventurer who gained considerable 
      influence in Thailand
  –    helped Japan develop relationships with 
      Siam
Contact Between Europe and Japan
Portugal Sends Ships, Merchants, and Technology
to Japan
• In 1540s, European traders begin arriving; 
  welcomed by Japanese
• European firearms change Japanese way 
  of fighting


Christian Missionaries in Japan
• In 1549, first Christian missionaries arrive
• By 1600, about 300,000 Japanese are Christians
• Japan’s rulers upset by this, ban Christianity
• After 1637 rebellion, Christianity is forbidden in 
  Japan 

                                                        NEXT
Portuguese in Japan
The Atlantic World,
1492–1800
Europeans explore and 
colonize the Americas, 
disrupting native 
civilizations, and build 
the slave trade to 
support plantations in 
the New World.




                            Christopher Columbus, Spanish
                            explorer, as young man.

                                                            NEXT
FERDINAND AND ISABELLA OF SPAIN
  SUPPORTED EXPLORATION AND
          EXPANSION
COLUMBUS- ITALIAN
LED THREE VOYAGES TO THE NEW
WORLD
    Spain Builds an American Empire

The Voyages of Columbus
First Encounters
• Sea captain Christopher Columbus 
  reaches Americas (1492)
• Thinks he is in East Indies, calls natives “los 
  indios”—Indians
• Unable to find gold, he claims many islands for 
  Spain
• In 1493, he sets out for the Americas again with a 
  large fleet
• Spain aims to set up colonies—lands controlled by 
  a foreign nation 
The Voyages of Columbus


Other Explorers Take to the Seas
• Pedro Álvares Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal 
  (1500)
• Amerigo Vespucci identifies South America as new 
  continent (1501)
• In 1507, German mapmaker names the continent 
  America 
• Vasco Núñez de Balboa reaches the Pacific Ocean
• Ferdinand Magellan leaves to sail around the world 
  (1519)
• Magellan is killed, but some of his men return to 
  Spain in 1522 
BALBOA
l   CROSSING THE
    ISTHMUS OF
    PANAMA
    –   First European to
        reach Pacific from
        New World
l   Colonizes the island
    of Hispaniola
MAGELLAN-PORTUGUESE

            l   MAGELLAN DID
                NOT SURVIVE THE
                VOYAGE
            l   OF THE 270 MEN
                WHO BEGAN THE
                VOYAGE AROUND
                THE GLOBE, ONLY
                18 FINISHED THE
                AND RETURNED
                TO SPAIN
VASCO DA GAMA- PORTUGUESE
CORONADO
Spanish Conquests in Mexico
Conquistadors
• In 1519, Hernando Cortés—Spanish 
adventurer— lands in Mexico
• He and others become known as 
conquistadors—Spanish conquerors

Cortés Conquers the Aztecs
• Cortés and 600 men reach Aztec capital of 
  Tenochtitlán
• By 1521, they conquer Aztec empire
• Conquest aided by superior weapons, Native 
  American allies
• European diseases wipe out large numbers of 
  Aztecs
CORTES- SPANISH
Spanish Conquests in Peru

Another Conquistador
• Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro leads force to 
  Peru in 1532
Spain’s Pattern of Conquest
• Spanish men and Native American women have children
• Result is large mestizo—mixed Spanish and native—
  population
• Encomienda system—Spanish force Native Americans 
  to work for them 

The Portuguese in Brazil
  In 1530s, Portuguese settle in Brazil, begin growing 
sugar 
PIZARRO- SPANISH
PIZARRO-CONQUEST OF THE
INCAN EMPIRE IN PERU
INCAN EMPIRE IN PERU
ENCOMIENDA
TRIBUTE LABOR SYSTEM – NATIVE PEOPLES WERE
REQUIRED TO GIVE LABOR TO THE EUROPEAN SETTLERS
MINING
SILVER MINES
AT POTOSI
VAST AMOUNTS OF
  GOLD AND SILVER
  WERE SENT TO SPAIN
  FROM THE NEW
  WORLD
PRIMARY LABOR
  FORCE WAS THE
  INDEGENOUS
  POPULATION
PLANTATIONS-
SUGAR BECAME A MAJOR EXPORT CROP
NATIVE PEOPLES AND AFRICAN SLAVES
WORKED THE FARMS
Spain’s Influence Expands

Growth of Spanish Power
• Conquests in Americas bring great wealth to Spain
• Spain enlarges its navy to protect ships carrying 
  treasure

Conquistadors Push North
• Juan Ponce de León claims Florida for Spain 
(1513)
• In 1540s, Francisco Coronado explores 
Southwest, 
  finds little gold
• Catholic priests set up missions in Southwest
• In early 1600s, Spanish establish capital of 
Santa Fe
Opposition to Spanish Rule
Protests Against Mistreatment
• Catholic priests protest mistreatment of 
Native Americans


African Slavery and Native Resistance
• Spain abolishes encomienda system (1542)
• Need for workers in mines and on farms met with 
  enslaved Africans 
• Some Native Americans resist Spanish conquerors
• In 1680, Popé leads rebellion against Spanish in 
  modern New Mexico
• Spanish driven out, but return 12 years later to stay
Bartolome de Las Casas
                    See page 560 in 
                    your textbook 
                    for opposing 
                    views of 
                    Columbus’s 
                    historic journey.
     European Nations Settle
     North America
Competing Claims in North America

Other European Claims in North America
• French, English, Dutch start colonies in North 
  America

Explorers Establish New France
• Samuel de Champlain founds Quebec
• New France—French colony in North America
• New France includes Great Lakes and Mississippi 
  River valley

A Trading Empire
• New France is very large but has few inhabitants
• Main activity of the colony is the fur trade 
The English Arrive in North America
The First English Colony
• King James permits investors to start North 
  American colony
• In 1607, colonists found Jamestown—English 
  settlement in Virginia
The Settlement at Jamestown
• Early years very difficult; many die, but settlement 
  takes hold
Puritans Create a “New England”
• Pilgrims—group persecuted for religion—found 
  Plymouth in 1620
• Puritans—group seeking religious freedom—settle 
  in Massachusetts
• Many families in Massachusetts colony, 
  which begins to grow 
continued The   English Arrive in North America


The Dutch Found New Netherland
• In 1609, Henry Hudson explores waterways for 
  Dutch
• Dutch claim land, found New Netherland—now 
  Albany and New York City
• Dutch focus on fur trade; welcome settlers from other 
  lands

Colonizing the Caribbean
• European nations also start colonies in 
Caribbean
• Large cotton, sugar plantations worked by 
enslaved Africans
Dutch Trade
The Struggle for North America

The English Oust the Dutch
• New Netherland splits northern, southern English 
  colonies
• In 1664, English force Dutch colonists to 
  surrender control
• By 1750, about 1.2 million English settlers in 13 
colonies
England Battles France
• English settlers, pushing west, collide with French 
  possessions
• French and Indian War—part of Seven Years’ 
  War—begins (1754)
• In 1763, France loses to Britain, gives up its 
  American colonies 
Native Americans Respond

A Strained Relationship
• French and Dutch fur traders get along well with 
  Native Americans
• English settlers and Native Americans disagree 
  over land, religion

Settlers and Native Americans Battle
• Hostility often breaks out into war
• Native American ruler Metacom launches attacks 
  on colonists in 1675

Natives Fall to Disease
• Wars are less deadly to Native Americans than 
  European diseases
• Colonists use enslaved Africans to work in place of 
  Native Americans 
Section 3
The Atlantic Slave Trade
To meet their growing labor needs, 
Europeans enslave millions of Africans in 
the Americas.




                                             NEXT
SLAVE TRADE – WEST
AFRICA Sect. 3
l   African slaves were
    brought to the New
    World to primarily
    work in agriculture
l   Portugal was the
    major slave trading
    European nation
        SECTION

          3       The Atlantic Slave Trade

         The Causes of African Slavery
The Demand for Africans
•   Africans had been exposed 
    to European disease
•   Experienced farmers
•   Could not escape, did not 
    know their way around
•   Skin color made them 
    easier to catch




                                             NEXT
SECTION

  3


 continued The   Causes of African Slavery


 Spain and Portugal Lead the
 Way
 • By 1650, about 300,000 
 enslaved Africans in Spanish 
 colonies
 • Portugal brings many more 
 slaves to sugar plantations in 
 Brazil

                                             NEXT
        SECTION

          3


         Slavery Spreads Throughout the Americas
England Dominates the Slave
Trade
• From 1690 to 1807, 
England dominates slave 
trade
• About 400,000 enslaved 
Africans brought to North 
American colonies
African Cooperation and Resistance
• Many African rulers capture people to 
be sold into slavery
• Later, some rulers protest the trade             NEXT
Number of people enslaved
    •   30 million 
        taken from 
        their homes
        •10 million die during 
        capture phase


        •10 million die 
        during middle 
        passage
        •10 million survive 
        to make it over the 
        ocean

                           69
Phases of the Slave Trade
    l Capture:
      •Most captured 50-100 miles inland

     •Tribes often did not have a choice in helping 
     capture neighbors “divide and conquer”




                     70
Phases of the Slave Trade
    l Capture:




   Cape Coast Castle, Gold Coast, 1727
                                         Christiansborg Castle, Gold Coast, ca. 1750




                                71
Slave Forts
       A Forced Journey

The Triangular Trade
• Triangular trade—trade network linking Europe, 
  Africa, Americas
• One trade route:
  - manufactured goods move from Europe to 
    Africa
  - people move from Africa to Americas
  - sugar, coffee, tobacco move from 
    Americas to Europe




                                                    NEXT
The Middle Passage
l   20% of Africans die
l   No bathroom
l   Very little food
l   Poor medical care
l   Rebellions 
l   Suicide
l   Length of Trip
l   Disease
l   Trauma
  Slavery in the Americas
A Harsh Life
• In Americas, captured Africans sold at 
auction to 
  highest bidder
• Life is difficult: long work hours; poor food, 
  housing, clothing
 




  Resistance and Rebellion
  • Africans maintain musical, cultural traditions
  • Some resist by breaking tools or working 
  slowly
  • Some run away or take part in revolts 

                                                     NEXT
Phases of the Slave Trade
    l WestAfrican expectations about
     slavery:
     •Slaves were not slaves for life

     •A slave’s child would not be a slave




                       78
SECTION

  3


 Consequences of the Slave Trade
 Results in Africa and the Americas
 • African societies suffer from loss of 
 so many people
 • African families disrupted
 • In Americas, labor of enslaved 
 people helps build new societies
 • Enslaved Africans affect culture in    
 Americas
 • Population in Americas changes 


                                             NEXT
Middle Passage
Capture of Slaves
Section 4
The Columbian Exchange
and Global Trade
The colonization of the Americas 
introduces new items into Eastern and 
Western hemispheres.



                                         NEXT
SECTION

  4       The Columbian Exchange and
          Global Trade
 The Columbian Exhange


 The Columbian Exchange
 • Columbian Exchange—global transfer of food, 
   plants, animals
 • Corn, potatoes from Americas become crops in 
   Eastern Hemisphere 
 • New animals, plants introduced by Europeans 
 take hold in Americas
 • European diseases kill millions of Native 
 Americans 



                                                   NEXT
SECTION

  4


 Global Trade
 Changing Economies
 • Wealth from Americas, growth of trade changes 
 business in Europe
 The Rise of Capitalism
 • New economic system—capitalism—based on 
   private property, profit
 • Increase in business leads to inflation—rising 
   in Europe
 • Hauls of gold, silver from Americas cause high 
   inflation in Spain 

 Joint-Stock Companies
 • Joint-stock company lets investors share risk, 
   profits of business
 • These companies help fund colonies in America

                                                     NEXT
SECTION

  4


 The Growth of Mercantilism
 New Economic Policy
 • Policy of mercantilism emphasizes 
 national wealth as source of power
 Balance of Trade
 • One way for nation to increase wealth: gather 
 gold, silver
 • Favorable balance of trade when nation sells 
   more goods than it buys
 • Colonies provide raw materials that home 
 country uses to make goods


                                             Continued . . .
                                                               NEXT
SECTION

  4


 continued The   Growth of Mercantilism


 Economic Revolution Changes
 European Society                         Image




 • Economic changes spur growth 
 of towns, rise of merchant class
 • Still, most people are poor and 
 live in rural areas 



                                                  NEXT

				
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