Nautical Charts

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					                                 SMILE Teachers Workshop
                                      Summer 2006
                                     Nautical Charts

                                Nautical Charts

Adapted from SEA (Sea Education Association) “Lights, Shoals, and Soundings”
compiled and edited by Pat Harcourt and Teri Stanley
http://sea.edu/academics/k12.asp?plan=lightsshoals

Logistical note: These charts are big. You may need to find a room with big tables to
be able to completely spread out the charts.

Introduction:

         This activity revolves around nautical training chart #1210 TR. There is a lot of
new terminology involved in nautical sciences, and the first is that the tool you’re using
is a ‘chart’ not a map. Sailors get annoyed with ‘landlubbers’ who call their sea-tools by
their ‘land’ names. See “Sailor Terms” for other special sailing/nautical terms. This is a
special chart developed for training purposes and has a key to all the symbols used on
this and all other nautical charts on the back. Because it is a training chart it should not
be used for navigation purposes (which shouldn’t be a problem for most of you),
basically the variable information like local magnetic north, and the depths have not
been updated in decades, but that is just fine for learning purposes. This is a chart of
the New England area, but it is the most widely used training chart throughout the
country. Actual charts used for navigation are updated every few years and are much
more expensive than the training charts. If you are actually going out on a ship it is
crucial that you have accurate and up to date charts when in coastal areas.

Background:

      This activity relies heavily on being able to plot latitude and longitude and that
club members are familiar with the degrees and minutes of latitude and longitude.

Latitude: the measurement system for the North-South position of a point on the globe.
The Latitude scale runs from 90˚N at the North Pole to 0˚ at the Equator to 90˚ S at the
South Pole. Southern hemisphere latitudes are often represented as negative so the
South Pole could be - 90˚ N. Latitude lines are parallel to each other, but they are not a
uniform length. Look at a globe and find 0˚, 45˚ and 60˚, either make a visual
comparison, measure around a globe using a string at each of these latitudes, or use
geometry to determine the difference in size of each of these latitude lines. Latitude is
measured in degrees (°), minutes (‘) (60 minutes in a degree), and either seconds (“)
(60 seconds in a minute) or into 1/10, 1/100 of a minute, etc. depending on how exact
the measurement needs to be. A nautical mile is the length of 1’ (one minute) of latitude
AT THE EQUATOR or one minute of longitude. 1 nm = 1.15 mi = 1.852 km
** I remember that latitude lines look like the rungs in a ladder going up the globe.
                                  SMILE Teachers Workshop
                                         Summer 2006
                                         Nautical Charts
Longitude: the measurement system for East-West position. Longitude lines encircle
the earth North-to-South starting with 0° at the Royal Observatory at Greenwich
England and radiate West and East meeting again at 180˚ - the International Date Line
in the Pacific Ocean between Fiji and the Solomon Islands. The International Date Line
is the North-South line where the 12 time zones radiating out from Greenwich meet up
and when it is 12:00 AM August 8th on one side of the line, it is 12:00 M August 9th on
the other side of the line.
        Longitude is linked to time and time zones, and it was very difficult to determine
longitude at sea for thousands of years. Latitude could be found by measuring the
angle of the sun at its highest point and using simple geometry. To determine longitude
you need to know the exact time of your measurement, so before there were precise
time mechanisms that could go out to sea longitude was virtually unknown when you
were out to sea. This was the huge international mystery of the 1700’s. Because
shipping was the main mode of transportation of people and goods there was a huge
prize awarded to the person who developed the chronometer. Dava Sobel chronicles
the story of the quest for accurate time out at sea in the book Longitude. We will be
giving it out at the winter workshop.
         Lines of longitude are all the same length, but are not parallel to each other.
Like degrees of latitude, degrees of longitude are broken into minutes and tenths of
minutes.
** I remember that lines of longitude are LONG.
        To make sure that club members are somewhat familiar with plotting a point on a
chart (or map) a section of the chart is on an overhead sheet so you can demonstrate
how to do this.

Materials:
(materials provided by SMILE in bold)
Training Chart #1210TR (5 per club, for teams of 4)
Overhead of a section of the chart
Straightedge
Compasses (2 per team)
Protractors (2 per team)
Pencils

Procedure:
1. Split club members into teams of 4 per training chart.

2. Pass out charts and give teams time to look at the chart and the symbols on the
back.

3. Go over the basics of orienting to the chart:
      - Place chart so that North is pointing up
      - Identify the area that the chart covers
      - Determine the scale
      - Are depths at high or low tide
                                SMILE Teachers Workshop
                                      Summer 2006
                                     Nautical Charts
4. Pass out activities and have teams work through the problems. If your club
members get into navigation, or you want to do more vector addition and subtraction
problems, there are books of navigation exercises.

Here are a couple of resources:

Onboard Navigation Exercise Book
by David Burch
Paperback, 42 pages, coil bound, 8.5" x 11", (Starpath, 2005, Seattle)
Discounts are available to schools and organizations for multiple purchases.
$24.95
http://www.starpath.com/catalog/books/1930m.htm

Navigation Exercises
by Colin Jones
Synopses & Reviews
Publisher Comments:
Colin Jones. Provides clear and illustrated information on all the most essential areas of
owning and sailing a boat. Topics covered include chartwork, collision regulations,
compass, tides, cruise planning and electronics.
                                 SMILE Teachers Workshop
                                      Summer 2006
                                     Nautical Charts
                         Nautical Chart Exercises
To do these exercises each team will need 2 protractors, 2 compasses, pencils, and
rulers.

First familiarize yourself with the symbols on the back of the chart and the chart itself.
This familiarizing process is often called ‘getting your bearings’ or ‘orienting yourself’ to
the map.

Things to find before you get started on the exercises:
   • The scale of the chart
   • The Compass Roses (there are 3 on this chart). A compass rose or wind rose, is
      a figure displaying the orientation of the cardinal directions, north, south, east
      and west a nautical chart.
          o Why would this chart need 3 compass roses?
   • Refer to your Nautical Terms glossary for terms you are unsure of or look it up on
      the internet.

Exercises:
1. Find Rose Island in Narragansett Bay.
      What kind of navigational aid is on the island?

2. What does “F R 48ft. 12M HORN” mean?

3. Find the lighthouse on Cuttyhunk Island. What does “Qk FI 63ft. 12M” mean?

4. What is the depth of water over Brown’s Ledge in Rhode Island Sound?
     Is this depth at high tide or low tide?

5. If you were to anchor at Brown’s Ledge what would you expect the bottom to be like?

6. What type of bottom is at 41° 09.7’ N x 71° 29.2’ W?
     Would this be a good spot to anchor? Why or why not?

7. How many minutes are there in a degree?

8. How many seconds are there in a minute?

9. How many seconds are in 10.1’?

10. Every minute of latitude (horizontal lines) equals one nautical mile. How many
nautical miles does one second represent?

11. How many nautical miles does 0.5’ represent?
                                SMILE Teachers Workshop
                                       Summer 2006
                                      Nautical Charts
12. What is the areas in square miles of the ”Prohibited Area” around Noman’s Land?
       Hint: measure miles using the latitude markings on the left or right edge of the
chart or the mileage scale at the bottom of the chart. Don’t use longitude markings!


13. Why is the area around Noman’s Land prohibited, can you tell?

14. What kind of navigational aid is at 41°20.9’ N x 70° 50.1’ W?

15. Why wouldn’t you want to anchor at 41° 14.5’ N x 71° 12.6’ W?

16. Describe the navigational aid at 41° 24.2’ N x 70° 51.1’ W.

17. How far is it between the “BUZZARDS” light tower and the RB “VS” whistle buoy?

18. What feature is at 41° 30’ N x 70° 53.9’ W?

19. What navigational feature is at 41° 36.2’ N x 70° 47.5’ W?

20. Give the latitude and longitude of the following:
      Tower on Goosebury Neck
       Brenton Reef light tower
       Gong buoy off the west end of Noman’s Land
       R “10” gong buoy in Buzzards Bay

21. How far is it (in miles or nautical miles) to sail from Woods Hole to Tarpauin Cove?
      In what approximate direction should you travel?

22. How far is it to sail from Woods Hole to the point where you can safely round Sow
and Pigs Reef?

23. If you came across a buoy that was red colored, had a bell, was marked with a 23
and flashed green every two seconds, what symbol and label would you look for on your
chart?

24. VECTOR ADDITION / SUBTRACTION
       How long would it take you to get from the northern-most tip of Block Island to
Newport, RI if your ships maximum speed is 15 knots and there is a 5 knot Southwest
current (currents are named based on where they are going).
                                 SMILE Teachers Workshop
                                        Summer 2006
                                       Nautical Charts
Answer guide to Nautical Charts Exercise:

1. Rose Island has a LIGHTHOUSE and is located at 41° 29.77' N x 71° 20.49' W
2. What does F R 48ft. 12M HORN mean?
It's a lighthouse:
F = fixed – a continuous light
R = red colored light
48ft. = the elevation of the light
12M = range that the light can be seen from the lighthouse
HORN = a horn fog signal

3. Find the lighthouse on Cuttyhunk Island. What does “Qk FI 63ft. 12M” mean?
      Location: 41° 24.8' N x 70° 57' W
      Qk Fl = quick flash ~ 50-60 flashes per minute
      63 ft. = height of the light
      12M = distance visible

4. What is the depth of water over Brown’s Ledge in Rhode Island Sound?
     Is this depth at high tide or low tide?
     Depth = 48 ft at mean low tide (this info is on the left hand side of the chart)

5. If you were to anchor at Brown’s Ledge what would you expect the bottom to be like?
       Rky = rocky (S – Quality of bottom)

6. What type of bottom is at 41° 09.7’ N x 71° 29.2’ W?
       Would this be a good spot to anchor? Why or why not?
       Hrd = hard, no it would not be a good spot to anchor because an anchor needs a soft or
gravelly bottom for the anchor to grab in to.

7. How many minutes are there in a degree?
     60

8. How many seconds are there in a minute?
     60

9. How many seconds are in 10.1’?
     10.1' = 606

10. Every minute of latitude (horizontal lines) equals one nautical mile. How many
nautical miles does one second represent?
       1/60 of a nautical mile = 0.01667 nm (nm = nautical mile)

11. How many nautical miles does 0.5’ represent?
      0.5' = 0.5 nm

12. What is the areas in square miles of the ”Prohibited Area” around Noman’s Land?
                                   SMILE Teachers Workshop
                                          Summer 2006
                                          Nautical Charts
       Hint: measure nautical miles using the latitude markings on the left or right edge
of the chart or the mileage scale at the bottom of the chart. Don’t use longitude
markings!
       Size = 2 1/16 inches East to West by 3 ¼ inches North to South
Using the scale at the bottom – 2 1/16 in = 2.27 nm = 2.6 mi
3 ¼ in = 3.5 nm = 4.0 mi
2.6 mi x 4.0 mi = 10.4 sq. mi.
note: 1 nm = 1.15 mi BUT 1 nm2 ≠ 1.15 sq. mi. 1nm2 = 1.3225 sq. mi.

13. Why is the area around Noman’s Land prohibited, can you tell?
        The note on the chart refers to a book you don't have. However, if you search for
Noman's Land and Massachusetts you will find a webpage discussing the unexploded munitions
on the island.

14. What kind of navigational aid is at 41°20.9’ N x 70° 50.1’ W?
     W Or C "AA" Ra Ref = buoy W Or = special purpose buoy
     C = can or cylindrical shape
     Ra Ref = radar reflector


15. Why wouldn’t you want to anchor at 41° 14.5’ N x 71° 12.6’ W?
     there is an unexploded depth charge there

16. Describe the navigational aid at 41° 24.2’ N x 70° 51.1’ W.
      a light buoy with a whistle


17. How far is it between the “BUZZARDS” light tower and the RB “VS” whistle buoy?
      1.9 nm in the area of 41° 23-24' N x 71° W

18. What feature is at 41° 30’ N x 70° 53.9’ W?
     sunken wreck submerged 20-30 meters below

19. What navigational feature is at 41° 36.2’ N x 70° 47.5’ W?
     Cormorant Rk – square shaped 'day' beacon

20. Give the latitude and longitude of the following:
      Tower on Goosebury Neck
              41°29.1' N. longitude 71°02.3' W.
       Brenton Reef light tower
              41° 25.67' N, 71° 22.67' W
       Gong buoy off the west end of Noman’s Land
              41°15.6' N x 70° 50.05 W
                              SMILE Teachers Workshop
                                    Summer 2006
                                    Nautical Charts
       R “10” gong buoy in Buzzards Bay
       41°32.2'N x 70°47.4'W

21. How far is it (in miles or nautical miles) to sail from Woods Hole to Tarpaulin Cove?
       In what approximate direction should you travel?
~ 5 ¼ nm or 6 miles
Woods Hole – 41°31'N x 70°40'W Tarpaulin Cove (on Naushon Island) 41°28.5'N x 70°45'W

22. How far is it to sail from Woods Hole to the point where you can safely round Sow
and Pigs Reef?
(assume safe sailing outside the blue colored area and leaving Woods Hole from the South and
going through the channel) 13.25 nm

23. If you came across a buoy that was red colored, had a bell, was marked with a 23
and flashed green every two seconds, what symbol and label would you look for on your
chart?

          BELL Fl G 2 sec

24. VECTOR ADDITION / SUBTRACTION
       How long would it take you to get from the northern-most tip of Block Island to
Newport, RI if your ships maximum speed is 15 knots and there is a 5 knot Southwest
current (currents are named based on where they are going).
                        SMILE Teachers Workshop
                             Summer 2006
                            Nautical Charts


 Latitude and Longitude of Towns
         with SMILE Clubs
Town           Latitude Longitude
Cave
Junction       42.06 N 123.24 W
Chiloquin      42.39 N 121.53 W
Corvallis      44.34 N 123.16 W
Dayton         45.22 N 123.08 W
Forest Grove   45.31 N 123.07 W
Madras         44.38 N 121.08 W
Nyssa          43.53 N 116.60 W
Ontario        44.01 N 116.58 W
Pendleton      45.40 N 118.47 W
Siletz         44.72 N 123.92 W
Toledo         44.62 N 123.94 W
Sisters        44.17 N 121.77 W
Willamina      45.08 N 123.49 W
Woodburn       45.09 N 122.52 W
                                   SMILE Teachers Workshop
                                        Summer 2006
                                       Nautical Charts

Nautical Terms

ABAFT - Toward the rear (stern) of the boat. Behind.

ABEAM - At right angles to the keel of the boat, but not on the boat.

ABOARD - On or within the boat.

ABOVE DECK - On the deck (not over it - see ALOFT)

ABREAST - Side by side; by the side of.

ADRIFT - Loose, not on moorings or towline.

AFT - Toward the stern of the boat.

AGROUND - Touching or fast to the bottom.

AHEAD - In a forward direction.

AIDS TO NAVIGATION - Artificial objects to supplement natural landmarks indicating safe and
unsafe waters.

ALEE - Away from the direction of the wind. Opposite of windward.

ALOFT - Above the deck of the boat.

AMIDSHIPS - In or toward the center of the boat.

ANCHORAGE - A place suitable for anchoring in relation to the wind, seas and bottom.

ASTERN - In back of the boat, opposite of ahead.

ATHWARTSHIPS - At right angles to the centerline of the boat; rowboat seats are generally
athwart ships.

AWEIGH - The position of anchor as it is raised clear of the bottom.


BATTEN DOWN - Secure hatches and loose objects both within the hull and on deck.

BEAM - The greatest width of the boat.

BEARING - The direction of an object expressed either as a true bearing as shown on the chart, or
as a bearing relative to the heading of the boat.
                                   SMILE Teachers Workshop
                                           Summer 2006
                                          Nautical Charts
BELAY - to temporarily secure a line without knotting by making one or more 'S' turns (varying
somewhat with synthetic lines) around a cleat or pin

BELOW - Beneath the deck.

BEND - to fasten one line to another or to a spar

BIGHT - The part of the rope or line, between the end and the standing part, on which a knot is
formed.

BILGE - The interior of the hull below the floor boards.

BITTER END - The last part of a rope or chain. The inboard end of the anchor rode.

BLOCK - a mechanical contrivance of one or more grooved pulleys (sheaves) through which turns
of line (falls) are threaded for the purpose of gaining mechanical advantage or changing the direction
of motion

BOAT - A fairly indefinite term. A waterborne vehicle smaller than a ship. One definition is a small
craft carried aboard a ship.

BOAT HOOK - A short shaft with a fitting at one end shaped to facilitate use in putting a line over
a piling, recovering an object dropped overboard, or in pushing or fending off.

BOATSWAIN, alt. BOS'N, pron. BOS'N - top ranking seaman, oversees deck crew, maintenance
and upkeep of the ship except for the engine room and galley areas

BOOT TOP - A painted line that indicates the designed waterline.

BOW - The forward part of a boat.

BOW LINE - A docking line leading from the bow.

BOWLINE - A knot used to form a temporary loop in the end of a line.

BRIDGE - The location from which a vessel is steered and its speed controlled. "Control Station" is
really a more appropriate term for small craft.

BRIDLE - A line or wire secured at both ends in order to distribute a strain between two points.

BRIGHTWORK - Varnished woodwork and/or polished metal.

BULKHEAD - A vertical partition separating compartments.

BUNK - bed, berth
                                SMILE Teachers Workshop
                                       Summer 2006
                                      Nautical Charts
BUOY - An anchored float used for marking a position on the water or a hazard or a shoal and for
mooring.

BURDENED VESSEL - That vessel which, according to the applicable Navigation Rules, must
give way to the privileged vessel. The term has been superseded by the term "give-way".


CABIN - A compartment for passengers or crew.

CAPSIZE - To turn over.

CAPSTAN - a revolving cylindrical device used for heaving in lines

CAST OFF - To let go.

CATAMARAN - A twin-hulled boat, with hulls side by side.

CHAFING GEAR - Tubing or cloth wrapping used to protect a line from chafing on a rough
surface.

CHART - A map for use by navigators.

CHINE - The intersection of the bottom and sides of a flat or v-bottomed boat.

CHOCK - A fitting through which anchor or mooring lines are led. Usually U-shaped to reduce
chafe.

CLEAT - A fitting to which lines are made fast. The classic cleat to which lines are belayed is
approximately anvil-shaped.

CLOVE HITCH - A knot for temporarily fastening a line to a spar or piling.

COAMING - A vertical piece around the edge of a cockpit, hatch, etc. to prevent water on deck
from running below.

COCKPIT - An opening in the deck from which the boat is handled.

COIL - To lay a line down in circular turns.

COURSE - The direction in which a boat is steered.

CROW'S NEST - a lookout or observation station high up on a mast

CUDDY - A small shelter cabin in a boat.

CURRENT - The horizontal movement of water.
                                    SMILE Teachers Workshop
                                         Summer 2006
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DEAD AHEAD - Directly ahead.

DEAD ASTERN - Directly aft.

DECK - A permanent covering over a compartment, hull or any part thereof.

DINGHY - A small open boat. A dinghy is often used as a tender for a larger craft.

DISPLACEMENT - The weight of water displaced by a floating vessel, thus, a boat's weight.

DISPLACEMENT HULL - A type of hull that plows through the water, displacing a weight of
water equal to its own weight, even when more power is added.

DOCK - A protected water area in which vessels are moored. The term is often used to denote a
pier or a wharf.

DOG - heavy latch by which doors, hatches, portholes, etc. are secured; v. to latch

DOLPHIN - A group of piles driven close together and bound with wire cables into a single
structure.

DRAFT - The depth of water a boat draws.

EASE OFF - to slack off or release tension slowly and smoothly

EBB - A receding current.

EYE - a loop or hole which is spliced or tied on the end of a line

FATHOM - Six feet.

FENDER - A cushion, placed between boats, or between a boat and a pier, to prevent damage.

FEND OFF - to prevent touching, in coming or bringing alongside the ship

FIGURE EIGHT KNOT - A knot in the form of a figure eight, placed in the end of a line to
prevent the line from passing through a grommet or a block.

FIX - a vessel's position determined by navigation data

FLARE - The outward curve of a vessel's sides near the bow. A distress signal.

FLOOD - A incoming current.

FLOORBOARDS - The surface of the cockpit on which the crew stand.

FLUKE - The palm of an anchor.
                                   SMILE Teachers Workshop
                                        Summer 2006
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FOLLOWING SEA - An overtaking sea that comes from astern.

FORE-AND-AFT - In a line parallel to the keel.

FOREPEAK - A compartment in the bow of a small boat.

FORWARD - Toward the bow of the boat.

FOULED - Any piece of equipment that is jammed or entangled, or dirtied.

FREEBOARD - The minimum vertical distance from the surface of the water to the gunwale.


GALLEY - The kitchen area of a boat.

GANGWAY - The area of a ship's side where people board and disembark.

GEAR - A general term for ropes, blocks, tackle and other equipment.

GIVE-WAY VESSEL - A term used to describe the vessel which must yield in meeting, crossing, or
overtaking situations.

GRAB RAILS - Hand-hold fittings mounted on cabin tops and sides for personal safety when
moving around the boat.

GROUND TACKLE - A collective term for the anchor and its associated gear.

GUNWALE - The upper edge of a boat's sides.


HARD CHINE - An abrupt intersection between the hull side and the hull bottom of a boat so
constructed.

HATCH - An opening in a boat's deck fitted with a watertight cover.

HAUL - to pull

HEAD - A marine toilet. Also the upper corner of a triangular sail.

HEADING - The direction in which a vessel's bow points at any given time.

HEADWAY - The forward motion of a boat. Opposite of sternway.

HELM - The wheel or tiller controlling the rudder. HELMSPERSON - The person who steers the
boat.
                                 SMILE Teachers Workshop
                                        Summer 2006
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HEAVE - vertical motion of the center of the ship

HEAVE TO - to reduce the power until the ship is just maintaining steerage with little or no
headway, e.g., to perform scientific activities or ride out rough seas

HELM - wheel, tiller; the controls for a vessel's steering apparatus

HITCH - A knot used to secure a rope to another object or to another rope, or to form a loop or a
noose in a rope.

HOLD - A compartment below deck in a large vessel, used solely for carrying cargo.

HULL - The main body of a vessel.


INBOARD - More toward the center of a vessel; inside; a motor fitted inside a boat.

INTRACOASTAL WATERWAY - ICW: bays, rivers, and canals along the coasts (such as the
Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts), connected so that vessels may travel without going into the sea.


JACOBS LADDER - A rope ladder, lowered from the deck, as when pilots or passengers come
aboard.

JETTY - A structure, usually masonry, projecting out from the shore; a jetty may protect a harbor
entrance.


KEEL - The centerline of a boat running fore and aft; the backbone of a vessel.

KNOT - A measure of speed equal to one nautical mile (6076 feet) per hour.

KNOT - A fastening made by interweaving rope to form a stopper, to enclose or bind an object, to
form a loop or a noose, to tie a small rope to an object, or to tie the ends of two small ropes
together.

LADDER - stairway between decks

LASH DOWN - tie down, secure

LATITUDE - The distance north or south of the equator measured and expressed in degrees.

LAZARETTE - A storage space in a boat's stern area.

LEE - The side sheltered from the wind.

LEEWARD - The direction away from the wind. Opposite of windward.
                                   SMILE Teachers Workshop
                                        Summer 2006
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LEEWAY - The sideways movement of the boat caused by either wind or current.

LEG (of a cruise) - the working portion of a cruise between ports. A long cruise may have many
legs

LINE - Rope and cordage used aboard a vessel.

LOG - A record of courses or operation. Also, a device to measure speed.

LONGITUDE - The distance in degrees east or west of the meridian at Greenwich, England.

LUBBER'S LINE - A mark or permanent line on a compass indicating the direction forward parallel
to the keel when properly installed.

MAKE FAST - tie with a line; make secure

MARLINSPIKE - A tool for opening the strands of a rope while splicing.

MASTER - the captain of a vessel

MESS DECK - where meals are eaten

MIDSHIP - Approximately in the location equally distant from the bow and stern.

MOORING - An arrangement for securing a boat to a mooring buoy or a pier.


NAUTICAL MILE - One minute of latitude; approximately 6076 feet - about 1/8 longer than the
statute mile of 5280 feet.

NAVIGATION - The art and science of conducting a boat safely from one point to another.

NAVIGATION RULES - The regulations governing the movement of vessels in relation to each
other, generally called steering and sailing rules.


ON THE BEAM - the direction at right angles to a ship's heading or the line of her keel

ON THE BOW - a direction of forty-five degrees or less from the bow

ON THE QUARTER - a direction of forty-five degrees or less from the stern

OUTBOARD - Toward or beyond the boat's sides. A detachable engine mounted on a boat's stern.

OVERHEAD - nautical equivalent of ceiling
                              SMILE Teachers Workshop
                                     Summer 2006
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OVERBOARD - Over the side or out of the boat.


PAINTER - the line in the bow of a boat for towing or making fast

PART - break, e.g., the line parted under strain

PAY OUT - to let out chain, line, or wire
PIER - A loading platform extending at an angle from the shore.

PILE - A wood, metal or concrete pole driven into the bottom. Craft may be made fast to a pile; it
may be used to support a pier (see PILING) or a float.

PILING - Support, protection for wharves, piers etc.; constructed of piles (see PILE)

PILOTING - Navigation by use of visible references, the depth of the water, etc.

PITCH - angular motion about the athwartships axis of the ship

PLANING - A boat is said to be planing when it is essentially moving over the top of the water
rather than through the water.

PLANING HULL - A type of hull shaped to glide easily across the water at high speed.

PORT - The left side of a boat looking forward. A harbor.

PORTHOLE - circular openings in a ship's hull for ventilation and light

PRIVELEGED VESSEL - A vessel which, according to the applicable Navigation Rule, has right-
of-way (this term has been superseded by the term "stand-on").


QUARTER - The sides of a boat aft of amidships.

QUARTERING SEA - Sea coming on a boat's quarter.

RAIL - top edge of bulwarks

REEVE - to pass a line through a block

RODE - The anchor line and/or chain.

ROLL - angular motion about lengthwise axis of the ship

ROPE - In general, cordage as it is purchased at the store. When it comes aboard a vessel and is put
to use it becomes line.
                                 SMILE Teachers Workshop
                                         Summer 2006
                                        Nautical Charts
RUDDER - A vertical plate or board for steering a boat.

RUN - To allow a line to feed freely.

RUNNING LIGHTS - Lights required to be shown on boats underway between sundown and
sunup.


SATELLITE NAVIGATION - A form of position finding using radio transmissions from satellites
with sophisticated on-board automatic equipment.

SCOPE - Technically, the ratio of length of anchor rode in use to the vertical distance from the bow
of the vessel to the bottom of the water. Usually six to seven to one for calm weather and more
scope in storm conditions.

SCREW - A boat's propeller.

SCUPPERS - Drain holes on deck, in the toe rail, or in bulwarks or (with drain pipes) in the deck
itself.

SEA COCK - A through hull valve, a shut off on a plumbing or drain pipe between the vessel's
interior and the sea.

SEAMANSHIP - All the arts and skills of boat handling, ranging from maintenence and repairs to
piloting, sail handling, marlinespike work, and rigging.

SEA ROOM - A safe distance from the shore or other hazards.

SEAWORTHY - A boat or a boat's gear able to meet the usual sea conditions.

SECURE - To make fast.

SET - Direction toward which the current is flowing.

SHACKLE - a U-shaped fitting with a pin across the open ends, the pin sometimes being threaded
at one end and sometimes held in place with a cotter pin, or both

SHIP - A larger vessel usually thought of as being used for ocean travel. A vessel able to carry a
"boat" on board.

SLACK - Not fastened; loose. Also, to loosen.

SOLE - Cabin or saloon floor. Timber extensions on the bottom of the rudder. Also the molded
fiberglass deck of a cockpit.

SOUNDING - A measurement of the depth of water.
                                    SMILE Teachers Workshop
                                          Summer 2006
                                         Nautical Charts
SPLICE - to join two lines by interweaving and tucking together individual strands in a prescribed
pattern

SPRING LINE - A pivot line used in docking, undocking, or to prevent the boat from moving
forward or astern while made fast to a dock.

SQUALL - A sudden, violent wind often accompanied by rain.

SQUARE KNOT - A knot used to join two lines of similar size. Also called a reef knot.
STANCHION - a movable vertical support for lifeline

STANDING PART - That part of a line which is made fast. The main part of a line as distinguished
from the bight and the end.

STAND-ON VESSEL - That vessel which has right-of-way during a meeting, crossing, or
overtaking situation.

STARBOARD - The right side of a boat when looking forward.

STEERAGEWAY - the minimum amount of speed required to maintain control of the ship with
her rudder

STEM - The forward most part of the bow.

STERN - The after part of the boat.

STERN LINE - A docking line leading from the stern.

STOW - To put an item in its proper place.

SWAB - a rope or twine mop; v. to mop

SWAMP - To fill with water, but not settle to the bottom.


THWARTSHIPS - At right angles to the centerline of the boat.

THIMBLE - a pear-shaped grooved metal fitting around which an eye splice is made

TIDE - The periodic rise and fall of water level in the oceans.

TILLER - A bar or handle for turning a boat's rudder or an outboard motor.

TOPSIDES - The sides of a vessel between the waterline and the deck; sometimes referring to onto
or above the deck.

TRANSOM - The stern cross-section of a square-sterned boat.
                                   SMILE Teachers Workshop
                                        Summer 2006
                                       Nautical Charts

TRIM - Fore and aft balance of a boat.


UNDERWAY - Vessel in motion, i.e., when not moored, at anchor, or aground.


V BOTTOM - A hull with the bottom section in the shape of a "V".

VESSEL - a general term for a floating structure that carries passengers, cargo or both


WAKE - Moving waves, track or path that a boat leaves behind it, when moving across the waters.

WATCH - a work period generally four hours long; also refers to those standing watch as an
individual, pair, or group

WATERLINE - A line painted on a hull which shows the point to which a boat sinks when it is
properly trimmed (see BOOT TOP).

WAY - Movement of a vessel through the water such as headway, sternway or leeway.

WEATHER - toward the point from which the wind blows, as in weather side of the ship, the side
from which the wind is blowing; weather

WINCH - motor-driven drum onto which line or wire is wound; v. to winch onto the drum
WINDWARD - Toward the direction from which the wind is coming.


YACHT - A pleasure vessel, a pleasure boat; in American usage the idea of size and luxury is
conveyed, either sail or power. A boat that is too expensive for an oceanographer to afford.
Personally I think the individual who decided upon the weird spelling of yacht should be shact

YAW - To swing or steer off course, as when running with a quartering sea.