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A survey on the nutritional value of soybean and rapeseed meals and wheat and corn for monogastric feeds has been conducted by Adisseo. Results show great variations in the nutrient value depending on year of harvest, cultivar, geographical origin, and processing conditions. The survey included analysis of the digestible amino acid and apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values using Adisseo’s NIR predictive equations which have been calculated in reference to in vivo digestibility tests.
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ISSN: 1466-3872 www.gfmt.co.uk FEATURE Assessing nutritional value with NIR Results of a survey on the nutritional value of soybean and rapeseed meals and cereals for animal nutrition by Claire Relandeau, solution development manager, Europe Africa Middle East Adisseo, France A survey on the nutritional value of from Argentina soybean and rapeseed meals and contained the wheat and corn for monogastric most, followed feeds has been conducted by Adisseo. by those from the Results show great variations in the USA, then those nutrient value depending on year of from Brazil and harvest, cultivar, geographical origin, and finally, with the processing conditions. The survey included least, those from analysis of the digestible amino acid and India (Figure 1). apparent metabolizable energy (AME) values using Adisseo’s NIR predictive Are you equations which have been calculated in sure about reference to in vivo digestibility tests. the value of your soybean In 2012, Adisseo conducted a large sur- meal? Figure 1: Digestible lysine contents of soybean meal depend vey of the nutritional content of soybean and Even for a on crude protein and country of origin rapeseed meals in Europe over a 6-week well-characterised period. Great heterogeneity was observed, product, great with variation coefficients ranging from 3 variations in nutri- percent to 8 percent for the main com- tional content ponents: crude protein, total and digestible were observed. lysine, total and phytic phosphorus and AME. Soybean meal 48 Highest variations were observed for AME ProFat is supposed of soybean meals, and digestible amino acid to contain 48 per- contents of rapeseed meals (Table 1). cent crude protein + fat, with com- An important influence of the parable digestible country of origin amino acid and In 170 samples of soybean meals collect- energy contents. In ed over a 6-week period from 13 countries fact, the Adisseo in Europe and America, crude protein con- study showed that tent ranged from 44 percent to 51 percent crude protein con- and total lysine from 2.54% to 3.01%. The tent varied by 1-2 lysine to crude protein ratio depended on percentage points Figure 2: Apparent metabolisable energy content of soybean the country of origin. and digestible meal 48 ProFat is highly variable Is this a botanical or cultural effect? It amino acid con- is difficult to say without further investiga- tent by 4-5 per- tion, but observations are clear; for similar cent. The most variable nutrient was AME extent they perceive is necessary to create crude protein contents, samples coming with variations between 80 to 120 kcal/kg. a protein + fat content of 48 percent. The from Argentina had higher lysine levels than The oil content is not the main cause of higher the initial protein content of the bean, samples coming from Brazil and the USA. the variation in AME. Crude fibre explains a the higher the amount of hulls to be added, Interestingly, lysine digestibility was higher part of it. Let’s explain why. To manufacture and the higher the crude fibre content as in US samples, as reported by Mateos et soybean meal 48 ProFat, the crushers can well. We achieve a paradox where better al. (2010). Consequently regarding the total decide to dehull the beans before extracting seeds may result in meals of lower nutrient content of digestible lysine, soybean meals the oil. They then add back the hulls to an interest. 40 | may - June 2013 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy FEATURE contents for monogas- €/t of feed,” calculates Elisabeth Bourgueil, Table 1: variations in nutrient values of oilseed meals* trics should be the first technical manager France, Iberia and Italy, Min < Mean < Max Soybean meals Rapeseed meals reflex, but privileging Adisseo. (n=170) (n=118) the raw materials with Chemical components the lowest levels of Rapeseed meal quality affected fibre is not a guaran- by crushing process tee of high nutritional Rapeseed meal quality also depends on Crude protein (%) 44 < 48 < 51 31 < 35 < 39 value. the country of production and crushing Total lysine (%) 2.54 < 2.83 < 3.01 1.53 < 1.81 < 2.03 Aurélie Preynat, plants. Total phosphorus (%) 0.48 < 0.64 < 0.73 0.97 < 1.03 < 1.11 enzyme research In this 2012 survey, rapeseed meals pro- manager, Adisseo duced in Germany appeared to have higher Phytic phosphorus (%) 0.31 < 0.42 < 0.51 0.77 < 0.85 < 0.93 and author of several non-phytic to phytic phosphorus ratios than Non phytic phosphorus (%) 0.14 < 0.22 < 0.30 0.08 < 0.18 < 0.23 reports on the effi- those produced in France, suggesting higher Nutrients cacy of multi enzyme available phosphorus values. On average, Rovabio in soybean digestible lysine contents are also higher. meal, says, “Indeed Differences within a country are however Lysine digestibility (%) 85 < 88 < 91 72 < 75 < 80 fibres do not act only as high as between countries. Repeated sam- Digestible lysine (%) 2.24 < 2.49 < 2.66 1.10 < 1.36 < 1.59 as nutrient diluent. pling of six French rapeseed meal factories Their complex con- over a one-month period showed for exam- Metabolisable energy (kcal/kg) 2055 < 2363 < 2517 n.d. stituents, such as man- ple that lysine digestibility ranges between * All analyses performed with NIR nans, pectins, xylans, 72 and 80 percent and is very plant specific and cellulose, also (Figure 3). Energy value is somewhat correlated specifically decrease This analysis shows an important effect with fibre content, but the linear regression energy and amino acid digestibility. Our of suppliers, especially for digestible amino from fibre to energy content is not precise NIRs service is an efficient tool to rapidly acid contents. The method using regressions enough to be used in formulation: with 5 and efficiently monitor the nutrients really to predict digestible amino acid content percent crude fibre content, a soybean meal available to the poultry.” based on crude protein content is unable can contain 2300 or 2450 kcal AME/ Kg “The commercial nomination 48 ProFat to reflect these differences. Introducing NIR (Figure 2). This 150 Kcal difference, picked is not sufficient for precise nutrition and calibrations for digestible amino acids in up by PNE, Adisseo NIRs Service, would optimised feed production. More effi- quality control plans at raw material recep- correspond to a soybean meal shadow price cient characterisation and selection of tion is therefore a step forward to optimise difference of 45 €/ T. the ingredients, based on their nutritional ingredient purchases and proper use in feed In practice, excluding high crude fibre values, can result in savings as high as 10 formulations. 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PNE for wheat and corn Nutritionists also need Precise Nutrition Evaluation for wheat and corn. In 2009 and 2010, Adisseo also carried out a large survey of 300 samples of wheat and corn collected from 19 countries from Europe and Africa. The aim was to measure the nutritional profile of cereals according to harvest and country. All samples were analysed for their nutrient content, digest- ible amino acid concentrations and AME Figure 3: Rapeseed meal digestibility is pretty much affected by the using NIR. manufacturing process. Different symbols represent rapeseed meals from The concentrations of digestible crushing plants (29 samples from 6 crushing plants) lysine in wheats ranged from 0.23 to 0.32 g/100 g, with a significant effect of Figure 4: NIR analysis as shortcuts for in vivo nutrient value measurements Apparent Metabolisable Energy gives the possibility to go one step further, geographical origin. For AME, Eastern “Digestible lysine content is a key with the measurement of the real digestible countries exhibited the lowest content marker of quality of rapeseed meals. We amino acid and AME values. (from 2,786 to 2,860 Kcal/kg) whereas have similar findings in DDGS, the by For 15 years, Adisseo has been work- the highest concentrations were found in products of ethanol production, and this ing on the correlations existing between the northern countries (2,880 to 2,923 observation may be applied to a larger feedstuff NIR spectra and in vivo data, Kcal/kg). range of processed feedstuffs”, says Cécile obtained in vivo digestibility trials con- Amino acids and AME contents of corn Gady, Adisseo NIRs and feedstuff man- ducted at their research facility CERN in showed a similar level of variability, with a ager, Adisseo. France. significant country effect. AME ranged from The outcome? 400 equations provid- 3367 Kcal/ kg in Romania and Spain to 3,441 400 equations provide precise ing the most precise values on total Kcal/kg in Germany and Argentina. This values and digestible amino acids, AME, total observation may be due to the interaction This large-scale study illustrates that clas- and phytic phosphorus and the possibil- of many factors, including grain growing and sical laboratory analyses and knowledge of ity to estimate, on a routine basis, those drying conditions. the origin of the raw material are a first most costly nutrients in monogastric diets steps in feedstuff characterisations, but they (Figure 4). are not sufficient to get a good prediction These NIRs analyses are useful to ensure More inforMation: of nutritional contents. Precise Nutrition that diets provide the expected nutrients at Website: www.adisseo.com Evaluation (PNE), the Adisseo NIR service, the lowest cost. 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