Assessing nutritional value with NIR by GFMT

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                             May | June 2013
       Assessing nutritional value with NIR

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                        www.gfmt.co.uk
     FEATURE




                                                              Assessing nutritional
                                                                   value with NIR
                                                          Results of a survey on the nutritional
                                                          value of soybean and rapeseed meals
                                                                and cereals for animal nutrition

                                                                                         by Claire Relandeau, solution
                                                                                  development manager, Europe Africa
                                                                                          Middle East Adisseo, France




A
        survey on the nutritional value of       from Argentina
        soybean and rapeseed meals and           contained       the
        wheat and corn for monogastric           most, followed
feeds has been conducted by Adisseo.             by those from the
Results show great variations in the             USA, then those
nutrient value depending on year of              from Brazil and
harvest, cultivar, geographical origin, and      finally, with the
processing conditions. The survey included       least, those from
analysis of the digestible amino acid and        India (Figure 1).
apparent metabolizable energy (AME)
values using Adisseo’s NIR predictive            Are you
equations which have been calculated in          sure about
reference to in vivo digestibility tests.        the value of
                                                 your soybean
    In 2012, Adisseo conducted a large sur-      meal?                      Figure 1: Digestible lysine contents of soybean meal depend
vey of the nutritional content of soybean and        Even for a                                    on crude protein and country of origin
rapeseed meals in Europe over a 6-week           well-characterised
period. Great heterogeneity was observed,        product,       great
with variation coefficients ranging from 3       variations in nutri-
percent to 8 percent for the main com-           tional      content
ponents: crude protein, total and digestible     were observed.
lysine, total and phytic phosphorus and AME.     Soybean meal 48
Highest variations were observed for AME         ProFat is supposed
of soybean meals, and digestible amino acid      to contain 48 per-
contents of rapeseed meals (Table 1).            cent crude protein
                                                 + fat, with com-
An important influence of the                    parable digestible
country of origin                                amino acid and
    In 170 samples of soybean meals collect-     energy contents. In
ed over a 6-week period from 13 countries        fact, the Adisseo
in Europe and America, crude protein con-        study showed that
tent ranged from 44 percent to 51 percent        crude protein con-
and total lysine from 2.54% to 3.01%. The        tent varied by 1-2
lysine to crude protein ratio depended on        percentage points          Figure 2: Apparent metabolisable energy content of soybean
the country of origin.                           and       digestible                                      meal 48 ProFat is highly variable
    Is this a botanical or cultural effect? It   amino acid con-
is difficult to say without further investiga-   tent by 4-5 per-
tion, but observations are clear; for similar    cent. The most variable nutrient was AME extent they perceive is necessary to create
crude protein contents, samples coming           with variations between 80 to 120 kcal/kg.        a protein + fat content of 48 percent. The
from Argentina had higher lysine levels than         The oil content is not the main cause of higher the initial protein content of the bean,
samples coming from Brazil and the USA.          the variation in AME. Crude fibre explains a the higher the amount of hulls to be added,
Interestingly, lysine digestibility was higher   part of it. Let’s explain why. To manufacture and the higher the crude fibre content as
in US samples, as reported by Mateos et          soybean meal 48 ProFat, the crushers can well. We achieve a paradox where better
al. (2010). Consequently regarding the total     decide to dehull the beans before extracting seeds may result in meals of lower nutrient
content of digestible lysine, soybean meals      the oil. They then add back the hulls to an interest.

40 | may - June 2013                                                                                      Grain &feed millinG technoloGy
                                                                                                                                             FEATURE


                                                                                   contents for monogas-       €/t of feed,” calculates Elisabeth Bourgueil,
Table 1: variations in nutrient values of oilseed meals*
                                                                                   trics should be the first   technical manager France, Iberia and Italy,
    Min < Mean < Max                 Soybean meals           Rapeseed meals        reflex, but privileging     Adisseo.
                                        (n=170)                   (n=118)          the raw materials with
       Chemical components                                                         the lowest levels of        Rapeseed meal quality affected
                                                                                   fibre is not a guaran-      by crushing process
                                                                                   tee of high nutritional         Rapeseed meal quality also depends on
            Crude protein (%)        44 < 48 < 51              31 < 35 < 39        value.                      the country of production and crushing
               Total lysine (%)    2.54 < 2.83 < 3.01      1.53 < 1.81 < 2.03           Aurélie Preynat,       plants.
         Total phosphorus (%)      0.48 < 0.64 < 0.73      0.97 < 1.03 < 1.11
                                                                                   enzyme         research         In this 2012 survey, rapeseed meals pro-
                                                                                   manager,        Adisseo     duced in Germany appeared to have higher
       Phytic phosphorus (%)       0.31 < 0.42 < 0.51      0.77 < 0.85 < 0.93      and author of several       non-phytic to phytic phosphorus ratios than
  Non phytic phosphorus (%)        0.14 < 0.22 < 0.30      0.08 < 0.18 < 0.23      reports on the effi-        those produced in France, suggesting higher
                      Nutrients
                                                                                   cacy of multi enzyme        available phosphorus values. On average,
                                                                                   Rovabio in soybean          digestible lysine contents are also higher.
                                                                                   meal, says, “Indeed             Differences within a country are however
        Lysine digestibility (%)     85 < 88 < 91              72 < 75 < 80        fibres do not act only      as high as between countries. Repeated sam-
          Digestible lysine (%)    2.24 < 2.49 < 2.66      1.10 < 1.36 < 1.59      as nutrient diluent.        pling of six French rapeseed meal factories
                                                                                   Their complex con-          over a one-month period showed for exam-
Metabolisable energy (kcal/kg) 2055 < 2363 < 2517                   n.d.           stituents, such as man-     ple that lysine digestibility ranges between
* All analyses performed with NIR                                                  nans, pectins, xylans,      72 and 80 percent and is very plant specific
                                                                                   and cellulose, also         (Figure 3).
         Energy value is somewhat correlated                                       specifically decrease           This analysis shows an important effect
     with fibre content, but the linear regression           energy and amino acid digestibility. Our          of suppliers, especially for digestible amino
     from fibre to energy content is not precise             NIRs service is an efficient tool to rapidly      acid contents. The method using regressions
     enough to be used in formulation: with 5                and efficiently monitor the nutrients really      to predict digestible amino acid content
     percent crude fibre content, a soybean meal             available to the poultry.”                        based on crude protein content is unable
     can contain 2300 or 2450 kcal AME/ Kg                       “The commercial nomination 48 ProFat          to reflect these differences. Introducing NIR
     (Figure 2). This 150 Kcal difference, picked            is not sufficient for precise nutrition and       calibrations for digestible amino acids in
     up by PNE, Adisseo NIRs Service, would                  optimised feed production. More effi-             quality control plans at raw material recep-
     correspond to a soybean meal shadow price               cient characterisation and selection of           tion is therefore a step forward to optimise
     difference of 45 €/ T.                                  the ingredients, based on their nutritional       ingredient purchases and proper use in feed
         In practice, excluding high crude fibre             values, can result in savings as high as 10       formulations.




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                                                                                                    should be a concern shared by all func-
                                                                                                    tions: quality manager, nutritionist and buyer.
                                                                                                    Especially when feedstuffs are so expensive,
                                                                                                    it is important to ensure you are purchasing
                                                                                                    the right feedstuff for the right objective at
                                                                                                    the right price.

                                                                                                    PNE for wheat and corn
                                                                                                        Nutritionists also need Precise Nutrition
                                                                                                    Evaluation for wheat and corn. In 2009 and
                                                                                                    2010, Adisseo also carried out a large
                                                                                                    survey of 300 samples of wheat and corn
                                                                                                    collected from 19 countries from Europe
                                                                                                    and Africa. The aim was to measure the
                                                                                                    nutritional profile of cereals according to
                                                                                                    harvest and country. All samples were
                                                                                                    analysed for their nutrient content, digest-
                                                                                                    ible amino acid concentrations and AME
                Figure 3: Rapeseed meal digestibility is pretty much affected by the                using NIR.
            manufacturing process. Different symbols represent rapeseed meals from                      The concentrations of digestible
                               crushing plants (29 samples from 6 crushing plants)                  lysine in wheats ranged from 0.23 to
                                                                                                    0.32 g/100 g, with a significant effect of




                                                                                              Figure 4: NIR analysis as shortcuts for in vivo
                                                                                                              nutrient value measurements


 Apparent Metabolisable Energy                      gives the possibility to go one step further,   geographical origin. For AME, Eastern
   “Digestible lysine content is a key              with the measurement of the real digestible     countries exhibited the lowest content
marker of quality of rapeseed meals. We             amino acid and AME values.                      (from 2,786 to 2,860 Kcal/kg) whereas
have similar findings in DDGS, the by                   For 15 years, Adisseo has been work-        the highest concentrations were found in
products of ethanol production, and this            ing on the correlations existing between        the northern countries (2,880 to 2,923
observation may be applied to a larger              feedstuff NIR spectra and in vivo data,         Kcal/kg).
range of processed feedstuffs”, says Cécile         obtained in vivo digestibility trials con-          Amino acids and AME contents of corn
Gady, Adisseo NIRs and feedstuff man-               ducted at their research facility CERN in       showed a similar level of variability, with a
ager, Adisseo.                                      France.                                         significant country effect. AME ranged from
                                                        The outcome? 400 equations provid-          3367 Kcal/ kg in Romania and Spain to 3,441
400 equations provide precise                       ing the most precise values on total            Kcal/kg in Germany and Argentina. This
values                                              and digestible amino acids, AME, total          observation may be due to the interaction
    This large-scale study illustrates that clas-   and phytic phosphorus and the possibil-         of many factors, including grain growing and
sical laboratory analyses and knowledge of          ity to estimate, on a routine basis, those      drying conditions.
the origin of the raw material are a first          most costly nutrients in monogastric diets
steps in feedstuff characterisations, but they      (Figure 4).
are not sufficient to get a good prediction             These NIRs analyses are useful to ensure      More inforMation:
of nutritional contents. Precise Nutrition          that diets provide the expected nutrients at       Website: www.adisseo.com
Evaluation (PNE), the Adisseo NIR service,          the lowest cost. Knowing one’s raw materials

42 | may - June 2013                                                                                          Grain &feed millinG technoloGy
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