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May | June 2013
Feed focus - POULTRY
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play a vital role in this high grain price situation Metabolizable energy content
to formulate the least cost diets for poultry. Several studies provide estimates of the
DDGS is a co-product of ethanol production metabolizable energy (ME) content of DDGS
plants that use corn for manufacturing. for poultry. Lumpkins et al. (2004) reported
During the yeast fermentation in ethanol that the TMEn content of a single DDGS
plants, corn is ground, mixed with water, sample was 2,905 kcal/kg. In a later study, the
cooked and the liquefied starch from this same group determined the TMEn content
process is hydrolyzed and fermented to of 17 different DDGS samples representing
cheap and nutritious produce ethanol and CO2. As a result, the
non-fermentable components of this process
products from six different ethanol plants.
They determined that the TMEn contents
food for poultry which are rich in essential nutrients such as
protein, fat, fibre, vitamins and minerals are
ranged from 2,490 to 3,190 kcal/kg with a
mean value of 2,820 kcal/kg and an associated
recovered in a highly concentrated form as coefficient of variation of 6.4% (Batal and
by Hossan MD Salim PhD, distillers dried grains with solubles. Dale, 2006).
Upazila livestock officer, Although distillers dried grains have been Fastinger et al. (2006) concluded that the
DLS, Bangladesh and used by the poultry industry for some time, TMEn content of DDGS averaged 2,871 kcal/
University of Manitoba, recently a renaissance in the use of DDGS has kg and had considerable variation among the
Canada been observed in the USA and also around the samples. Furthermore, a large variation in TMEn
world. This is due to the rapid escalation in its values of DDGS were also reported by Parsons
production as well as its improved quality when et al. (2006), who determined the mean TMEn
derived from the new generation ethanol plants. value of 20 DDGS at 2,863 kcal/kg ± 224 kcal/kg.
he world grain price is increasing day Therefore, in the light of the large production of It was hypothesized that energy in corn DDGS
by day and the industry is facing several corn DDGS entering the USA, and other over- would not vary if samples were derived from
challenges to produce good quality seas markets, the aim of this topic is to provide ethanol plants using similar production technolo-
animal products with a reasonable price for a compendium of information to the people gies and corn that is grown in a proximate geo-
consumers. Similarly, the poultry industry involved with the industry regarding nutritional graphical location. Therefore, nutritionists should
in Bangladesh is also fighting with high value of corn DDGS for poultry. be cautious of the fiber content and sources of
grain prices to maintain its production with data for DDGS ME values, as well as energy vari-
marginal profit. Small and medium poultry Nutrient contents and availability ability when formulating diets for poultry.
farm owners are mainly affected and losing of DDGS for poultry
their capital investment in this sector. Corn DDGS contain all the nutrients from Amino acid content
grain in a concentrated form except for the Dale and Batal (2005) reported that CP
The increased cost and the limited supply majority of the starch, which has been utilized content of corn DDGS can vary from 24
of conventional grains have made it necessary in the fermentation process. Therefore, it can percent to 29 percent. In our laboratory we
to focus research and extend efforts towards be a rich source of crude protein (CP), amino assessed CP content on 395 corn DDGS
the potential utilization of energy and proteins acids, P and other nutrients in poultry diets. samples imported to Korea from the USA,
from several grain by-products which are Reliable values for the nutrient content of and the average CP content was 27.15%
cheaper with high nutritive values. Corn dis- feed constituents are essential to create more (23.87-30.41) with 3.72% coefficient of vari-
tillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) can precise diet formulations for poultry. ation. Batal and Dale (2006) found that CP
26 | may - June 2013 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy
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content of DDGS ranged between 23 per- concentration of
cent and 32 percent. Spiehs et al. (2002) have carotene and xan-
evaluated nutrient level of DDGS originating thophylls was 8.58
from ten new ethanol plants in Minnesota and
South Dakota, and also found that the CP
and 36.72 ppm,
Hydronix Moisture Sensors
Save You Money
accounted for 30.2%, and lysine and methio- the typical corn
nine for 0.85% and 0.55%, respectively. The and soybean-based
high variability among DDGS sources was commercial poultry
found mainly for the two limiting amino acids diet does not sup-
for poultry, lysine and methionine. ply the necessary Hydronix digital, microwave moisture sensors provide
Reese and Lewis (1989) showed that corn amount and type accurate and cost effective moisture measurement n feed
produced in Nebraska in 1988 varied in CP of xanthophylls to meals and pellets, grain, cereal and pulses.
from 7.8 to 10%, and 0.22 to 0.32% in lysine produce the deep
content. Differences in production technology yellow color in
provide almost as much variation within one the egg yolk and Hydro-Probe XT
source of corn as there is between different skin, DDGS can be
plants. Parsons et al. (1983) conducted five a good source of
trials that aimed to evaluate the protein qual- these pigments as
ity of DDGS and concluded that when DDGS long as they have
is fed to growing chicks as the sole source of not been over-
dietary protein, tryptophan closely followed heated during the
by arginine are the second and third limiting production process.
amino acids respectively, after lysine. Although
DDGS was limiting in tryptophan and arginine Other
it was found that the overall protein quality of nutrients
DDGS could be improved greatly by lysine DDGS is not
supplementation for growing chicks. only a good source
of energy, amino
Mineral composition acids and minerals
A laboratory analysis of corn DDGS from the but also, can be a
Our sensors are successfully used in many applications to
US showed that DDGS can be a good source of rich source of water
P (0.76 %), Zn (57.26 ppm), K (0.91 ppm), and soluble vitamins and ensure product quality, maximise yield and save energy.
other minerals. Phosphorus content in DDGS other nutrients that Typical uses include:
has been reported at 0.72% and varies widely are present in the
from 0.48 to 0.91%. Similarly, Spiehs et al. (2002) corn used for the • Controlling the moisture in the grain drying process to
reported the P variation in DDGS ranged from ethanol produc- save energy and ensure quality
0.59 to 0.95 %. This large difference in P content tion. D’Ercole et al. • Optimising the efficiency of expensive additives such
derives partially from its variation in corn grain and (1939) reported as mould inhibitors
amount of starch residue in DDGS. that DDGS is a • Controlling moisture content during the pelleting
However, the technological process of good source of ribo- process
ethanol production can also significantly con- flavin and thiamine.
tribute to its content and variation. It has DDGS also contain
been suggested that the total P content may some biologically
be even higher than 0.72% in some sources active substances Hydro-Mix VII
of DDGS if produced in new ethanol plants. such as nucleotides,
Moreover, the rate of addition of solubles to mannan oligosach-
the wet grains prior to drying affects the P arides, β-1, 3 or 1,
content, because the solubles contain more 6 glucan, inositol,
than three times as much P as do the wet glutamine and nucle-
grains. ic acids, which have
a beneficial effect on
Pigment content immune responses
Corn grain contains about 20 ppm of and the health of
xanthophylls and it is expected that corn animals. Therefore,
DDGS may by a good source of xantho- to reduce the feed
phylls pigment, due to the concentration of cost and to make
the pigment during the production process. a balanced diet for
However, the actual xanthophylls content poultry, DDGS Hydronix sensors are:
may be lower in DDGS because of heat would be a viable • Suitable for chutes, silos, mixers or conveyors
destruction during drying. Roberson et al. alternative energy
(2005) analysed two DDGS samples and grain source for • Not affected by dust or colour
observed 29.75 ppm of xanthophylls in the feed industry in • Temperature stable
one of the samples, but only 3.48 ppm in Bangladesh.
another, dark colored sample
which was considered to be
heat damaged. This article was originally published on
By analysing 16 samples
of DDGS deriving from firstname.lastname@example.org
US in our laboratory, we www.hydronix.com
showed that the average
Grain &feed millinG technoloGy GFMT half page vertical 90 x 270 plus 3mm bleed not left.indd 1
may - June 2013 | 27
sparing for efficiency
and the environment
by Murray Hyden
CBiol, MSB director of
biosecurity, Anpario plc,
nimals do not have a crude protein
requirement, they have a require-
ment for amino acids and it is
the responsibility of the nutritionist to
get the ratios correct. Amino acids from
feed are the building blocks of proteins
and there are twenty-two of them
used in the building of animal protein.
Although poultry can synthesise some,
there are some serious ‘essential’ amino
acids that can become limiting.
raw material. Yet raw material amino acid achieved there will be performance implica-
Supplementation with these ‘essential’ content is a big issue this year, especially tions. Simply adding more supplementary
amino acids is now common place and with wheat and soya, due to variations in amino acids can lead to other problems, as
incorrect supplementation will result in weather, location, variety and fertiliser use. surplus amino acids in the gut are a threat to
either a shortfall of one, or a surplus of sev- We can only use the algorithms we have and health and the environment.
eral. This problem has become more acute try to ensure that the amino acid profiles of
since the reduction of animal protein in diets complete feeds are optimised. Non-nutritional problems
and a reliance on soya and other vegetable Indeed, it is often better to reduce associated with amino acids
protein sources with a poorer match to protein levels and increase fibre levels if in Surplus amino acids can result in two
animal amino acid requirements. doubt. Dr Peter Scott, senior research fellow different problems:
While soya is a good source of protein at the University of Melbourne, Australia, 1. When energy levels are limiting,
when combined with corn, this combina- calls for more attention on nutrition and gut bacterial growth in the hindgut by
tion is limiting in the essential amino acids health, such as fibre levels in feed. “It’s there commensal microflora will stop
such as lysine, methionine, threonine and in black and white: If you maintain adequate allowing proteolitic pathogens such as
tryptophan. However, there is often a lack of fibre levels in your feed, you’ll achieve better Clostridium to flourish.
data on the precise amino acid composition coccidiosis control and by default, better Clostridia exist in all chickens. The
of the raw materials being used. necrotic enteritis control,” he argues. growth of Clostridia is however only a
It is unrealistic to analyse every batch of If a correct balance of amino acids is not problem following coccidial or bacterial
infection where blood and damaged
tissue prevail in the intestine.
The faster growth rates in modern
poultry may exaccerbate the problem
further because the rate of proteolyis
in the stomach may be insufficient to
release all the amino acids from the
proteins resulting in more protein in the
2. If proteins are not deaminated in the
gut then they are excreted and will
contribute to the ‘greenhouse gas’ load
associated with livestock production.
The problem of hindgut deamination is
the release of ammonia or nitrous oxide
(N2O) in the faeces with the the FAO
stating that atmospheric emissions of
ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O)
and methane (CH4) associated with
animal waste are a worldwide problem
Adding one tonne of lysine allows a reduction in soya and slightly increase in and may contribute to a detrimental
maize without affecting the nutritional balance.
impact on the environment. High
28 | may - June 2013 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy
than adults. Males utilise amino acids more
efficiently than females and extraneous die-
tary factors such as fibre and phytase induce
digestive stress, hampering protein utilisation.
The effect of weather
When all these points are taken into
consideration there are other factors that
impact on performance. Adverse weather
conditions both pre and post-harvest result
in higher than normal levels of mycotoxins.
Mould activity during storage depletes
amino acids in both raw materials and
finished feeds. In artificially moistened feeds
between 1-3 percent lysine and 19-26 per-
cent methionine could be lost to fungal activ-
ity alone (Dr Olayinka Akine 2012). Indeed,
Kiotechagil Mycostat can effectively stop
mould growth in raw materials and feeds.
ammonia levels in poultry housing also Other protein sources are also being In storage, moulds like Aspergillus pro-
directly impacts performance. used such as rapeseed and rapeseed meal, duce mycotoxins that alter amino acid uti-
sunflower meal, cottonseed meal and more lisation at the intestinal and cellular level,
Saving the environment exotic ingredients such as palm kernel meal especially the sulphur containing amino acids.
Both these problems could be resolved by and copra meal. Each of these protein Birds fed 2-4 ppm Aflatoxin or Ochratoxin
careful adjustment of the amino acid balance. sources has a different amino acid profile, A had a 51-133 percent reduction in pro-
Such attention to detail would have consider- different digestibility and would require dif- tein efficiency but when both toxins were
able cost benefits by reducing land usage ferent supplementation. present at 1-4 ppm, protein efficiency was
requirements. Ajinomoto, the Japanese food Amino acids such as methionine, lysine depressed by 79-127 percent. These effects
and chemical corporation, has determined and threonine are among the most expen- are due to suppression of enzymatic activity,
that correct supplementation of lysine to sive nutrients in the feed ration and wasting disruption to intestinal transport, attenuation
maize/soya based rations could mean that for them has economic costs and biological of cellular protein synthesis and modification
every tonne of lysine used there could be a consequences. to gut functionalities.
saving of 12 hectares of land that could be Also remember that young animals Amino acids, including tryptophan and
rechanneled to alternative production. metabolise amino acids at higher efficiency arginine, are required to feed into the
innOVaTiOn DisTinguishes BeTween a leaDer anD a FOllOwer.
How are you going to navigate the ever-changing dietary landscape?
Today’s dietary demands are literally all over the board. While some
consumers are demanding nutritious foods that are quick and easy to
prepare, others desire protein-rich food that fits a low-carb or vegetar-
ian lifestyle. Still others are simply looking for enough affordable food
to feed a growing population. At Wenger, we partner with food compa-
nies to develop the processes and products they require to meet world
consumer’s specific nutrition demands. Within our world-renowned
Technical Center, we provide unmatched expertise for development
challenges, whether it be for foods that are ready-to-eat,
gluten-free, protein enhanced, heart healthy or have a
low-glycemic index. And the list goes on.
Contact us now. With new concepts and fresh ini-
tiatives, we’re ready to help you meet the ever-
changing requirements of the food industry.
Turning ideas into opportunities.
PrOgressiVe FOOD PrOCessing
What will tomorrow bring
Belgium Taiwan Brasil China Turkey inDia
&feed millinG technoloGy
Grain 2013 4:42
may - June 5/30/13| 29 PM
acid production will result 40 kg/t.
in less pepsin activity, lead- - Molecular weight of calcium carbonate
ing to protein escape to (CaCO3) = 100.09
the hind gut. Clostridia can - 1 mole = 100.09 g so 40 kg = 399.64
utilise unused protein in the moles.
hind gut in the absence of - If we then use formic acid to neutralise
fermentable carbohydrate this
by deamination leading to - Molecular weight of formic acid
necrotic enteritis. (HCOOH) = 46.03
- 1 mole = 46.03 g therefore to supply
Balancing the gut 399.64 moles you would need:
microflora can help - 399.64 x 46.03 = 18395 g or 18.395
There are several aspects kg/t of 100% formic acid
of digestive function to con- It is clear that we must rely on a com-
sider that can help resolve bination of natural acid secretions in the
the effects of dysbiosis but it stomach and a fully supportive feed acidifier,
is obvious that a multifunc- like Kiotechagil Salkil, to boost the bacterial
tional approach is essential. contribution from carbohydrate fermenta-
Direct incorporation of tion in the gut.
acids in the ration and into
the foregut will help over- Natural fermentation in the
Effect of pH on the specific growth rate of B. come the effects of highly intestine is vital
fibrisolvens Ce51 at 38.5°C with glucose as the buffered feeds, but that is Gastric bacterial fermentation contributes
substrate. (O) chemostat culture. (●) batch culture not enough. This will be significantly to maintaining a low gastric pH.
especially important when This can be supported by the use Salkil
the feed is highly buffered, to provide suitable ‘platforms’ for bacterial
typically with something colonisation allowing acidophilic species to
like calcium carbonate as predominate in the gut.
used in poultry breeder and In older animals lactic acid represents
layer diets. The added cal- only 50 percent of the total organic acid
cium carbonate neutralises content in the gut. The remaining acids will
stomach acid, increasing the be produced by cellulolytic species such
risk of pathogens passing as Butyrivibrio and Roseburia that ferment
through proventriculus. cellulose to acetic and butyric acids provided
By reducing free acid in the environment remains acidic.
the proventriculus the con- Butyric acid is a vital component of the
version of pepsinogen to hindgut. It is a colonocyte nutrient that will
pepsin will be reduced. This assist in villus development in young animals
will result in reduced pro- and will help regrowth after disease.
tein digestion in the stom- This is especially important after coccidia
ach and a greater reliance or enteric pathogens such as Salmonella or
of the proteolytic trypsin Escherichia that damage the gut lining, erode
Lactic acid bacteria colonising the acidified found in the duodenum and villi and result in bleeding from the intestinal
silica platform in Kiotechagil Salkil the peptidases. However wall.
pepsin works best at the Blood in the intestine from pathogen
N-terminal of aromatic attack is the perfect nutrient for proteolytic
immune system and mycotoxins will disturb amino acids such as phenylalanine and tyro- species like Clostridia.
their metabolism where they help generate sine. It will not cleave at bonds containing For the gut to recover faster it requires
cytokines. An increase in cytokine production valine, alanine or glycine. Pepsin digests 10 a readily available energy source, butyric
can unbalance amino acids levels in the gut. - 15% of dietary protein before it is inacti- acid, produced by cellulose digestion in the
The use of an effective and broad spec- vated in the small intestine. Whilst trypsin hindgut. Butyric acid has been reported
trum toxin binder like Kiotechagil Neutox predominantly cleaves peptide chains at the to increase the density and length of villi,
to absorb mycotoxins without hindering gut carboxyl side of the amino acids lysine and enlarging the adsorption surface of the intes-
performance is essential. Mineral binders arginine, except when either is followed tine (Galfi and Bokori 1990). The bacteria
with high cation exchange capacities (CEC) by proline. Therefore the loss of activity of responsible for butyric acid production in the
will trap cations and disrupt mineral nutri- pepsin cannot be fully compensated for by gut, Butyrivibrio and Roseburia for example,
tion, or reduce phytase activity in formulated other proteolytic enzymes further down have narrow ranges of pH tolerance and if
feeds. Selection of the correct toxin binder the gut. their activity decreases, so does the butyric
will benefit amino acid utilisation. By adding an acidified carrier matrix it is acid production in the gut.
possible to overcome some of the buffering Adding a protected butyric acid source is
Unbalanced rations power of the feed, however this will require an effective means of helping villus structure
Surplus amino acids in the hind gut, espe- free acid and not a salt such as the calcium to recover, whilst supporting the acidophilic
cially in an energy limited diet, can result in a and sodium salts of organic acids, as they microflora such as the cellulose digesters
Clostridial infection because this proteolytic have no net acid contribution. and members of the Lactobacillaceae family
organism, unlike the commensal microflora, Even with pure acids it is not possible to (Galfi 1990).
is capable of obtaining energy from deamina- provide sufficient acid to directly alter feed
tion of amino acids, peptides and proteins. pH and you can work this out easily because Feeding the commensals
The use of highly buffered feed or stress we know that 1 mole calcium carbonate will Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), such as
conditions can lead to a reduced produc- require 1 mole of acid to neutralise it. inulin, have a direct effect on the gut
tion of acid in the proventriculus. Reduced - Add calcium carbonate (limestone) at microflora. Inulin is a complex sugar. Most
30 | may - June 2013 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy
gut bacteria preferentially metabolise simple 4. A unique carrier that
But it goes further than that. Risk man- designer tool, the graphical labels are created plement feeds matching their homegrown
sugars allowing the inulin to reach the hind- promotes colonisation About the author
agement, which means having the right raw during the formulation, allowing for a last or local ingredients. Only the best end
gut. Inulin in the hind gut allows bacteria, by lactic acid bacteria to Murray Hyden trained at
materials available at the right moment in the minute change on the label when needed. result is good enough and the modern
typically fibre digesters like Butyrivibrio and establish the necessary Imperial College London in
correct production location, has become the In most cases however, the formulation feed plants nowadays are equipped for
Roseburia, as well as the bacteriocin pro- healthy gut microflora Food and Dairy Microbiology
key challenge for every purchase manager. software cannot create the label completely, these quick changes. Vervaet says, “More
ducing Bifidobacteria, to grow and exclude to achieve genetic and Industrial Microbiology.
Today’s techniques allow a Multiblend based as information such as batch number or pro- complex ‘multilevel-level’ compounds can
Clostridia. The inclusion of a FOS in a ration potential. He worked for ICI Plc,
upon live raw material contract figures from duction date is not available at the moment be defined with more detailed constraints
formulation will therefore have a direct Agricultural Division as a Research
the ERP. The full ingredient position from of the creation. Software designer Adifo at all levels. This leads to direct profits,
effect on the microbial colonisation of the References Microbiologist for 16 years spe-
ERP is downloaded into the BESTMIX® feed has created an
hind gut. The XXIII Worlds Poultry cialising in ruminant nutrition and
formulation database and using Multiblend, add-on solu-
By restricting Clostridial activity with poultry health. During his time
Software as a service and
Congress offered new insights
the most optimal allocation of these con- tion on top of
butyric acid and by providing the commensal for managing necrotic there he worked on the interac-
tracts in time and place is calculated. These Dynamics AX.
microflora with a valuable energy source enteritis and coccidiosis. www. tions of intestinal microflora in
allocations are then sent back to the ERP The content
that is unavailable to Clostridia, any surplus thepoultrysite.com
where the position monitor for raw materi- of the labels cloud computing are today’srelation to the diet specification.
amino acids can be incorporated into the Ammonia Emissions from Animal In 1985 he joined Agil Ltd, a privately owned British com-
als is instantly updated and purchase deci- is supplied by
microbial biomass in the gut rather wasteful
Waste FAO 2012
sions can be made or changed with these BESTMIX® and
Lysine and other amino acids
buzzwords. And the feed
pany manufacturing and distributing feed additive products to
several European countries. Murray has been involved in all
updated figures. the Dynamics
Products like Kiotechagil Prefect are
designed to optimise gut performance to
for feed: production and
contribution to protein utilisation
industry is not left behind.
stages of product development and has overseen the launch of
the entire range of feed additives since 1987. His microbiological
Advanced labeling essential generates the
help prevent the effects of amino acid imbal- in animal feeding – Yasuhiko approach to find alternatives to antibiotics in animal feeding has
In the last couple of years, labeling leg- labels, combin-
ance. Prefect supplies: Toride in Protein Sources for lead to the launch of a unique range of products that are now
islation has changed constantly. Having a ing relevant for-
1. Organic acids to maintain acidity in the animal feed industry FAO used around the world.
flexible labeling solution that allows users mulation and production information on the as all includes are optimised. The price
the proventriculus thereby maximising document repository. In 2004 Murray was promoted to managing director of Agil
to anticipate these changes is of the highest label. As such, the business content stays the of the mean compound is kept as low
protein utilisation in the foregut. Dr Olayinka Akine All About Feed. and then Kiotechagil after an acquisition.
importance. Any modern feed formulation responsibility of the formulation department, as possible. This also means that the
2. Fructo-oligosaccharides (inulin) to inhibit net Vol 20 No7 2012 p18 - 20 He has presented his work at international conferences in
software is expected to offer a labeling where it should be, whilst the complete label included compounds can be changed
clostridia and other enteropathogens Galfi P and Bokori J Acta countries such as Sweden, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, France,
solution. can still be created in an automated process. more often.
whilst promoting a strong cellulolytic gut Vet Hung 1990: 38(1- Philippines, Thailand, Japan, China and Australia.
In BESTMIX® for instance, all European “This increased functionality enables the
microflora to maintain healthy butyric 2):3-17 He has helped in the development of biosecurity control
and US legislation on declaration is imple- Best end result needed for a management of a larger number of specifica-
acid levels. programmes for poultry and pig breeding companies around
mented in a user friendly way. All compo- demanding market tions, compounds and products. BESTMIX®
3. Additional butyric acid to provide an the world.
nents of the label; composition, guaranteed Farmers have a growing understanding Feed Formulation Software stores all data
instant energy source for villi mucosa Following more recent acquisitions by the company, Murray
analysis values, conditional texts, health and More inforMation:
of nutrient requirements and digestibility in powerful databases, where they can be
to help overcome irritation and has returned to his primary interest and is now director of
safety information, barcodes and so on, systems www.anpario.com organised, managed, secured and archived
Website: and always require the best feed. for Anpario Group.
necrosis resulting from Clostridial or biosecurity
are set up separately. With an easy to use They ask for special concentrates or com- for many years.”
6th Protein Summit 2013
Platform for Future supply, Health & Technology
Find out more at our forthcoming User Group Meetings
in Feed Formulation
24 & 25 September 2013, Rotterdam
International Speakers from Unilever, FAO, Rabobank, Cosucra, TNO,
Rousselot, Innova Market Insights, Koch Membrane Systems, Bühler,
Tereos Syral, Wageningen University, True Price and many more...
For information on partnerships & exhibiting, contact: Gerard Klein Essink
email@example.com | ph: +31 30 225 2060 | www.bridge2food.com
&feed millinG technoloGy
&feed millinG technoloGy
may - June 2013 | 17
may - June 2013 | 31
This digital Re-print is part of the May | June 2013 edition of Grain & Feed
Milling Technology magazine.
Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full
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May - June 2013
first published in 1891
• See the full issue
• Visit the GFMT website
In this issue:
• Adding value to
with profit-oriented feed
Additives other than
• Contact the GFMT Team
• ‘Kill step’ • High efficiency
validation of elevator
extrusion modern vs
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INCORPORATING PORTS, DISTRIBUTION AND FORMULATION
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