http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.cbp.pitt.edu/faculty/yong_wan/images/main_cell_cycle.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.cbp.pitt.edu/faculty/yon g_wan/index.html&h=428&w=414&sz=106&hl=en&start=12&usg=__jMR57R67pcLa5839M5MURetw4ow=&tbnid=sB2HPLIxwZJFgM:&tbnh=126&tbnw=122&pre v=/images%3Fq%3Dcell%2Bcycle%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den How do we repair? How do we grow? If “all” human cells have 46 chromosomes, what must happen to those chromosomes before the cell divides, in order for the next two cells to each have 46 chromosomes? Start notes here Cell Cycle & Chromosomes Introduction - 2 trillion cells reproduced daily by our bodies - 25 million cells reproduced per second - new cells are reproduced when older cells divide http://www.dmturner.org/Teacher/Pictures/Cell%20reproduction.jpg http://www.umanitoba.ca/Biology/lab3/images/AliumIndex.jpg Intro to Cell Cycle See Board (compare human cycle to cell cycle) Text book page 204 & 206 In your notes copy the image on page 206 in your text. The image should take up half of your paper. (Be sure to include the outside label) Now, in each section (G1, S, G2, Mit, Cyto) list what happens in that phase http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.c a/cm1504/Image199.gif Below the image, in your notes, write and answer the following questions: Where are there checkpoints? What are checkpoints? What happens if check points don’t exist? 2 You tube videos http://www.jour.sc.edu/pages/wigginsweb/fertilization.gif http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.ma.hw.ac.uk/~jas/researchinterests/images/woundsketch.gif&im grefurl=http://www.ma.hw.ac.uk/~jas/researchinterests/scartissueformation.html&h=283&w=386&sz=70&hl=en&start =1&usg=__1w6FVRLuIi2irGbi1cp4bcbugQI=&tbnid=iOIUg0lJsglmIM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=123&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dhe aling%2Bwound%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den Why Cells Reproduce (end of cycle cycle) Grow and develop Heal a wound To produce gametes (sperm or egg) http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/devel/c7.46.17.human.fetus.jpg http://www.boblangrish.com/images/galleriesimages/pic175%20Healing%20Wound.jpg Two types of Cell Reproduction: 1. Asexual Reproduction - mitosis - In bacteria this is called binary fission, which creates identical offspring Both mitosis and binary fission have two stages 1. DNA is copied 46 2. The cell divides 46 46 Chromosome # stays the SAME!!!! Why??? Two types of Cell Reproduction cont.: 2. Sexual Reproduction - Meiosis - to make sperm and egg (great detail of this will come soon) 46 How many copies of DNA do you want your Chromosome # sperm or egg to have? is cut in half!!! 23 23 This page all side notes, you decide what you NEED to write . . . Now we know cells divide, in order to go into depth on the topic, we need to get some terminology for what is inside the cell. What is the control center? Inside the control center are _________. Notes: Terminology Check to Dive Deeper into Cell Cycle: Get text book, open to page 205 Chromosomes: Remember are DNA, made of nucleotides Chromosomes are made of segments called genes Genes code for our characteristics Most of a cells life, chromosomes in the nucleus are spread out as chromatin while they are being read Think of an extension cord, how is it when being used? Right before they’re ready to divide a chromosome makes a copy, These copies coil up and are called chromatids Chromatids are attached at the centromere At this point, I would copy figure 8.10 from text into my notes http://library.thinkquest.org/28751/media/review/figure/chromosome.gif Types of Cells and Chromosome Number Somatic cell (any cell except sperm and egg) Soma=body Have two pair of chromosomes Each pair are called homologous chromosomes Are called diploid 2n (n = number of chroms in one set, 23 in humans so 2n = 46) Mitosis creates these cells http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.stemcellforpets.com/images/index.1.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.stemcellforpets.com/&usg=___rCL2G4F3XqHJkGOYDGO_9StIL0=&h=704&w=623&sz=82&hl=en&start=8&sig2=xPwHzj6XuzATdxuSNVXzFA&zoom=1&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=f1xJc2Cd9- 6gXM:&tbnh=140&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dtypes%2Bof%2Bcells%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26ndsp%3D20%26tbs%3Disch:1&ei=R421TMm2MsP48A by2JSEBg http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.umass.edu/tei/TEI/images/UMassEnv/pollen.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.umass.edu/tei/TEI/UMassEnvironment.html&usg=__1bG5GCv3Wgdm39DGMBLqthbvOUA=&h=432&w=432&sz=125&hl=en&start=63&sig2=eF1aWSl7QrKuOeUTq_jY4w&zoom=1&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=SrrBgUbYEE3crM:&tbnh=126&tbnw=126&prev=/images%3Fq http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.arthursclipart.org/biologyp/biology/fertilization.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.arthursclipart.org/biologyp/biology/page_02.htm&usg=__vRYI_HSYsgQWfiDEWB38P6fJjTc=&h=879&w=519&sz=14&hl=en&start=22&sig2=9e2QmH9c3-8Dp9nlIeSQKw&zoom=1&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=MajrF- http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.shaneeubanks.com/images/016_flower.jpg&imgrefurl=http://brassicpark.blogspot.com/&usg=__7qq4cM-9UxVJsm7HP- sWbqxeBM:&tbnh=146&tbnw=86&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dplant%2Bfertilization%26start%3D20%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26ndsp%3D20%26tbs%3Disch:1&ei=-4u1TOXmJ8H98Abl5Kj5CQ %3Dplant%2Bfertilization%26start%3D60%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26ndsp%3D20%26tbs%3Disch:1&ei=G4y1TNiTKYH78Aaj5diICg m39KRpkKQ=&h=390&w=500&sz=52&hl=en&start=31&sig2=XmI_KJIAkxbuUzaYhUv6MA&zoom=1&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=7HQ7h8WIN1UkLM:&tbnh=101&tbnw=130&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dplant%2Bfertilization%26start%3D20%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26ndsp%3D20%26tbs%3Disch:1&ei=-4u1TOXmJ8H98Abl5Kj5CQ Types of Cells and Chromosome Number Sex cells (sperm and egg) Have one copy of each chromosome Are called haploid n (n = 23 in human cells) Meiosis creates these cells http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.dorlingkindersley-uk.co.uk/static/clipart/uk/dk/exp_humanbody/exp_human098.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.dorlingkindersley- uk.co.uk/nf/ClipArt/Image/0,,_1582352,00.html&usg=__PZC8Ie7I7PdlPiZK9AlLDar0vRE=&h=287&w=464&sz=23&hl=en&start=1&sig2=_BPEBsXNoMXynT2Go9Xb0Q&zoom=1&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=ihUecOUMei8KRM:&tbnh=79&tbnw=128&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsex%2Bcells%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26tbs%3Disch:1&ei=LYu1TO_5BYP68AalpfH0CQ Types of Cells and Chromosome # Cont. Fertilization – fusion (coming together) of two haploid (sperm and egg) cells, this a zygote or a fertilized egg cell. First cell of many new organism Cell Division/Reproduction: Asexual Mitosis Used for growth, healing, cancer when out of control 4 Stages Things that happen in stage Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase http://www.life.uiuc.edu/ib/102/lectures/mitosis1.jpg http://library.thinkquest.org/C0123260/basic%20knowledge/images/basic%20knowledge/cell%20division/mitosis.gif Mitosis HW Draw and label 3 times. Time 1, use your notes, time 2 peek at your notes when you need to, time 3 complete without notes (keep repeating until can draw and label accurately without looking at your notes and your book. Cell Division/Reproduction: Sexual Meiosis - View Meiosis on PP - Meiosis on Elmo and on your own sheet - Meiosis with straws Go back and look at karyotype to see differences in sex chromosomes http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.daviddarling.info/ima ges/meiosis.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/M/m eiosis.html&h=338&w=273&sz=16&hl=en&start=2&usg=__hXd4nPD- http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.yorku.ca/kdenning/%2B%2B2140%25202006- jHATFBgo29E5g4prAsE=&tbnid=ZK6o4X2ZY4fTUM:&tbnh=119&tbnw=96& 7/meiosis.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.yorku.ca/kdenning/%2B%2B2140%25202006-7/2140- prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmeiosis%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG 17oct2006.htm&h=675&w=450&sz=21&hl=en&start=1&usg=__3MpFEBpPmHYm__VQVdZpl2sAwKI=&tbnid=hQAfHPwwDO1rwM:&tbnh= 138&tbnw=92&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmeiosis%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG http://kvhs.nbed.nb.ca/gallant/biology/independent_assortment.jpg http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/mitosis/c13x10crossing-over.jpg http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/mitosis/c13x8meiosis-comparison.jpg Just Look http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://cas.bellarmine.edu/tietjen/HumanBioogy/Finished%2520Images/gen05.gif&imgrefurl=http://cas.bellarmine.edu/tietjen/HumanBi oogy/bills_developmental_abnormalities.htm&h=437&w=600&sz=59&hl=en&start=1&um=1&usg=__-2psa2JPlM5yLzalyct1AL_I9vI=&tbnid=zwpAd- vOwUOk8M:&tbnh=98&tbnw=135&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dmale%2Band%2Bfemale%2Bkaryotype%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den Notice I did not have an actual picture of meiosis Following slides must be covered in another unit. Male onion http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://laurent.penet.free.fr/Blog/Allium-senescens_meiosis-2.jpg&imgrefurl=http://seedsaside.wordpress.com/2007/04/05/male-meiosis-in- onion/&usg=__4g1DRRUIzNCh8XCnaf9NKC55LoM=&h=318&w=481&sz=25&hl=en&start=15&sig2=5EbjOBJvvY2kuQBjgI6GPA&zoom=1&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=W28q7zMoBNBHeM:&tbnh=85&tbnw=129&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dlive%2Bpicture%2Bof%2Bmeiosis%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26ndsp%3D20%26tbs%3Disch:1&ei=xI-1TLPuL4P68Absn_SQCg Notice I do not have a REAL picture of meiosis. Causes of variation in gametes (good, normal) - crossing over - random assortment of chromosomes Types of Chromosomes and Sex determination Autosomes – chromosomes not involved in determining if an organism (you) are going to be a male or female Sex Chromosomes – one chromosome of our 23 ( or 2 of our 46) Female is XX (X from mom and X from dad) Male XY – (x from mom and Y from dad) Only chromosome not “identical” to its pair (see Figure 6.5 in text) Male gamete determines sex of fertilized egg Types of Mutation These occur in metaphase I, why? Name of Mutation Description Sketch Deletion A piece of a chromosome breaks off; a piece is missing Duplication A chromosome fragment breaks off and attaches to its homologous chrom- osome; now it carries 2 copies of same gene Inversion The chromosome piece breaks off reattaches to the original chromosome in a reverse manner Translocation The piece reattaches to a nonhomologous chromosome Great Website A A A A B B B B C C C C D deletion D Inversion D F E E E E F F F D A B A A A A B B B B C C C duplication C D D D D E E E E A A A F F F F B B B C X C X translocation D Z D E Z E F F Abnormalities in Chromosome Number Karyotype – a photo of the chromosomes in a dividing cell (See p.329) Abnormalities in Chromosome Number, happen in anaphase I, as a result of non-disjunction Trisomy – an extra chromosome, 3 instead of two in a pair, 47 instead of 46 in a human karyotype Down syndrome – Trisomy 21, an extra 21st chromosome Klinefelter’s syndrome – Male with XXY Monosomy – missing a chromosome, havine 1 instead of 2 in a pair, 45 instead of 46 in a human karyotype Turner’s syndrome – Female with only 1 sex chromosome, or missing part of one (XO) Awesome website for images!!!! http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://images2.clinicaltools.com/images/gene/trisomy21.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www2.geneticsolutions.com/PageReq%3Fid%3D1530:1873%26InPopUp%3Dtrue&h=410&w=384&sz=25&hl=en&start =1&usg=__f2IoROWsbZj5MldAwFfjlTLKn4M=&tbnid=PNE0MKvLj0wtZM:&tbnh=125&tbnw=117&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dtrisomy%2B21%2Bkaryotype%26gbv%3D2%26hl%3Den The end . . . for now!! Ready for the test????? Nash – go over Go in cell cycle, as check points. Journal 11/14 Cell Cycle What are the stages to the cell cycle (remember the image you drew yesterday). What can you remember happens in each piece of the pie? http://www.life.uiuc.edu/ib/102/lectures/mitosis1.jpg Homework the night before this started was to take notes on 6.1 using the topics given to them Therefore in class, they would just be following along in there notes, adding and highlighting points Journal 11/12 Cell Division How do you think a cell divides. There is tons of information inside the nucleus, and when the cell divides, that same information must be in the new cell and the old cell. What methods do you think, or do you remember, will a cell go through to replicate? If you have no idea, be creative.
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