Docstoc

KL

Document Sample
KL Powered By Docstoc
					       District Level H
       D                   hold an Facil Sur
                      Househ     nd    lity rvey

                                        07-08
                                      200


                                    erala
                                   Ke a




Internation Institute f Populatio Sciences
          nal         for       on                 stry      th         ly
                                               Minis of Healt and Famil Welfare
            (Deemed University)                         New Delhi-110011
             Mumbai-400088




                                        2010
                                        2
Suggested citation:- International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), 2010.
                     District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3), 2007-08:
                     India: Kerala: Mumbai: IIPS.




For additional information, please contact:
Director/Project Coordinator (DLHS-3)
International Institute for Population Sciences
Govandi Station Road, Deonar
Mumbai - 400 088 (India)
Telephone: 022-2556 3254/5, 022-4237 2465, 42372411, 42372400
Fax: 022-25563257, 25555895
Email: rchpro@iips.net, director@iips.net
       Website: http://www.rchiips.org
                   http://www.iipsindia.org

Additional Director General (Stat.)
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
Government of India
Nirman Bhavan
New Delhi 110 011
Telephone: 011 - 23061334
Fax: 011 - 23061334
Email: adg-mohfw@nic.in

Chief Director (Stat.)
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
Government of India
Nirman Bhavan
New Delhi 110 011
Telephone: 011 - 23062699
Fax: 011 - 23062699
Email: cdstat@nic.in
Website: http: //www.mohfw.nic.in
DLHS-3 Project Coordinators

       T.V. Sekher
       F. Ram
       L. Ladusingh
       B. Paswan
       Sayeed Unisa
       Rajiva Prasad
       Chander Shekhar
                                    Research Staff

                                    Akash Wankhede
                                    B. Amenla Nuken
                                       Puspita Datta

                Ranjan Kr. Prusty                    Prakash Malin
                Namrata Mondal                       Arpita Das
                S. Priyokumar Meitei                 Mamta
                L. Priyananda Singh                  Amrita Gupta
                Rajesh Kr. Rai                       Prakash Chand D. Meher


IMPORTANT INSTRUCTIONS TO READERS:
This report is based on data collected from 14,711 households from Kerala during
2007-08. From these households, 12,360 ever-married women aged 15-49 years and
2,554 unmarried women aged 15-24 years were interviewed. Most of the tables and
analysis presented in the report is based on ever-married women aged 15-49 years.
However, for the purpose of comparison with DLHS-2 (2002-04) and the Fact Sheet of
DLHS-3, we also provided some indicators based on currently married women aged
15-44 years in selected tables. We request the readers to keep this distinction in mind
while using and comparing the DLHS-3 indicators with other surveys.

For more information, visit DLHS website: http://www.rchiips.org
CONTENTS
                                                                               Page
 Background and Objectives of the Survey………………………………………....                      1

 Survey Design, Sample Size and Design Weight………………….………………                      2

 Implementation and Quality Control…………………..…………………………….                         4

 Survey Instruments…..………………………………….………..…………………                                 4

 Household and Village Background...……………………………………………….                          6

 Characteristics of Women and Fertility………………………………..……………                       8

 Maternal Health Care………………………………………………………………                                   10

 Child Health Care and Immunization………………………………………………                           12

 Family Planning and Contraceptive Use…………………………………………….                        15

 Reproductive Health and Awareness of RTIs/STIs and HIV/AIDS………………              19

 Infertility and Childlessness…………………………………………………………                            21

 Family Life Education among Unmarried Women………………………………….                      22

 Reproductive Health and Awareness of Contraceptives, RTIs/STIs and HIV/AIDS
 among Unmarried Women…………………………………………………………..                                  23
 Health Facilities - Availability and Quality……………………..…………………                  24




TABLES



APPENDIX

 Sampling Error for Selected Indicators……………………………………………...                     169
                                                            LIST OF TABLES                                                               Page
Table 1.1       Number of households, ever married women & unmarried women interviewed………..…………                                           29
Table 1.2       Basic demographic indicators………………………………………………………………………                                                                   30
Table 2.1       Household population by age and sex……………………………………………………..……….                                                             33
Table 2.2       Marital status of the household population……………………………………………….…….…..                                                       34
Table 2.3       Age at marriage……………………………………………………………………………..………                                                                         35
Table 2.4       Educational level of the household population…………………………………………….….……                                                       36
Table 2.5       Currently attending school……………………………………………………………….................                                                       39
Table 2.6       Reasons for dropping out of school……………………………………………………….………..                                                             39
Table 2.7       Household characteristics………………………………………………………………….……….                                                                   40
Table 2.8       Housing characteristics and assets………………………………………………………….……....                                                           41
Table 2.9       Housing characteristics by districts………………………………………………………................                                                 42
Table 2.10      Distance from the nearest educational facility…………………………………………….………..                                                     43
Table 2.11      Distance from the nearest health facility…………………………………………………….……...                                                       43
Table 2.12      Availability of facility and health personnel by districts………………………………………..….                                             44
Table 2.13      Knowledge about government health programmes………………………………………………...                                                         45
Table 3.1       Background characteristics of ever married women………………………………………………..                                                      49
Table 3.2       Level of education of ever married women……………………………………… ………………..                                                          50
Table 3.3       Birth order…………………………………………………………………………………………..                                                                           51
Table 3.4       Birth order distribution by districts…………………………………………………….…...............                                                52
Table 3.5       Children ever born………………………………………………………………………... ….….....                                                                 53
Table 3.6       Fertility preferences………………………………………………………………………………...                                                                    54
Table 3.7       Outcomes of pregnancy …………………………………………………………………….………                                                                      55
Table 3.8       Outcome of pregnancy by districts ………………………………………………………………...                                                             56
Table 4.1       Place of antenatal check-up………………………………………………………………….……...                                                                59
Table 4.2       Place of antenatal care by districts………………………………………………………….………                                                            60
Table 4.3       Components of antenatal check-up…………………………………………………………..……..                                                              61
Table 4.4       Women received advice during antenatal care……………………………………..…….………...                                                      62
Table 4.5 (A)   Antenatal care: ANC visits and time of first ANC check-up………………………. ……….…….                                               63
Table 4.5 (B)   Antenatal care: TT, IFA and ANC………………………………………………………….………                                                                 64
Table 4.6       Antenatal care indicators and complications by districts………………………………………….                                                 65
Table 4.7       Place of delivery and assistance ………………...............................................................................    66
Table 4.8       Mode of transportation used for delivery and arrangement of transportation……………..……….                                     67
Table 4.9       Place of delivery and assistance by districts………………………………………………….…….                                                      68
Table 4.10      Reasons for not going to health institutions for delivery…………………………. …….................                                  69
Table 4.11      Delivery complications……………………………………………………………………..………                                                                     70
Table 4.12      Post delivery complications………………………………………………………………..……….                                                                 71
Table 4.13      Any check-up after delivery …………………………………………………………..……………                                                                 72
    2




                                                                    viii
                                                               LIST OF TABLES                                                             Page
Table 4.14      Complications during pregnancy, delivery and post-delivery period ………….………….………..                                         73
Table 4.15      Complications during pregnancy, delivery and post-delivery period by districts………….……….                                   74
Table 4.16      Knowledge of danger signs of new born……………………………………………………….……                                                             75
Table 5.1       Timing and place of early childhood check-up by background characteristics……………….......                                   79
Table 5.2       Initiation of breastfeeding by background characteristics ……………………………..………..….                                            80
Table 5.3       Breastfeeding and weaning status by children’s age………………………………………………..                                                    81
Table 5.4       Exclusive breastfeeding by background characteristics…………………………………………….                                                   82
Table 5.5       Breastfeeding by districts……………………………………………………………………………                                                                   83
Table 5.6       Vaccination of children by background characteristics …………………………….........................                                84
Table 5.7       Childhood vaccination by districts………………………………………………………………….                                                              85
Table 5.8       Place of childhood vaccination by background characteristics ………………………….........…...                                      86
Table 5.9       Vitamin-A and Hepatitis-B supplementation for children………………………………….……….                                                  87
Table 5.10      Knowledge regarding diarrhoea management by background characteristics …………………......                                      88
Table 5.11      Treatment of diarrhoea by background characteristics …………………………………….............                                          89
Table 5.12      Knowledge and treatment of acute respiratory infection (ARI) by background characteristics……                              90
Table 5.13      Knowledge of ORS and acute respiratory infection (ARI) by districts…………………..…………                                          91
Table 6.1       Awareness of contraceptive methods by place of residence...………………………………………                                                95
Table 6.2       Awareness of contraceptive methods by background characteristics……………………………….                                             96
Table 6.3       Awareness of contraceptive methods by districts…………………………………………………...                                                     97
Table 6.4       Ever use of contraceptive methods………………………………………………………..………...                                                            98
Table 6.5 (A)   Current use of contraceptive methods……………………………………………………..….……..                                                          99
Table 6.5 (B)   Duration of use of spacing methods…………………………………………………….…….……..                                                            101
Table 6.6       Age at the time of sterilization………………………………………………………………………                                                               102
Table 6.7       Contraceptive prevalence rate by districts…………………………………………………………..                                                        103
Table 6.8       Sources of modern contraceptive methods………………………………………………………….                                                            104
Table 6.9       Cash benefits received after sterilization………………………………………………….………...                                                      105
Table 6.10      Health problems with current use of contraception and treatment received…………………….…..                                      106
Table 6.11      Reasons for discontinuation of contraception……………………………………………..………...                                                     107
Table 6.12      Future intention to use contraception……………………………………………………………….                                                            108
Table 6.13      Advice on contraceptive use…………………………………………………………….…………..                                                                 109
Table 6.14      Reasons for not using modern contraceptive method among rhythm and withdrawal method
                users………………………………………………………..…………………………….......………                                                                         110
Table 6.15      Unmet need for family planning services…………………………………………………………...                                                          111
Table 6.16      Unmet need for family planning services by districts………………………………….……………                                                   112
Table 7.1       Menstruation related problems by background characteristics……………………………………...                                              115
Table 7.2       Source of knowledge about RTI/STI by background characteristics ……………………………….                                             117
Table 7.3       Knowledge of mode of transmission of RTI/STI by background characteristics …………………..                                      119
Table 7.4       Symptoms of RTI/STI by background characteristics …………………………………………....                                                    120
Table 7.5       Discussed about RTI/STI problems with husband and sought treatment by background
                                                                                                                                          122
                characteristics ………………………….............................................................................................


                                                                     ix
                                                           LIST OF TABLES                                                            Page
Table 7.6    RTI/STI indicators by districts…………………………………………………………………......                                                          123
Table 7.7    Knowledge of HIV/AIDS by background characteristics ………………………………………......                                               124
Table 7.8    Knowledge about mode of transmission of HIVAIDS by background characteristics …………….                                    126
Table 7.9    Knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention methods by background characteristics …………………….                                        127
Table 7.10   Misconception about transmission of HIV/AIDS by background characteristics ……………….....                                  128
Table 7.11   Knowledge about the place where HIV/AIDS test can be done by background characteristics …...                            129
Table 7.12   Undergone HIV/AIDS test by background characteristics ………………………………………....                                               131
Table 7.13   HIV/AIDS indicators by districts……………………………………………………………….…..                                                            132
Table 7.14   Ever had infertility problem by background characteristics ………………………………………..                                            133
Table 7.15   Childlessness and infertility by background characteristics ………………………………………..                                           134
Table 7.16   Treatment for infertility by background characteristics ……………………………………………                                               135
Table 7.17   Infertility problem and sought treatment by districts…………………………….............…………                                       136
Table 8.1    Background characteristics of unmarried women…………………………………………………..                                                      139
Table 8.2    At what age and standard family life education should be introduced……………………………..                                        140
Table 8.3    Sources of family life education………………………………………………………….………...                                                           141
Table 8.4    Ever received family life education by sources…………………………………………………….                                                     142
Table 8.5    Knowledge of legal age at marriage and reported ideal age at marriage for boys and girls ………                            143
Table 8.6    Current status of menstruation and experienced menstruation related problems during last three
                                                                                                                                     144
             months and reported problems ……………………………………………………………………..
Table 8.7    Practices during menstrual period…………………………………………………………………..                                                            145
Table 8.8    Knowledge of contraceptive methods………………………………………………………………                                                              146
Table 8.9    Sources from where to get pill and condom………………………………………………………..                                                        147
Table 8.10   Discussion about family planning method by source of information…………………….………..                                          148
Table 8.11   Knowledge of RTI/STI by sources…………………………………………………..………….......                                                         149
Table 8.12   Knowledge of RTI/STI transmission……………………………………………...............………..                                                  150
Table 8.13   Knowledge of HIV/AIDS by sources…………………………………………………….………...                                                             151
Table 8.14   Knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission………………………………………….............…………                                                     152
Table 8.15   Misconception about HIV/AIDS ………………………………………………………………......                                                             153
Table 8.16   Knowledge about how to avoid or reduce the chances of infecting HIV/AIDS……………………                                        154
Table 8.17   Knowledge where to get tested for HIV/AIDS and sources………………………………………...                                                155
Table 8.18   Knowledge of some selected statements…………………………………………………………….                                                           156
Table 8.19   Awareness of Reproductive Health Issues………………………………………………………….                                                          157
Table 9.1    Average population covered by health facility by districts …………….…………………………..                                           161
Table 9.2    Percentage of villages having Sub-Centre within villages & ANM available at Sub-Centre and
             staying in Sub-Centre quarter by districts …………………………..……………………………...                                                   161
Table 9.3    Status of infrastructure at Sub-Centre functioning in government building by districts………....…                          162
Table 9.4    Number of Sub-Centres having adequately equipped and essential drugs by districts …….………                                162
Table 9.5    Number of Sub-Centres having different activities by districts....................................................…..   163
Table 9.6    Available human resources at Primary Health Centres by districts……..…………………………..                                        163




                                                                  x
                                                      LIST OF TABLES
                                                                                                                      Page
Table 9.7     Available infrastructure at Primary Health Centres by districts……………………………..…..…                         164
Table 9.8     Specific health facilities available at Primary Health Centres by districts ………………….…..….                164
Table 9.9     Number of Primary Health Centres having different activities by districts…….....................……...    165
Table 9.10    Human resources available at Community Health Centres by districts ………………………..…...                       165
Table 9.11    Specific health care facilities available at Community Health Centres by districts ………….…….              166
Table 9.12    Number of Community Health Centres having different activities by districts …………...…….....               166




                                                     LIST OF FIGURES

 Figure 1    Proportion of households by wealth quintile…………………………………………….…..……….                                      7
 Figure 2    Age-sex pyramid………………………………………………………………………….….…..…..                                                      7
 Figure 3    Percentage non-literate by age and sex………..………………………………………….…...…..…                                      8
 Figure 4    Mean children ever-born by district………………………………………………….…..….…….…                                          9
 Figure 5    Fertility preferences of currently married women………………………………………...….…....…                                10
 Figure 6    Any ANC by background characteristics………………………………………………..….……..…                                          10
 Figure 7    Progress in institutional delivery…………………………………………………………...….……..                                         11
 Figure 8    Change in full immunization coverage of children……………………………………...….…...….                                 14
 Figure 9    Percent currently married women currently using contraceptive methods.......……….......................    16
 Figure 10   Change in contraceptive prevalence rate……………………………………………….…….……..                                         16
 Figure 11   Change in unmet need for contraception……………………………………………..……….....….                                       18
 Figure 12   Contraceptive prevalence rate and unmet need by district……………………….………...….…….                             18
 Figure 13   Heard about RTIs/STIs by background characteristics……………………………………….…...…                                  19
 Figure 14   Knowledge about mode of transmission of HIV/AIDS…………………………………..….………                                      20
 Figure 15   Knowledge about minimum legal age at marriage of boys and girls by background characteristics..           22



                                                       LIST OF MAPS



Map 1        Full antenatal check up by districts....………………………..……………………………………...                                     11
Map 2        Full immunization coverage of children aged 12-23 months by districts………………….…..……                       13
Map 3        Contraceptive prevalence rate for any method by districts…………………………………………..                              17




                                                            xi
                        Preface and Acknowledgements
The District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3) is a nationwide survey covering
601 districts from 34 states and union territories of India. This is the third round of the district
level household survey which was conducted during December 2007 to December 2008. The
survey was funded by the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, United Nations
Population Fund (UNFPA) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).

We are grateful to the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India for
designating the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) as the nodal agency for the
DLHS-3 Project and providing an opportunity to work closely with the health and programme
officials. In particular, we would like thank Ms. K. Sujatha Rao, Secretary-Ministry of Health
and Family Welfare (MoHFW), Government of India for her advice, suggestions and support.
We also thank Shri Naresh Dayal, former Secretary-Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
(MoHFW), Government of India for the advice and valuable support extended to the project. Our
special thanks to Smt. Madhu Bala, the Additional Director General, Dr. Rattan Chand, the Chief
Director and Shri. Rajesh Bhatia, the Director-Statistics Division, Ministry of Health and Family
Welfare, Government of India for their active involvement and suggestions. We are also thankful
to Dr. V.K. Malhotra and Shri S.K. Das, former Additional Director Generals, Shri Partha
Chattopadhyay, former Chief Director, Shri K. D. Maiti, former Director and Ms. Rashmi
Verma, former Deputy Director-Statistics Division, MoHFW, Government of India for the co-
operation and support at various stages of this project.

We are grateful to Dr. P. N. Mari Bhat, former Director, IIPS and Dr. S. Lahiri, former
Officiating Director, IIPS for their keen interest and guidance in the initial stages of the project.
We acknowledge the contributions of the Centre for Socio-Economic and Environmental Studies
(CSES), Kochi, the regional agency for the field implementation of DLHS-3 in Kerala state. The
monitoring of the field survey was done independently by Population Research Centre, Institute
for Social and Economic Change (ISEC), Bangalore under the guidance of National Institute of
Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi.

Our thanks to the members of Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of DLHS-3 and especially
its Chairman, Dr. P. M. Kulkarni, Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. We also
thank Dr. N.K. Singh for guiding the software development and CSPro training for the project
staff. We gratefully acknowledge the immense contributions of DLHS-3 project team at IIPS in
developing survey instruments, training field staff, monitoring field work, data processing,
preparation of district and state level fact sheets, and drafting the reports.

Finally, special thanks to all respondents who spared their valuable time and cooperated with us
by providing the required information.



                                                                          DLHS-3 Coordinators
                                                 International Institute for Population Sciences
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES OF THE SURVEY

The National Rural Health Mission (2005-2012) was launched by the Government of India (GoI)
in 2005-06 to provide effective health care to rural population in the country with special focus
on states which have poor health outcomes and inadequate public health infrastructure and
manpower. The primary focus of the mission is to improve access of rural people, especially
women and children, to equitable and affordable primary health care. The main goal of NRHM is
to reduce infant mortality rate (IMR) and maternal mortality ratio (MMR) by promoting newborn
care, immunization, antenatal care, institutional delivery and post-partum care.

The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) foundation is built on community involvement in
drawing a village health plan under the auspices of Village Health & Sanitation Committee
(VHSC), making rural primary health care services accountable to the community and giving
authority to the District Health Mission for implementation of inter-sectoral District Health Plan
including drinking water, sanitation, hygiene and nutrition. The interface between the community
and the public health system at the village level is entrusted to a female Accredited Social Health
Activist (ASHA), a health volunteer receiving performance based compensation for promotion of
universal immunization, referral and escort services for reproductive & child health (RCH),
construction of household toilets, and other health care delivery programmes. To promote
institutional delivery, cash incentive programme under Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) is made an
integral component of NRHM.

The third round of the District Level Household and Facility Survey (DLHS-3) carried out
during 2007-08 was designed to collect data at district level on various aspects of health care
utilization for Reproductive & Child Health (RCH), accessibility of health facilities, assess the
effectiveness of ASHA and JSY in promoting RCH care, to assess health facility capacity and
preparedness in terms of infrastructure. The integration of facility survey with the household
survey was done with a view to link the RCH care outcomes to health facility accessibility,
availability of medical & paramedical manpower and other village infrastructure. The broad
objective of DLHS-3 is to provide RCH outcome indicators at the district level in order to
monitor and provide corrective measures to the NRHM. The other important objective is to
assess the contribution of decentralization of primary health care at the district level and below
by way of involving village health committees under the Panchayats in the implementation of
health care programmes.

The main focus and objectives of DLHS-3 is to provide RCH indicators covering the following
aspects:
   • Coverage of antenatal check up and immunization services
   • Institutional/safe deliveries
   • JSY beneficiaries
   • Contraceptive prevalence rates
   • ASHA’s involvement
   • Unmet need for family planning
   • Awareness about RTIs/STIs and HIV/AIDS
   • Family life education among unmarried adolescent girls
   • Health facility and infrastructure
The District Level Household and Facility Survey, 2007-08 (DLHS-3) is the third in the series of
district level household surveys. The first one was conducted in 1998-99 followed by the second
in 2002-04. For all the three DLHS, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW),
Government of India (GoI) designated the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS),
Mumbai, as the Nodal Agency responsible for the development of survey design, instruments,
data entry and tabulation software, training, supervision of field work, analysis and report
writing. The sources of funds for DLHS-3 are the MoHFW, GoI and United Nations Population
Fund (UNFPA) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).

A Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) constituted by the MoHFW, GoI guided the designing,
implementation, progress, tabulation, basis of selection of RCH indicators and consistency
issues.

SURVEY DESIGN, SAMPLE SIZE AND DESIGN WEIGHT

A multi-stage stratified systematic sampling design was adopted for DLHS-3. In each district, 50
primary sampling units (PSUs) which were census villages in rural areas and census enumeration
blocks (CEBs) in urban areas. In rural areas, villages were selected by probability proportional to
size (PPS) systematic sampling and in the second stage households were selected by systematic
sampling. For urban areas first wards were selected by PPS systematic sampling, in the second
stage CEBs by PPS sampling and households in the third stage by systematic sampling. The
Census of India, 2001 was the sampling frame for DLHS-3. All villages and urban wards in a
district were stratified by household size into three strata of less than 50, 50-300 and 300+
households, percent of SC/ST population into two strata - below and above 20 percent and
implicitly by three alternating order of female literacy. These variables used for stratification are
from the 2001 Census. The number of households representing a district is either 1000 or 1200
or 1500 considering the levels of immunization, antenatal check up and institutional delivery as
given by DLHS-2 plus 10 percent over sampling to cushion for non-response. The PSUs are
allocated to rural and urban areas of each district proportionally to the actual rural-urban
population ratio and within the rural-urban domains. The PSUs are further distributed
proportionately to the different sub-strata of combinations of household size, percent of SC/ST
population and levels of female literacy. To make a proper rural PSU, selected villages with less
than 50 households were linked with another contiguous village and selection probability is
adjusted accordingly. Selected villages with more than 300 households were further divided into
two or more segments and one or more segments were selected so as to have standard size PSUs.
The numbers of households drawn from PSUs of districts represented by 1000, 1200 and 1500
households are 22, 27 and 33 households respectively. All ever married women age 15-49 years
and unmarried women aged 15-24 years from the sampled households are the respondents for
questions on RCH and family life education, while any adult household member is the
respondent for household related questions in DLHS-3.

Sampling weight for household, ever married women and unmarried women were generated for
each district. These design weights were used for computations of district level demographic and
RCH indicators. The selection probabilities fi1, fi2 and fi3 at different stages of randomization
pertaining to the ith PSU of a district were the main inputs for generation of design weight. These
selection probabilities are defined as follows:


                                                 2
    i
f1        = Probability of selection of ith rural PSU in a district
                (n * H )
                     r   i
           =
            H
Where, nr is the number of rural PSUs selected from a district, H i refers to the number of
household in the ith PSU and H = ∑ H i , total number of rural households in a district.
    i
f 2 = Probability of selecting segment (s) from segmented PSU
               (in case the ith selected PSU is segmented)

= (Number ofi households in the selected segment)/(number of households in the PSU)
The value of f 2 is to be equal to one for un-segmented PSU.

    i
f 3 = probability of selecting a household from the total listed households of a PSU or in
               segment(s) of a PSU

    =          HS    i

               HL i

Where HLi is the number of households listed in ith PSU in a district and HSi the number of
households per PSU assigned for the ith PSU is either 22 or 27or 33 depending on whether a district
is represented by 1000 or 1200 or 1500 households.

For urban PSUs, f1i is computed as the ratio of urban population of the selected PSU to the total
urban population of the district.

The probability of selecting a household from the district works out as:

f
    i
           (i
        = f 1 * f i2 * f i3   )
                                                                                       1
The non-normalized household weight for the ith PSU of the district is, wi =       i
                                                                                               , where HRi
                                                                               f       * HRi
                                                     th
is the household response rate of the i sampled PSU, assumed to be 10 % but actual response rates
are used here. The normalized weight used in the generation of district indicators as

                                      ∑ ni
               n =
                 d
                 i
                                      i
                                       i
                                             * w i , i= 1, 2, 3……………, 50.
                              ∑ ni * w
                                  i


Where ni is the number of households interviewed in the ith PSU. The weight for women is
computed in the similar manner after multiplication of expression for fi by the corresponding

                                                               3
response rate. State weights for households, women and husbands are further derived from the
district weights n id for the ith PSU in dth district using external control so that sample results do not
deviate from the corresponding information about the population.

Let, ns = ∑ nid and N sc = ∑ N id , denote the number of households in the sample and census of
          i                i
a particular state, then state level households weights work out as:
                    ⎛ d         ⎞
                    ⎜Ni         ⎟
n is   =    d
           ni   *   ⎜
                    ⎝      N sc ⎟
                                ⎠
                                    , where nid represents household sample in ith district,   n   s
                                                                                                       is the total
                      ⎛ d ⎞
                      ⎜ ni   ⎟
                      ⎜ ns ⎟
                      ⎝      ⎠
sample in the state.

These households’ weights are computed separately for rural and urban areas. Considering
sample and census, currently married women aged 15-49 years and unmarried women aged 15-
24 years for specified state by districts and rural-urban residence, state level women weights are
obtained for estimation of state level indicators.

IMPLEMENTATION AND QUALITY CONTROL

Actual field operation of DLHS-3 in different states and union territories were implemented by
Regional Agencies (RA) selected by the MoHFW through a competitive bidding process, Centre
for Socio-Economic and Environmental Studies (CSES), Kochi was designated as regional
agency (RA) for implementation of DLHS-3 in Kerala. Data from the selected PSUs were
collected by a team of 5 persons consisting of one Supervisor, one field Editor and three Female
Investigators who are graduates at least. A minimum of two days visit to each sampled PSU is
followed to ensure 100 percent coverage of selected households, ever married women and
unmarried women. Independent team of Health Investigators, mostly paramedics were entrusted
the work of carrying out the accompanying facility survey. A strict quality check protocol was
put in place by the Nodal Agency by way of spot and back checks by an independent team. The
Quality team comprised of two females and one male investigator and was headed by a Research
Officer from the monitoring agency. One Research Officer from IIPS was stationed in each state
throughout the period of the field work for supervising the survey operations.

SURVEY INSTRUMENTS

The main instrument for collection of data in DLHS-3 was a set of structured questionnaires,
namely, household, ever married woman, unmarried woman and village questionnaires. Sub-
Centre, Primary Health Centre (PHC), Community Health Centre (CHC) and District Hospital
(DH) questionnaires were used to conduct the facility survey. All household level questionnaires
were bilingual, with questions in regional and English languages.

Household Questionnaire

The household questionnaire lists all usual residents in each sample household including
visitors who had stayed the night before the interview. For individual household member

                                                           4
information on age, sex, marital status, relationship to the head of the household and education
were collected. Marriages and deaths of members of household were also recorded. Efforts were
made to get information about maternal deaths. Information was also collected on the main
source of drinking water, type of toilet facility, source of lighting, type of cooking fuel, religion
and caste of household head and ownership of durable goods in the household. The other
information collected relates to awareness of government programmes.

Ever Married Women’s Questionnaire

The respondents for the ever married women’s questionnaire were ever married women age 15-
49 years living in the sampled households. Details on age, age at marriage and place of birth,
educational attainment, number of biological children ever born and surviving by sex were
collected. Accounts of antenatal check-up, experience of pregnancy related complications, place
of delivery, delivery attendant and post-partum care, together with history of contraceptive use,
sex preference of children and fertility intentions were recorded. For the recent births,
immunizations status of children was collected either from the vaccination card or by asking the
mother about the status of immunization of the child. The other information collected includes
knowledge and awareness about RTIs/STIs and HIV/AIDS by source and treatment seeking
behaviour for RTIs/STIs.

Unmarried Women’s Questionnaire

Information that was collected from unmarried women age 15-24 years (those under 18 years
with consent from the parents) included knowledge of family life education, awareness about
legal age at marriage, awareness about contraception, menstruation related problems, and
knowledge of RTIs/STIs and HIV/AIDS by source of information.

Village Questionnaire

This questionnaire was designed to collect information on availability and accessibility of
education, health, transport and communication facilities at village level. Functioning of village
health committees and utilization of untied funds were additionally collected from the sampled
villages of DLHS.

Facility Survey Questionnaires

In the facility survey the information collected at the Sub-Centre level was on the availability of
human resources, physical infrastructure, equipments and essential drugs and RCH service
provided during the one month preceding the survey. Additional information collected at
Primary health centre (PHC) level was availability of Lady Medical Officer, functional Labour
Room, Operation Theatre, number of beds, drug storage facilities, waiting room for OPD,
availability of RCH related equipments, essential drugs and essential laboratory testing facilities.
Information that was collected for Community health centre (CHC) included status of in-position
clinical, supporting and Para-medical staff, availability of specialists trained for NSV (Non-
Scalpel Vasectomy), emergency obstetric, medically terminated pregnancy (MTP), new born
care, treatment of RTIs/STIs, IMNCI, ECG, etc. Physical infrastructures of CHC such as water


                                                 5
supply, electricity, communication, waste disposal facilities, OT, Labour Room and availability
of residential quarters for doctors were also collected in the facility survey (The questionnaires
are available on DLHS-3 website: www.rchiips.org).

HOUSEHOLD AND VILLAGE BACKGROUND

DLHS-3 Coverage and Response Rate
DLHS-3 surveyed a total of 14,711 households, 12,360 ever-married women and 2,554
unmarried women in Kerala. The response rates are 95.5, 87.1 and 69.8 percent for households,
ever-married women and unmarried women respectively. The lowest response rate for household
is found in Ernakulam (91.8 %) and for ever-married women and unmarried women the lowest
response rate are found in Thrissur (84.4 and 62.7 percent respectively) (Table 1.1). As far as the
demographic indicators of Kerala are concerned, from 2001 census it can be noted that the
overall sex ratio is 1058 females per 1,000 males. All districts have a sex ratio above the national
average. Except in Idukki (993 females per 1000 males) and Wayanad (995 females per 1000
males) all other districts have sex ratio above 1000. Highest sex ratio is found in Pathanamthitta
district (1094 females per 1000 males) (Table 1.2).

Village Characteristics

As regards the accessibility of health facilities to the sampled villages, almost 100 percent of
villages have Sub-Centres. In Kerala, 10.8 percent of the villages have a government dispensary
within the village whereas 79 percent have Primary Health Centres (PHC). One noticeable
feature of the villages in Kerala is that 89.6 percent of them have private clinics within the
village (Table 2.11). In Kerala, more than four-fifths (86.6 percent) of the rural population are
treated by doctors and this varies from 52 percent in Wayanad to 100 percent in Kannur,
Kozhikode, Palakkad, Kottayam, Alappuzha and Thriuvananthapuram districts. All the villages
in Kerala have an Anganwadi worker (Table 2.12), according to this survey. It is important to
mention here that, unlike other parts of the country, the villages in Kerala are very big in terms of
population.

Household Characteristics

DLHS-3 surveyed a total of 66,939 persons (Table 2.1) from 14,711 households (Table 2.8) in
Kerala covering all the fourteen districts of which 77 percent are in rural areas and the remaining
(23 percent) in urban areas. In Kerala, 57.8 percent of household heads are Hindus, 22.7 percent
are Muslims and 19.4 percent are Christians. About 24.3 percent of households are headed by
females. The average household size in the state is 4.6 persons and there is only a marginal
difference in rural and urban areas. Ten percent of household heads belong to scheduled castes,
2 percent belongs to scheduled tribes; 57.5 percent belongs to other backward classes and 30
percent to others. The median age of household head is 52 years (Table 2.7).

Almost all households (91.8 Percent) in Kerala have electricity connection, 29 percent
households have improved source of water, 11.6 percent of the households have access to tap
water for drinking, 93.3 percent of households have provision for flush toilet, 30.2 percent of
households use LPG for cooking, more than three-fourths of the houses (79 percent) are pucca

                                                 6
         nd
houses an 93.4 perc  cent househ
                               holds have at least 3 roo
                                            t          oms (Table 2            e           erala,
                                                                   2.8). For the state of Ke
35.6 perc           seholds have BPL (below poverty li
         cent of hous          e           w                       nd          f           of
                                                       ine) cards an it varies from a low o 26
         n          to          44.6 percent in Wayanad district (Ta 2.9).
percent in Palakkad t a high of 4          t           d           able

      old      I
Househo Wealth Index

         ng           ld
Combinin househol amenities, assets and durables, a w                 x           ed
                                                          wealth index is compute at the nattional
         d            nto          s.
level and divided in quintiles Household are categ
                                               ds                    m           est
                                                         gorized from the poore to the ri   ichest
        c             ng
groups correspondin to the lo                 e
                                  owest to the highest qu             he                    ed
                                                         uintiles at th national level. Base on
                      nts,         a          n          nt           ent)
national cut-off poin in Kerala lesser than one percen (0.5 perce of the h                  are
                                                                                 households a in
        est
the lowe wealth qu                            (49.4 percen of the ho
                       uintile and about half (          nt)                      re
                                                                      ouseholds ar in the highest
wealth qu             ural
         uintile. In ru areas only 4 percent households are in the lo             he       wealth
                                                                     owest or in th second w
                                  m
quintiles and in urban areas, more than tw                                                   n
                                             wo-thirds of the households (69 percent) are in the
        w             ile,         n
highest wealth quinti as shown in figure 1.   .

                                                   E
                                              FIGURE 1
                               OPORTION OF HOUSEHOLD BY WEALT QUINTILE
                             PRO         F         DS       TH

   Urban   1 5          26                                          69



   Rural 1 3      12                        40                                       44



  Kerala 1 3     11                    37                                       49

                                west
                              Low       Second   Middle    ourth
                                                          Fo            st
                                                                   Highes


                 on
Age-Sex Compositio

         rall        o
The over sex ratio in Kerala is 1058 fem    males per                           FIGURE 2
                                                                             AGE-SEX PYR
                                                                                       RAMID
1000 ma ales. The age           mid
                     e-sex pyram (figure2) depict a          80+
                    g             ith       g
scenario of declining fertility wi shrinking base of       75-79
                                                           70-74         M
                                                                         Male                  Female
24.7 perc            total popula
         cent of the t           ation below 15 years      65-69
                                                           60-64
and indic           dually aging population with 8.3
         cates a grad                                      55-59
        of
percent o the popula                        65
                     ation above the age of 6 years.       50-54
                                                           45-49
The rema            ercent of the population is in the
         aining 67 pe            e                         40-44
                                                           35-39
        ears         up.         re
15-64 ye age grou There ar more children (25               30-34
percent) in rural ar             n
                    reas than in urban areas (23.6         25-29
                                                           20-24
percent) (Table 2.1).                                      15-19
                                                           10-14
                                                             5-9
         n
The mean age at mar              ys           in
                     rriage of boy and girls i Kerala        0-4
         y           2.1
are 28.3 years and 22 years res               n
                                 spectively. In Kerala,
                                                               5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5
        ent          d           nt
1.2 perce boys and 6.8 percen girls were married                                  ent
                                                                              Perce
        ttaining the m
before at                         gal
                     minimum leg age for m    marriage.
         d           ng
Boys and girls gettin married b   below the p            egal age are highest in Malappuram (3.1
                                             prescribed le                        M        m
percent b            5
         boys and 25 percent gi               hanamthitta district, not even one case is repo
                                 irls). In Path                       t                     orted,
         g           3
according to DLHS-3 (Table 2.3)   ).

                                                  7
       y          d
Literacy by Age and Sex

                      the         on
Only 1.4 percent of t populatio of 7-9 years are                             FIGURE 3
         ate. Non-lit
non-litera                        2.1
                      teracy is 2 percent point                        TAGE NON-LIT
                                                                 PERCENT             TERATE BY AGE  E
                                                                             AND SEX X
         or
higher fo males. Th   here are gen            n
                                  nder gaps in rural
         the         ups          .6
areas in t age grou 10-14 (0. percent fo maleor             2.1
          p                       d           rs
and 0.4 percent for female) and 15-19 year (0.9
percent for male a    and 1.0 per            female)
                                  rcent for fe
(Table 2.4). The info            n            ons
                     formation on main reaso for                  0.8                       0.8 0.99
        g
dropping out of sc    chool was also collected in                          0.5
                                                                                 0.3
         .
DLHS-3. For girls b                          y
                     below 18 years as many as 27
percent stated that they were not interes    sted in
                                                               7-9          10-14            15-19
        followed by 14 percent said that co too
studies f                                     ost                       MALE     FEMALE
much, 9.2 percent were got m     married, 8 p percent
were requ uired for hou           rk,
                       usehold wor repeated failure (5.5 percent), fur               ion
                                                                       rther educati not nece     essary
        cent) and sch
(3.7 perc            hool too far (
                                  (1.2 percent) as the main reasons for dropping out of school The
                                              )           n            r            o              l.
                                             ng                       ot
reported main reason for boys for droppin out of school are no interested in studies (41.3
                      or         w
percent), required fo outside work (11.8 p                             h
                                              percent), cost too much (8.8 perce     ent), required for
         ld          4           fo          are          gs
househol work (4.4 percent), for taking ca of sibling (9.4 percent) and fur                        ion
                                                                                     rther educati is
not neces            ercent) (Tabl 2.6).
         ssary (6.9 pe            le

    ACTERISTI
CHARA               OMEN AND FERTILIT
            ICS OF WO      D        TY

Age at co            on           ge                       fo
         onsummatio of marriag is at least 18 years for 81.2 perc                             mpled
                                                                       cent of ever married sam
women a               en
         aged betwee 15-49 years irrespect                 dence. Propo
                                               tive of resid                       en          ate
                                                                       ortion wome non-litera is
more in rrural areas (            )           ban                      of          n           s,
                      (3.9 percent) than in urb areas (1.2 percent) o Kerala. In urban areas the
        on            n           e            nt)         er                      t).
proportio of women non-literate (1.4 percen was lesse than men (1.2 percent In Kerala, 44.2    ,
         o
percent of married w                          nt          men
                      women and 38.6 percen married m have at least 10 years of educa          ation.
         5.2
About 45 percent of ever ma                   en
                                  arried wome were mar                 5
                                                            rried for 15 years or mmore, 18 peercent
women w                ess
         were with le than 5 y    years of ma              on           r           ied
                                              arital duratio and other ever marri women were
almost eq             ibuted in the categories of 5-9 and 10-14 year marital du
          qually distri           e                                    rs                      ut
                                                                                   uration (abou 18
         in
percent i each cate  egory). In KKerala, only 0.3 percent of women belong to h                  n
                                                                                  households in the
lowest w               ile.                   men           ng         st
        wealth quinti In rural areas, wom belongin to lowes and secon lowest w     nd         wealth
quintiles are 0.4 and 2.4 percent r           y
                                   respectively (Table 3.1).

      hildren Eve Born by D
Mean Ch         er        Districts

Mean Ch                           EB)
         hildren Ever Born (MCE to ever m                  men
                                               married wom aged bet                           und
                                                                      tween 15-49 years is fou to
         h
be 2 with small diffe                                       and
                      erential by residence (2.02 in rural a 1.93 in u            ),          s
                                                                       urban areas) while it is 2.94
for non-lliterates and 1.63 for wo              t          ears
                                   omen with at least 10 ye of educa              ompleted fer
                                                                      ation. The co            rtility
         d            of
measured in terms o average c                   r          ver                    d
                                  children ever born to ev married women aged between 4       40-49
         2.51
years is 2 (Table 3                t-wise distrib
                      3.5). District            bution of MC           cted      figure 4.
                                                            CEB is depic in the fi

        he          ever married women dur
Out of th births to e                                   e           od        g           ,
                                           ring the three years perio preceding the survey, 15.7
        were of thir or higher order births and the co
percent w           rd                                              g                     d
                                                        orresponding figures were 40.7 and 9.1
        for
percent f non-liter                       married wom with 10 or more ye
                    rate and for the ever-m            men                               ooling
                                                                              ears of scho


                                                   8
respectively (Table 3.3). The births of third                          FIGURE 4
and higher order were more among the ever                 MEAN CHILDREN EVER BORN BY DISTRICT
married women who live in rural areas (16.1               Pathanamthitta                   1.8
percent) and those belonging to scheduled                        Kollam                    1.8

tribe category (31.3 percent) and less to ever-               Ernakulam                    1.8
                                                              Alappuzha                    1.8
married women in urban areas (27.1 percent),
                                                      Thiruvananthapuram                   1.8
and those belonging to other castes (7.9
                                                               Kottayam                     1.9
percent). Births of third and higher order were
                                                                 Kannur                     1.9
highest in Malappuram (34.3 percent) and                          Idukki                    1.9
lowest in Pathanamthitta (4.7 percent) (Table                   Thrissur                    1.9
3.4).                                                           Palakkad                     2.0
                                                                  Kerala                     2.0
More than four-fifth (90.2 percent) of                    Kozhikode                    2.1
pregnancies which occurred during the three                Wayanad                     2.1
years period preceding the survey to currently           Kasaragod                       2.3
married women aged between 15-49 years are              Malappuram                         2.5
found to be live births. In Kerala, 6.3 percent
of the pregnancies in the three years period preceding the survey resulted in spontaneous
abortion and this vary from 3 percent in Palakkad and Ernakulam, to 9.7 percent in Malappuram
(Table 3.8).

Fertility Intention and Preferences of Currently Married Women

Fertility preferences of currently married women in terms of desire for additional child and
timing to have the desired additional child (among those with no living children) was 59.9
percent who want a child soon (within the next two years) and 25.9 percent who want a child 2
or more years later. Among the currently married women with one living child, the proportion
women wanting an additional child soon (within 2 years) and after 2 years were 24.6 and 39.3
percent respectively. Around nine-tenth of the currently married women with two or more living
children are either sterilized or want no more children (68.5 percent and 20.6 percent
respectively). As many as 18.9 percent of currently married women want no more children, 12.7
percent want a child soon, 1.1 percent are undecided and 49.9 percent have undergone
sterilization (figure 5).

Among the currently married women with no living children but want a child, 87.4 percent
reported that sex of the child does not matter, 6.3 percent say it is ‘up to god’, 3.7 and 2.5 percent
want a boy and a girl child respectively (Table 3.6).




                                                  9
                                              FIGURE 5
                         FERTILITY PREFERENCES OF CURRENTLY MARRIED WOMEN

                                  Want another soon
                                        13%         Want another later        Want
                                                          14%           another, undecided
                 Inconsistent response
                          0.4%                                                when

                Declared infecund                                    Undecided 1%
                       2%                                               1%




                                                                            Want no more children
                                                                                    19%
                 Sterilized
                   50%




MATERNAL HEALTH CARE

Maternal health care package of antenatal care is the main programme of NRHM to strengthen
RCH care. ANC provided by a doctor, an ANM or other health professional comprises of
physical checks, checking the position and the growth of foetus and giving TT injection at
periodic intervals during the time of pregnancy. At least three check-ups are expected to
complete the course of ANC to safeguard women from pregnancy related complications.
Institutional delivery and post-natal care in a health facility is promoted in NRHM through the
Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) to prevent maternal deaths.

Any ANC by Selected Background Characteristics

Among women who had their last live/still birth                              FIGURE 6
                                                                      ANY ANC BY BACKGROUND
in the three year period preceding the survey,                           CHARACTERISTICS
almost all (99.8 percent) received at least one                     Age group
antenatal check 39.3 percent from government                            15-19                         100
health facility and 67.7 percent from private                           20-24                         99.8
                                                                        25-29                         99.8
health facility and 5 percent from community-                           30-34                         100
based services (Table 4.1).                                               35 +                       99.3

                                                          No. of living children
A distinctive feature is that any ANC is low                                   0                      100
(88.5 percent) among non-literates as against                                  1                      99.9
                                                                               2                      100
100 percent among women educated for 10 or                                     3                      99.8
more years. Practically, there is no rural-urban                              4+                    98.2
differential in this regard (figure 6).
                                                                    Residence
                                                                         Rural                       99.8
The coverage of ANC was almost 100 percent in                           Urban                        100
almost all districts. In all districts of Kerala,
                                                                     Education
women availed ANC service either from a                           Non-literate               88.5
government or private health facility or from              Less than five years                     98.3
both facilities. For women in Wayanad district,                       5-9 years                       99.9
                                                              10 or more years                        100
61.4 percent had ANC from a government

                                                   10
facility and 52.4 percent received it from a                          MAP 1
private facility, while the corresponding             FULL ANTE-NATAL CHECK UPS BY DISTRICTS
government and private health facility utilization
for ANC in Kannur were 21.9 and 85.6 percent
respectively (Table 4.2).

All checks and examinations recommended for
ANC are not availed by women who had ANC
during pregnancy. The proportion of women who
have weight and height measured, blood pressure
checked, blood and urine tested, abdomen and
breast examined are 96.8, 46.0, 98.5, 98.7, 98.9,
98.1 and 86.8 percent respectively (Table 4.3).
Women went for sonography/ultra sound test is
93.3 percent; it is high in urban areas (95.3
percent), among women with 10 or more years of
schooling (96.4 percent) and women belonging to
the households in the highest wealth quintile
(96.9 percent) (Table 4.3).

In Kerala 95.6 percent women received ANC in
the first trimester, 96.6 percent had at least one
TT injection and 72.2 percent of the women
received full ANC (Table 4.6). In Malappuram a
lowest 55.9 percent and in Kottayam a highest
84.4 percent of women have received full ANC
as shown in the Map 1. The proportion of women
who consumed 100 IFA tablets was 73.3 percent
(Table 4.6).

Institutional Delivery
In Kerala, the institutional delivery had increased from 97 percent in DLHS-1 (1998-99) to 97.8
percent in DLHS-2 (2002-04) and 99.4 percent in DLHS-3 (2007-08) as presented in figure 7.
Ninety-nine percent of deliveries in the three year
period preceding the survey, which results either in                     FIGURE 7
                                                                 PROGRESS IN INSTITUTIONAL
still or live births, were done in health facilities either              DELIVERY
in public or private. Besides Wayanad (95.5 percent),                                    99.4
Kasaragod         (98.6.percent),   Thiruvananthapuram
(99.0.percent) and Palakkad (99.2 percent),
                                                                            97.8
institutional delivery is 100 percent in all other
                                                                97
districts. Percentage of safe delivery is equal (99.4
percent) to the institutional delivery conducted (Table
4.9). In Kerala, 15.3 percent of the deliveries which
took place in institutions after January 1, 2004 have
                                                              DLHS-1      DLHS-2        DLHS-3
been provided with Janani Suraksha Yojna (JSY)


                                               11
financial assistance. The mean cost of delivery at government health facility is lower
(Rs. 3,730/-) as compared to private health facility (Rs. 9,285/-). More than half (58.2 percent) of
the women, who had institutional delivery used an ambulance or jeep or car as the mode of
transport and mean cost of transportation was Rs. 207/- (Table 4.8). Women who had home
delivery, 4.4, 8.7, 12.9, 30.7 and 38.9 reported institutional delivery was not necessary, better
care at home, no transport or too far, cost too much, and no time to go respectively as reasons for
not opting for delivery in a health facility (Table 4.10).

Complications during Pregnancy, Delivery and Post-delivery Period

Women who either do not take ANC or take an incomplete course of ANC are exposed to the
risk of maternal death. In Kerala, as much as 24 percent of women who had still /live births in
the three year period preceding the survey had some complications during pregnancy. This varies
from 38.9 percent in Kollam to 14.2 percent in Pathanamthitta. Among the women who had
complications during pregnancy 84.2 percent of them sought the treatment.

Twenty-four percent of women in Kerala had faced at least one delivery complication. The main
cause of delivery complications were obstructed labour (37.3 percent), premature labour (32.3
percent), Convulsion/high BP (17.4), and prolonged labour (14.2 percent) experienced by
women who had still or live births in the three year period preceding the survey (Table 4.11).

More than one-fifth (21.5 percent) of women in Kerala had post-delivery complications. The
major problems during post-delivery period were high fever (45.8 percent) followed by lower
abdominal pain (42.6 percent) (Table 4.12). Post-delivery complications were lowest in Kannur
(10.7 percent) and highest in Thrissur (30.3 percent). Among the women who had post-delivery
complications, 92.4 percent had sought treatment in Kasaragod and 69.7 percent in Thrissur
(Table 4.15).

CHILD HEALTH CARE AND IMMUNIZATION

To promote child survival and prevent infant mortality, NRHM envisages new born care,
breastfeeding and food supplementation at the right time and a complete package of
immunization for children. Ninety-nine percent of newborn during the three years period
preceding the survey were examined within 24 hours of birth. Newborn to women educated upto
10 or more years (99.5 percent) and belonging to other castes (99.5 percent) have received care
within 24 hours as compared to others. Women who availed newborn care from a private health
facility constitutes 64.1 percent as compared to newborn care availed from government facility
(35.8 percent) and at home (0.1 percent) (Table 5.1).

Ninety-seven percent of children aged under 3 years, born after January 1, 2004, were fed with
colostrum. Women who are from rural areas (97.3 percent), schedule tribes (100 percent) and
from the children belonging to the highest wealth quintile households (96.3 percent) were more
likely to give colostrum to their children than their counterparts who live in urban areas
(95.9 percent), non-literates (96.5 percent) and those belong to scheduled castes (95.9 percent)
(Table 5.2). No such visible variations across districts are found. The percentage of children who


                                                12
received colostrum varies from a lowest of 90 percent in Ernakulam district to the highest of 98.8
percent in the districts of Kozhikode and Wayanad (Table 5.5).

Around two-third (64.6 percent) of women had initiated breastfeeding within one hour of birth of
the child. Ninety-seven percent started breastfeeding within 24 hours of birth (Table 5.2). The
initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth was least practiced among women in
Ernakulam (50 percent) and most widely practiced in Wayanad (83.5 percent). The percentage
of women initiate breastfeeding within 24 hours of birth of their children, ranges from 91.2
percent in Ernakulam to 98.9 percent in Kottayam (Table 5.5).

Median duration of exclusive breastfeeding of the youngest surviving child was 4.3 months
(Table 5.3). For those children who had started food supplementation while still breastfeeding,
the median age in months at the time of other fluids, semi-solid food and solid food
supplementation were 5.4 months, 6.6 months and 8 months respectively. The proportion of
youngest surviving child who had exclusively breastfed for 6 months was 68.9 percent
(Table 5.4).

                                                                         MAP 2
Immunization Coverage of Children Aged                 FULL IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE OF CHILDREN
                                                             AGED 12-23 MONTHS BY DISTICTS
12-23 Months

In DLHS-3 immunization of children aged 12-23
months has been recorded either from
vaccination card or by asking the mother, in case
the card was not available. Seventy-six percent of
children’s vaccination data was recorded from
the vaccination card in Kerala. More than three-
fourth (79.6 percent) of children aged 12-23
months received full immunization comprising
BCG, three doses of DPT, three doses of Polio
(excluding Polio 0) and measles. Only 0.5
percent of children have not received any
recommended vaccine (Table 5.6).

Full immunization coverage would have been
well above 80 percent, if immunization against
DPT did not drop down to 9.8 percent point from
first (96.9 percent) to third (87.1 percent) dose
and had vaccination against polio not dropped
11.8 percent point from first (98.4 percent) to
third (86.6 percent) dose. The coverage of
measles vaccine is 87.9 percent in Kerala. The
key to improvement in full immunization
coverage is to monitor drop out at all stages of
vaccination before completion of full course of
immunization. Higher coverage of full
vaccination is observed with the rural residents

                                               13
(80.3 percent), births of first order (83 percent) and children born to women educated up to 10 or
more years (84 percent) and children from households belonging to the highest wealth quintile
(80.7 percent) and it was lower for children belonging to urban areas (77 percent), births of order
four and above (63.4 percent) and children from households belonging to lowest wealth quintiles
(66.7 percent) (Table 5.6). District-wise variation in coverage of full Immunization is depicted in
the Map 2.

The coverage of full immunization has decreased from                       FIGURE 8
DLHS-1 to DLHS-2 (84 to 78.6 percent) and has                     CHANGE IN FULL IMMUNIZATION
                                                                    COVERAGE OF CHILDREN
increased only one percentage point in DLHS-3, as
depicted in figure 8. The coverage of full immunization          84.0

of children is below 70 percent in 3 districts of Kerala
Malappuram (63.9 percent), Kozhikode (65 percent)
and Palakkad (69.6 percent) and it is more than 90                                        79.6
percent in Thiruvananthapuram (91.2 percent) and                             78.6

Alappuzha (92.2 percent) (Table 5.7). With regard to
the place of immunization, children received it from a
Sub-Centre (1.9 percent) and Primary Health Centre
(PHC) (31 percent), 54.5 percent from other                    DLHS-1       DLHS-2      DLHS-3
government health facility and 45.8 percent from
private health facility (Table 5.8).

In Kerala, among children aged 12-35 months, more than three-fifth of them (64.1 percent) had
received at least one dose of Vitamin-A and only 10.2 percent of children had received 3-5 doses
of Vitamin-A supplementation (Table 5.9). In Malappuram only 37.6 percent and in Alappuzha
78.5 percent children aged 12-35 months received at least one dose of Vitamin-A (Table 5.7).

About three-fourths (73 percent) of children had Hepatitis-B vaccination. In Kerala, children
living in urban areas (73.7 percent), lower birth order (77.9 percent), mothers having 10 or more
years of education (80.4 percent), those belonging to other caste groups (82.9 percent) and from
the highest wealth quintile households (75.6 percent) are more likely to receive Hepatitis-B
vaccine than children living in rural areas (72.8 percent), four or more birth order (48.6 percent),
mothers with less than five years of education (50.1 percent) and those belonging to scheduled
tribes (53.8 percent) (Table 5.9).

Diarrhoea and Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) Management

DLHS-3 collected information on knowledge of diarrhoea and ARI management from women
respondents as part of assessment of child care knowledge. More than four-fifths (84.5 percent)
of women have knowledge of diarrhoea management (Table 5.10) and 38.5 percent are aware of
danger signs of ARI (Table 5.12). The common practice followed by women for treatment of
children who had diarrhoea was to give ORS (62.1 percent), salt and sugar solution (58 percent),
plenty of fluids (63.1 percent) and continue normal food (7.3 percent) (Table 5.10). Among 5.9
percent children who suffered from diarrhoea, 78.8 percent were sought advice/treatment and
45.6 percent among them were treated by ORS (Table 5.11). Only 38.5 percent children who had
suffered from diarrhoea are treated in a government health facility and 63.7 percent in private

                                                14
health facility (Table 5.11). In Ernakulam 2.4 percent children suffered from diarrhoea in the last
two weeks prior to the survey and among them 81.8 percent had sought advice/treatment and in
Wayanad 13 percent children suffered from diarrhoea and 84.2 percent of them had sought
advice/treatment (Table 5.13).

About 38.5 percent of women are aware about danger signs of ARI in Kerala. Forty-nine percent,
42.2, 14.8 and 9.1 percent of women know that difficulty in breathing, pain in chest and
productive cough, wheezing/whistling and rapid breathings respectively are the danger signs of
ARI (Table 5.12). The prevalence of ARI among children in Kerala is 11.5. Ninety percent of the
children who suffered from ARI or fever had sought advice/treatment, mostly at a private health
facility (63.3 percent) (Table 5.12).

The prevalence of ARI among children varies from 6.2 percent in Kasaragod district to 21.1
percent in Alappuzha district. The percentage of children who sought advice/treatment for ARI
or fever ranges from 78.6 percent in Thrissur to 98.6 percent in Idukki district (Table 5.13).

FAMILY PLANNING AND CONTRACEPTIVE USE

To achieve population stabilization and to encourage healthy married life, NRHM promotes
contraceptive use on voluntary basis through a comprehensive package of improved accessibility
and incentive programme. There is near universal awareness of sterilization for limiting and
IUD, Pills and Condom for spacing of children among the ever married and currently married
women in Kerala (Table 6.1). Female condom is least known among currently married women
with only 46.5 percent being aware of this contraceptive method. Emergency contraceptive pills,
injectables, withdrawal and rhythm methods were known to 70.9, 65.4, 73.3 and 78.8 percent of
currently married women. Similar pattern of awareness of different contraceptives are found in
all the districts of Kerala (Table 6.3).

Among currently married women age 15-49 years, the most popular method that they ever used
is female sterilization (49 percent) followed by Rhythm (27 percent), Pill (5 percent) and IUD
(12.8 percent). Condom/nirodh and withdrawal method are ever used by 16.6 and 25.5 percent
currently married women’s husbands. About 56 percent of women between 30-49 years are
sterilized and the female sterilization are more among rural women (50 percent) and less literate
women. The urban women (46 percent) and women educated for at least 10 years (39.3 percent)
are less likely to opt for female sterilization (Table 6.4).

Among the currently married women, the proportion using any modern method is 55.9 percent,
64.4 percent of currently married women used either modern or traditional methods (figure 9).
Female sterilization is predominant among the contraceptive methods being used by 49 percent
of currently married women aged between 15-49 years and popular male oriented spacing or
temporary method is condom/nirodh, used by 3.7 percent of husbands of currently married
women (Table 6.5A).




                                                15
                                               FIGURE 9
                 PERCENT CURRENTLY MARRIED WOMEN CURRENTLY USING CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS


        64.4
                        55.9
                                       49.1




                                                        1.8                          3.7
                                                                     0.4

    Any Method     Modern Method     Female             IUD          Pill         Condom
                                   Sterilization



Female sterilization, regardless of family size, doesn’t vary among currently married women
who have one or more living son compared to those with no living son. Women in the urban
areas, with more than 10 years of education, belongs to other backward classes and from richest
households are less likely to use female sterilization and more likely to use IUD and
Condom/nirodh (Table 6.5 B).

Among the currently married women using IUD as a spacing method, the proportion continuing
IUD for less than 2, 2-3 and more than 4 years are 49, 35.7, and 15.2 percent respectively. Oral
pill users continuing for more than 6 months constitute 38 percent of the total users and 74.7
percent of condom users are continuing with the same method for longer than 6 months (Table
6.5B). About one-third (29.4 percent) of women between 20-24 years, 44.4 percent of women
between 25-29 years and 19.7 percent of women between 30-34 years have been found to have
undergone female sterilization at the time of survey. Mean age of women at the time of
sterilization is 26.8 years (Table 6.6).

Contraceptive Prevalence Rate for Any Method

The contraceptive prevalence rate for any method                       FIGURE 10
                                                                CHANGE IN CONTRACEPTIVE
had increased by 1 percent point from 68 to 69                     PREVALENCE RATE
percent from DLHS-1 to DLHS-2 and then declined
                                                                           69
to 64 percent in DLHS-3 (figure 10). The                     68

contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) for any method
is lowest in Kasaragod (47.8 percent). CPR for any
                                                                                        64
method ranges from 53.2 to 74.7 percent in all other
districts (Table 6.7), depicted spatially in Map 3. The
prevalence of female sterilization is more than 50
percent in Wayanad, Thrissur, Ernakulam, Idukki,           DLHS-1       DLHS-2       DLHS-3
Kottayam,        Pathanamthitta,        Kollam      and
Thiruvananthapuram and the other districts has female sterilization ranged between 38 to 50
percent. The use of condom is least (2.3 percent) in Pathanamthitta and highest in Malappuram
and Alappuzha districts (5 percent).

                                                   16
The source of terminal and temporary methods of                       MAP 3
                                                       CONTRACEPTIVE PREVALENCE RATE BY ANY
contraceptives vary in the state, 62.9 percent of              METHOD BY DISTRICTS
sterilization has been done in a government
health facility. However, and only 21.2 percent
have availed government health services for
spacing methods (Table 6.8). The high and low
utilization rate of government health facility for
limiting and spacing methods is true for all the
districts of Kerala. In Kerala, half (49.4 percent)
of sterilized women and wives of men who had
undergone sterilization three years preceding the
survey got monetary compensation for
sterilization and as much as 87 percent of them at
the time of discharge. In Kasaragod, the lowest
proportion (32.7 percent) and highest (65.2
percent) in Alappuzha received cash benefits for
sterilization (Table 6.9).

In Kerala, 14.7, 37.5 and 23.1 percent of
sterilized women, users of IUD and Pills were
informed about the side-effects before the
adoption of the method and 10.7, 14.4 and 8.3
percent of women using the aforesaid methods
have experienced side-effects or health problems.
The main health problems/side effects faced by
women who have undergone sterilization were
body/back ache (67.1 percent), abdominal pain
(31.2 percent), weakness / inability to work (38.1
percent), irregular periods (7.4 percent) and
excessive bleeding (6.4 percent). For women
using IUD, the main problems were excessive bleeding (34.2 percent), abdominal pain (41.0
percent), body/back ache (58.9 percent), irregular periods (16.9 percent) and weakness/inability
to work (17.2 percent) (Table 6.10).

Among the currently married women who have discontinued contraception, the main reason
cited is related to fertility- to have a child (56.6 percent), while 3.7 percent mentioned side-
effects and 39.7 percent cited other reasons. For the younger women between 15-29 years, the
reasons for discontinuation of contraception are mostly fertility related and it is also true for
women with no living children or only one child (Table 6.11). 15.3 percent of currently married
women aged between 15-49 years not using any contraception intends to adopt limiting and 2
percent intend to use spacing method in future. Among the women who intended to adopt either
limiting or spacing method in future, 16.5 percent want to use it within 12 months and 18.5
percent want to use it after 12 months. Sixty-five percent women are still undecided about the
timing for adopting any family planning method (Table 6.12).




                                                17
Unmet Need for Contraception

The total unmet need for contraception, either for
                                                                     FIGURE 11
spacing or limiting, is 15.8 percent. Currently married      CHANGE IN UNMET NEED FOR
women physiologically fertile for conceiving and who               CONTRACEPTION
                                                                                 16
want a child after two or more years are considered to          15
have unmet need for spacing. In Kerala, 7.1 and 8.7
percent of currently married women have unmet need
for spacing and limiting respectively. Unmet need for
spacing is 21.9 for women with one living child and
25.1 to 28.9 percent among women under 25 years               DLHS-2           DLHS-3
(Table 6.15). The Unmet need for contraception has
increased by 1 percent point from 15 to 16 from DLHS-2 to DLHS-3, as shown in the figure 11.

Contraceptive Prevalence Rate and Unmet Need by Districts

The unmet need is 24.3 percent in Palakkad, the highest amongst the districts of Kerala. The
unmet need is lowest (7.6 percent) in Idukki. Among currently married women, the unmet need
for spacing was lowest (3.9 percent) in Pathanamthitta and highest (11 percent) in Malappuram
(Table 6.16). District-wise distribution of contraceptive prevalence rate and unmet need for
spacing and limiting are depicted in figure 12.

On the other hand, currently married women who still are physiologically fertile for conceiving
but do not want any more children are categorized as having unmet need for limiting and 8.7
percent women in Kerala have unmet need for limiting. The unmet need of contraception for
limiting is highest (14.6 percent) in Kasaragod and lowest (3.3 percent) in Idukki (Table 6.16). It
can be noted that unmet need for contraception is low for districts with higher contraceptive
prevalence rates.
                                                    FIGURE 12
                             CONTRACEPTIVE PREVALENCE RATE AND UNMET NEED BY DISTRICT
              Idukki                     3   4                                          79
 Thiruvananthapuram                    6    5                                       75
          Alappuzha                    6     4                                      75
           Kottayam                    5    5                                       75
              Kollam                   5    5                                       74
           Wayanad                    6    7                                       71
          Ernakulam                   8     5                                  68
      Pathanamthitta                  10     4                                 67
             Thrissur              13       6                                 65
              Kerala                9      7                                  64
          Kozhikode                 9      7                             59
        Malappuram               8       11                              57
            Palakkad          14         11                              56
             Kannur            13        10                          53
          Kasaragod            15         9                         48

                        30   20     10           0   10        20         30             40   50   60     70      80
        Unmet Need for Limiting        Unmet Need for Spacing             Contraceptive prevalence rate for Any Method



                                                          18
REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND AWARENESS OF RTIs / STIs AND HIV/AIDS

RTIs/STIs

An integrated agenda of NRHM is to promote awareness and knowledge on RTIs/STIs and
HIV/AIDS and to make health facilities accessible for checking and treatment seeking to ensure
healthy sexual life, free from fatal infection. One of the responsibilities of health personnel is to
provide correct knowledge of reproductive tract infections (RTIs)/sexually transmitted infections
(STIs), HIV/AIDS and to encourage testing and treatment.

Among ever married women aged between 15-49 years, 24.2 percent have experienced one or
the other menstruation related problems. Largely painful periods (58.6 percent), irregular periods
(31.2 percent), scanty bleeding (9.4 percent), frequent or short periods (8.8 percent), prolonged
bleeding (7.2 percent) and blood clots/excessive bleeding (6.7 percent) are major problems
reported by women in Kerala. The problem is high among the women in older age groups, those
had consummation of marriage before 18 years of age and rural women (Table 7.1).
                                                                           FIGURE 13
In Kerala, 75.8 percent of ever married women have                  HEARD ABOUT RTIs/STIs BY
heard about RTIs/STIs and it is more often heard by               BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
urban women (78.9 percent), recently married                        Age group
(marital duration 0-4 and 5-9) women (78 and 78.3                       15-19                     73
percent), women with more than 10 years of                              20-24                     75
                                                                        25-29                       78
education (85.8 percent) and women married to
                                                                        30-34                      78
more educated husbands (83.2 percent) than women                        35-39                      76
living in rural areas (74.9 percent), non-literate (42                  40-44                      76
percent) and those married to non-literate husbands                     45-49                    71
(49.2 percent), (Table 7.2) and also shown in figure
13. Women have heard about RTIs/STIs from                      Marital duration
                                                                            0-4                   78
multiple sources like television (66 percent), print                        5-9                   78
media (News papers /books /magazines/slogans                              10-14                   77
/pamphlets /posters) (61.9 percent), radio (42.5                            15+                  73
percent), relatives/friends (27 percent), and health
personnel (16.5 percent) (Table 7.2). Among those                   Residence
                                                                         Rural                    75
who have heard about RTIs/STIs, 81.3, 19.7, 24.0,
                                                                        Urban                      79
4.2, 3.7 and 6.2 percent have reported unsafe sex
with persons who have many partners, unsafe sex                      Education
with homosexuals, unsafe sex with sex workers,                    Non-literate         42
unsafe delivery, unsafe abortion, unsafe IUD               Less than five years             57
insertion, respectively as the reasons for                            5-9 years                  71
                                                              10 or more years                        86
transmission of RTIs/STIs (Table 7.3).

About 12 percent of ever married women age between 15-49 years has reported having
symptoms of RTIs/STIs and 9.2 percent have experienced abnormal vaginal discharge. Among
the women who had RTIs/STIs symptoms, 0.2 to 5.7 percent of women have itching or irritation
over vulva, boils/ulcers/warts around vulva, pain in lower abdomen not related to period,
swelling in the groin, painful blister like lesions, pain during sexual act and spotting after sexual


                                                 19
act (Table 7.4). More than three-fourth (78.8 percent) of the women discussed RTIs/STIs related
problems with their husbands and among the women having RTIs/STIs symptoms, 52.6 percent
have taken treatments, mainly from private doctors (55.9 percent) and also from a government
health facility (42.9 percent) (Table 7.5).

Idukki and Alappuzha are the two extreme districts as far as ever married women who have
heard about RTIs/STIs are concerned (62.1 and 89.4 percent having heard of it). In the districts
of Malappuram, Kasaragod, Kannur, Wayanad, Kozhikode, Palakkad, Thrissur, Kottayam,
Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam and Ernakulam 68.2 to 88.2 percent of ever married women have
heard about RTIs/STIs (Table 7.6). Women who have reported having abnormal vaginal
discharge and any symptom of RTIs/STIs in Wayanad are15.5 and 12.7 percent respectively and
in Kottayam it is 5 and 7.8 percent respectively. Pathanamthitta (30.8 percent) and Kasaragod
(62.7 percent) women sought treatment for RTIs/STIs (Table 7.6).

HIV/AIDS

Among the ever married women aged 15-49 years, almost all (97.7 percent) have heard of
HIV/AIDS and they have heard about it mostly from television (79 percent), print media (news
papers/ books/magazines/pamphlets/posters) (65.4 percent), Radio (49.7 percent) and from
relatives/friends (35.2 percent). Seventeen percent has heard about it from health personnel and
10.8 percent from leaders/community meeting. Unlike in the case of RTIs/STIs, school/adult
education program (7.6 percent) is not a major source of knowledge for HIV/AIDS (Table 7.7).
The main mode of transmission of HIV/AIDS reported by women are unsafe sex with persons
having many partners (71.7 percent), transfusion of infected blood (55.2 percent), unprotected
sex with an HIV/AIDS infected person (34.4 percent), unsafe sex with sex workers (27.9
percent), mother to child (23 percent) and unsafe sex with homosexuals (9.8 percent), as
presented in figure 14. There is no significant variation in the knowledge regarding the mode of
transmission of HIV/AIDS by the background of women (Table 7.8).

Knowledge of HIV/AIDS is almost universal in all districts of Kerala. In Wayanad district, the
women have least heard about HIV/AIDS (94 percent) and almost all women (99.7 percent) in
Pathanamthitta have heard of HIV/AIDS (Table 7.13). Among women who have heard of
HIV/AIDS and reported that transmission of HIV/AIDS can be prevented by having sex with one
partner or avoiding sex with homosexuals constitute 88.5 percent, avoid getting infected through

                                                FIGURE 14
                              KNOWLEDGE ABOUT MODE OF TRANSMISSION OF HIV/AIDS
        72

                         55

                                           34
                                                              28
                                                                                 23
                                                                                                    10



  Unsafe sex with   Transfusion of   Unprotected sex Unsafe sex with sex Infected mother to   Unsafe sex with
   person having    infected blood    with HIV/AIDS       workers               child          homosexuals
  many partners                      infected person


                                                     20
blood (safe blood transmission or avoiding sex with persons who inject drugs, use of tested
blood, use only new/sterilized needles, avoid IV drip and avoid razors/blades) comprises of 57
percent and using condom correctly in each sexual act constitutes 21.7 percent (Table 7.9). The
right knowledge that HIV/AIDS transmission can be prevented by using condom is least in
Malappuram (8.8 percent) and highest in Kozhikode (33.8 percent) (Table 7.13).

The most common misconception about transmission of HIV/AIDS among the ever married
women is that one can get HIV/AIDS from mosquito, flea or bug bites as reported by 25.9
percent of them. This misconception is more among rural, non-literate or less educated and
Muslim women. The proportion of women who have the misconception that HIV/AIDS can be
transmitted by shaking hands and hugging, sharing clothes, sharing food and stepping on others
urine/stool are 4.3, 6.5, 7.2, 6.5 and 11.7 percent respectively (Table 7.10). Regardless of
background characteristics, about half of ever married women knew the place where HIV/AIDS
can be tested. More than 50 percent women in Kozhikode, Thrissur, Ernakulam, Alappuzha,
Kollam, and Thiruvananthapuram know the place for testing and 33.3 to 48.4 percent of women
in Kasaragod, Wayanad, Malappuram, Idukki, Palakkad, Kottayam, Pathanamthitta, and Kannur
are aware of the same (Table 7.13). Fifty-two percent women reported that HIV/AIDS test can
be done in a government hospital/dispensary followed by 36.5 percent reporting private
hospital/clinic as the place for testing HIV/AIDS (Table 7.11). Just about 15 percent of ever
married women have undergone HIV/AIDS test, among them 67.6 percent have done it more
than a year ago and 32.4 percent during the last one year period (Table 7.12).

INFERTILITY AND CHILDLESSNESS

About eleven percent of ever married women aged between 15-49 years in Kerala have infertility
problem among them 8.7 and 1.8 percent had primary and secondary infertility respectively.
Those who had problems related to infertility, more than four-fifths (83 percent) reported to have
experienced problems in conceiving for the first time; 8.7 percent had problems in conceiving
after still/live birth and 7.8 percent had after undergoing induced abortion (Table 7.14). In
Kerala, 24.2 percent women had menstruation related problems. In Alappuzha it is highest (32.8
percent) and in Kasaragod and Palakkad districts it is lowest (17.7 percent each). Malappuram,
Ernakulam, Idukki, Pathanamthitta, Wayanad and Kollam are the other districts where more than
25 percent of women have reported menstruation related problems. One in every ten ever
married women have infertility problem including primary and secondary infertility, in almost all
districts of Kerala (Table 7.17).

Among currently married women aged 20-49 years, who have been married for at least five
years, 3 percent were childless and among them 2.6 percent had problem in conceiving. Among
the ever married women between 40-49 years, 2.5 percent of them are childless (Table 7.15).
Among currently married women aged 20-49 years, childlessness is high among non-literate
women (5.1 percent) and those who belong to poorest households (7 percent).

Among women who had primary or secondary infertility, 86.7 and 79.3 percent had sought
treatment respectively (Table 7.16). More than 85 percent woman who had an infertility problem
has taken treatment in Kasaragod, Kannur, Kozhikode, Thrissur, Ernakulam, Kottayam,
Alappuzha, Kollam and Thiruvananthapuram districts (Table 7.17).


                                               21
FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION AMONG UNMARRIED WOMEN

The objective of family life education is providing knowledge about the physiological features of
women and men as they grow up and make them understand the norms of marriage and
reproductive health of women. In DLHS-3 right knowledge and source of information about
RTIs/STIs, HIV/AIDS, Family Planning, Family Life Education, Marriage and Reproductive
Health were collected from unmarried women aged between 15-24 years.

In all 2,554 unmarried women were interviewed in Kerala, of which 66.8 percent were between
15-19 years and the remaining (33.2 percent) were between 20-24 years. About three-fourth
(74.6 percent) of the unmarried women in rural areas have 10 or more years of education and
among urban unmarried women, 81.7 percent had more than 10 years of education. In urban
areas, more than three-fifth (64.1 percent) of unmarried women were from richest households in
this survey (Table 8.1).

Little more than four-fifth (83.5 percent) of unmarried women were aware of Family Life
Education (FLE). Awareness about family life education among women aged 15-19 years is low
among those who live in rural areas, have lower levels of education, belonging to scheduled tribe
and scheduled caste categories, and women from households belong to low wealth quintile.
There is a significant gap between the level of awareness and perception of importance of family
life education among the unmarried women in Kerala by selected background characteristics.
Forty-four percent of women were of the opinion that family life education should be imparted
by age 12-14 years. As many as 48 percent of unmarried women felt it is important to provide
family life education after reaching tenth standard in schools (Table 8.2).
                                                                    FIGURE 15
As regards the opinion on ideal persons who            KNOWLEGDE ABOUT MINIMUM LEGAL AGE AT
should impart family life education, 68.8 percent         MARRIAGE OF BOYS AND GIRLS BY
                                                           BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
of unmarried women felt that parents should
provide family life education, while 11 percent          Wealth index
were of the view that it should be provided by                Second                     72
                                                                                           79

brother/sister/sister-in-law. About 70 percent felt            Middle                         82
                                                                                                   92

that it should be provided by teacher                          Fourth                         85
                                                                                                    94

/school/college and 11 percent were of the view               Highest                              90
                                                                                                     96

that it should be provided by friends/peers. Only
18 percent of unmarried women mentioned that               Age group
healthcare providers/sex education experts are                  15-19                          87
                                                                                                  95

ideal persons to impart such education (Table                   20-24                          87
                                                                                                 94

8.3).
                                                            Residence
Less than three-fourth (71.4 percent) of the                    Rural                         87
                                                                                                 95

unmarried women in Kerala had received family                   Urban                            94
                                                                                              86
life education. The main source is school/college
(91.1 percent), followed by government                      Education
programme/camp (12.4 percent). 2.7 percent had               5-9 years                         86
                                                                                         74
received family life education from a NGO             10 or more years                               97
                                                                                                   91
programme/camp (Table 8.4).                                               Girls   Boys



                                                22
It has been observed that 9 out of 10 unmarried women (between 15-24 years of age) have the
knowledge of minimum legal age of marriage for boys and girls in India. Almost all women
(98.3 percent) in the age group of 15-24 years reported that the ideal age of marriage for girls is
18 years and above (Table 8.5).

REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND AWARENESS OF RTIs/STIs AND HIV/AIDS
AMONG UNMARRIED WOMEN

In DLHS-3, information regarding menstruation and menstruation related problems experienced
by unmarried women during the three months preceding the survey were collected. About three
in every ten women (29.8 percent) had reported menstruation related problems during the last
three months. Among them, eighty-four percent of unmarried women had painful periods, 19.7
percent had irregular periods. Few women had problems like absence of menstruation, frequent
or short menstrual periods, prolonged bleeding, scanty bleeding or blood clots/excessive
bleeding (Table 8.6).

The practices followed during menstruation are important from the consideration of RTI and
personal hygiene. Currently menstruating women were asked about the practices followed during
the menstrual period. About three-fourth (70.9 percent) of the currently menstruating women
used clothes, 56.4 percent use sanitary napkins and 3.6 percent used locally prepared napkins
(Table 8.7).

Awareness on contraceptive methods is an integral component of family life education. It is
important to assess the knowledge of contraceptive means and methods among the unmarried
women. About 48.7 percent of unmarried women (between 15-24 years) had the knowledge of
male sterilization and 87 percent had knowledge of female sterilization. As regards spacing
methods, 82 percent had knowledge of pills, 78 percent had knowledge of condom/nirodh and 53
percent had knowledge of IUD. About half of unmarried women had knowledge of emergency
contraception and knowledge about injectables (53.3 percent and 49.2 percent respectively)
(Table 8.8). Information was sought from unmarried women about the places from where one
can get pill and condom. About one-fourth (27.5 percent) of women were of the opinion that pill
and condom can be obtained from government health facilities, but 72 percent said it can be had
from private sources too (Table 8.9).

The unmarried women were further asked about their involvement in discussions on family
planning. It has been found that 16.4 percent women had ever discussed about family planning
with anyone. Ten percent had discussed with parents, 12.5 percent had discussed with
brother/sister/sister-in-law, 85.3 percent with friends/peers (Table 8.10).

More than three-fourth (76 percent) of unmarried women had heard about RTIs/STIs. Majority
(57.7 percent) of unmarried women knew about RTIs/STIs from television, 63.6 percent from
print media (newspaper/books/magazines), 18.7 percent from relatives/friends, 56.9 percent from
adult education programme/school teacher and 35.5 percent heard about from radio. The other
sources of information are cinema, health personnel and partner (Table 8.11).




                                                23
Three-fourth (81.3 percent) of women mentioned that RTIs/STIs can be transmitted through
unsafe sex with persons who have many partners, 22.8 percent were of the opinion that it can be
transmitted through unsafe sex with homosexuals. Four, 3.7 and 5.7 percent of unmarried women
were of the view that RTIs/STIs can be transmitted through unsafe delivery, unsafe abortion and
unsafe IUD insertion (Table 8.12).

Almost all (99 percent) unmarried women had ever heard of HIV/AIDS. Among them 79 percent
women knew about HIV/AIDS from television, 70.5 percent from print media, 46.3 percent from
radio, 12.3 percent from cinema and 11 percent from health personnel. Among them, about 67.8
percent said that HIV/AIDS can be transmitted through unsafe sex with persons who have many
partners, 67.5 percent felt that through transfusion of blood, 38.5 percent said through
unprotected sex with HIV/AIDS infected person, 36.7 percent said that from infected mother to
child, 29.8 percent said that unsafe sex with sex workers and 10.8 percent said unsafe sex with
homosexuals (Table 8.14).

Even though the awareness level is very high in Kerala, there are still many misconceptions
about transmission of HIV/AIDS. Twenty-three percent unmarried women were of the view that
one can get HIV/AIDS by mosquito/flea or bedbugs bites, Eight, 4.6, 4.7, 3.6 and 8.9 percent
were of the view that one can get HIV/AIDS by kissing, hugging, sharing cloths, sharing food
and stepping on urine/stools of someone who already had AIDS, respectively (Table 8.15). These
women were further asked about how to avoid or reduce the chances of infecting HIV/AIDS.
About three-fourth (61.6 percent) of unmarried women felt that it can be avoided by avoiding sex
with person who inject drugs, 83.5 percent felt that they could avoid by limiting number of
sexual partner and avoid sex with sex workers, 23.7 percent feel the use of condom correctly
during each sexual act may reduce the chances of infecting HIV/AIDS, 6.6 percent women were
of opinion that abstain from sex also may reduce the chances of infection of HIV/AIDS and 12.4
percent said avoid pregnancy when infected with HIV/AIDS (Table 8.16).

In Kerala, 50.6 percent women were aware of the place where HIV/AIDS could be tested. They
knew that it can be done either at the government or private hospitals (89.2 and 38.2 percent in
government and private hospitals respectively), CHC/PHC/Sub-Centre (5.1 percent) and
VCTC/ICTC clinics (8.7 percent) (Table 8.17). Eighty-six percent of unmarried women knew
that it was possible to know the sex of the baby before the baby was born by a medical test and
32.8 percent were of the opinion that a woman is most likely to get pregnant if she had sexual
intercourse half way between her periods (Table 8.18).

HEALTH FACILITIES - AVAILABILITY AND QUALITY

Health Facility Survey was conducted as a companion survey of the household survey in
DLHS-3. It includes Sub-Centres, Primary Health Centres (PHCs), Community Health Centres
(CHCs) and district hospitals. The basic objective of facility survey is to collect data on health
personnel, availability of drugs/medicines, equipments, basic RCH care amenities and
infrastructure at the level of Sub-Centre, PHC, CHC and district hospitals in order to assess the
adequacy of RCH services. The average rural population served per Sub-Centre, PHC and CHC
in Kerala are 5,994, 29,683, and 1,18,654 respectively (Table 9.1). In all 537 villages were



                                               24
surveyed in DLHS-3 and the RCH services of these sampled villages were catered by 532 Sub-
Centres, 361 PHCs and 217 CHCs.

Almost all (99.6 percent) sampled villages have Sub-Centres within the villages. More than 95
percent of sampled Sub-Centres have an ANM/Female Health Worker (FHW) in position and
53.3 percent of sampled Sub-Centre have an ANM/FHW residing in Sub-Centre quarter. Out of
sampled Sub-Centres in Pathanamthitta which have 91 percent ANMs in position, only 18.2
percent of the ANMs reside in Sub-Centre quarter and in Malappuram 77.4 percent ANMs stay
in government quarter available at the Sub-Centre (Table 9.2). Out of the 409 Sub-Centres
located in public building, 318 (77.8 percent) have regular electricity. There is toilet facility in
341 (83.4 percent) of the sampled Sub-Centres located in public buildings and about three-fourth
(75.6 percent) of Sub-Centres housed in government buildings have provision for water
(Table 9.3).

In order to assess the adequacy of the equipments in the sampled Sub-Centres, the Sub-Centres
having 60 percent of essential equipments for RCH services are categorized as adequately
equipped, otherwise treated inadequately equipped. A similar categorization of Sub-Centres
having adequate stock of essential drugs for RCH services is also followed. It is being noted that
413 (77.6 percent) of the sampled Sub-Centres in Kerala are adequately equipped and in two
districts namely Pathanamthitta and Wayanad hundred percent adequacy of equipments in the
sampled Sub-Centres is observed. On the other hand, 513 (96.4 percent) of the sampled Sub-
Centres have adequate stock/supply of essential drugs for RCH services. In five districts-
Thrissur, Wayanad, Kozhikode, Ernakulam, and Pathanamthitta the sampled Sub-Centres have
hundred percent adequacies of essential drugs (Table 9.4). Citizen’s charter is displayed in 59.4
percent of the sampled Sub-Centres. The proportion of sampled Sub-Centres facilitated by
Village Health & Sanitation Committee (VHSC) and those received untied funds is 94.2 and 86.3
percent respectively (Table 9.5).

There are 307 (85 percent) PHCs where Medical Officers (MO) are in position. In Kollam
district all sampled PHCs have medical officers in position. There is no Lady Medical Officer
(LMO) in the sampled PHC of Kannur, Kozhikode, Thrissur, Ernakulam, Idukki, Pathanamthitta,
and Kollam districts. The Lady Medical Officers are positioned in 22 (6 percent) of the 361
sampled PHCs. In 355 (98.3 percent) of the sampled PHCs, Pharmacists are in position at the
time of the survey (Table 9.6).

About one-fourth of the 361 sampled PHCs have residential quarter for Medical Officer. Among
the 361 sampled PHCs, 37 (10.3 percent) of the PHCs were functioning on 24 hours basis. More
than one-fourth (27.4 percent) of the sampled PHCs have at least 4 beds. Three hundred and fifty
(97 percent) sampled PHCs have regular power supply and only 57 (15.8 percent) of the sampled
PHCs have functional vehicles (Table 9.7).

Newborn care equipments are available in only 4 of the sampled PHCs, 5 have functional
operation theatres and 8 provide referral services for delivery. Seventy-four percent of the PHCs
in Kerala have at least 60 percent of essential drugs and 97.2 percent have cold storage system.
None of the samped PHCs in Kerala has conducted at least 10 deliveries in the last one month
(Table 9.8). Citizen’s Charter displayed, Rogi Kalyan Samiti (RKS) constituted and Untied funds


                                                25
received by the 253 (70 percent), 326 (90.3 percent) and 345 (95.6 percent) of the sampled 361
PHCs respectively. Untied funds have been utilized by 86.4 percent of the PHCs (Table 9.9).

Among 217 CHCs, only 31 CHCs (14.3 percent) have gynaecologists in position and in
Pathanamthitta and Thrissur no gynaecologist in position among the sampled CHCs. The
proportion of CHCs which have a Pediatrician, Anesthetist and Health Manager are 15.7, 2.3 and
0.5 percent respectively (Table 9.10). Only 18 percent the sampled CHCs in Kerala are
designated as First Refferel Units (FRUs). Out of the 217 sampled CHCs, 57 (26.3 percent) and
11 (28.2 percent) have functional operation theatres and newborn care facilities (Table 9.11). Out
of the 217 CHCs, in 95.4 percent of CHCs, RKS have been constituted and 98.6 percent of the
constituted RKS are monitored regularly (Table 9.12).




                                               26
           TABLES



RESPONSE RATES AND DEMOGRAPHIC
          INDICATORS
TABLE 1.1 NUMBER OF HOUSEHOLDS, EVER-MARRIED WOMEN & UNMARRIED WOMEN INTERVIEWED
Number of households, ever-married women and unmarried women interviewed by district, Kerala, 2007-08
                              Number of households interviewed           Number of ever-married women interviewed     Number of unmarried women interviewed
                                                         Response                                         Response                                   Response
                           Total         Rural   Urban                  Total       Rural      Urban                 Total      Rural      Urban
State/district                                             rate                                             rate                                       rate

Kerala                   14,711     11,329       3,382     95.53       12,360      9,484       2,876         87.13   2,554      1,970        584       69.76

Kasaragod                  1067       855         212      97.00         976          764        212         86.99    237        187          50       75.24
Kannur                     1060       522         538      96.36        1015          517        498         88.03    168         86          82       66.93
Wayanad                    1064      1022          42      96.73         961          927         34         88.90    204        197           7       76.40
Kozhikode                  1068       660         408      97.09        1051          644        407         87.88    218        120          98       75.17
Malappuram                 1057       951         106      96.09        1127          997        130         85.83    242        222          20       75.86
Palakkad                   1012       869         143      92.00         852          732        120         85.37    185        169          16       73.41
Thrissur                   1022       735         287      92.91         829          619        210         84.42    175        122          53       62.72

Ernakulam                  1010       547         463      91.82          719         386        333         85.49    145         83          62       65.32
Idukki                     1068      1002          66      97.09          771         721         50         86.92    161        150          11       63.89
Kottayam                   1072       905         167      97.45          791         674        117         88.48    180        157          23       65.69
Alappuzha                  1049       739         310      95.36          809         552        257         85.25    168         98          70       65.88
Pathanamthitta             1073       967         106      97.55          773         690         83         89.78    168        155          13       66.14
Kollam                     1043       857         186      94.82          880         718        162         88.09    151        121          30       68.95
Thiruvananthapuram
                           1046          698      348      95.09          806         543        263         88.67    152        103          49       71.70
Note: Table based on unweighted cases.




                                                                                 29
TABLE 1.2 BASIC DEMOGRAPHIC INDICATORS
Basic demographic indicators of Kerala and its districts, Census 2001, India
                         Population                       Percentage                      Percentage literate 7+
                             (in        Percentage          decadal        Sex
                                                                      1        2
State/districts          thousands)        urban          growth rate     ratio    Male        Female          Total

Kerala                      31,841             26             9.4        1058      94.2          87.7          90.9

Kasaragod                    1,204           19.4            12.4        1047      90.4          79.1          84.6
Kannur                       2,409           50.3             7.0        1090      96.1          89.4          92.6
Wayanad                       7,80            3.8            16.1         995      89.8          80.7          85.2
Kozhikode                    2,879           38.2             9.9        1057      96.1          88.6          92.2

Malappuram                   3,625            9.8            17.1        1066      93.2          86.3          89.6
Palakkad                     2,617           13.6             9.9        1066      89.5          79.6          84.3
Thrissur                     2,974           28.2             8.7        1092      95.1          89.7          92.3
Ernakulam                    3,106           47.6             9.4        1019      95.8          90.7          93.2

Idukki                       1,129            5.1             7.0         993      92.3          85.0          88.7
Kottayam                     1,954           15.3             6.9        1025      97.3          94.4          95.8
Alappuzha                    2,109           29.5             5.4        1079      96.3          90.8          93.4
Pathanamthitta               1,234           10.0             3.8        1094      96.4          93.4          94.8

Kollam                       2,585           18.0             7.4        1069      94.4          88.2          91.2
Thiruvananthapuram           3,234           33.8             9.8        1060      92.6          86.1          89.2
Source: Primary Census Abstract, Series 20, Census of India, 2001.
1 1991-2001
2 Females per 1,000 males.




                                                            30
BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS OF
        HOUSEHOLDS
TABLE 2.1 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION BY AGE AND SEX
Percent distribution of the household population by age, residence and sex, Kerala, 2007-08
                                Total                                       Rural                                  Urban
Age                Total        Male        Female           Total         Male      Female           Total       Male       Female

<1                   1.7           1.8          1.6            1.7           1.8        1.6            1.7         1.9         1.5
1-4                  6.4           6.8          6.0            6.4           6.8        6.0            6.2         6.7         5.8
5-9                  8.0           8.3          7.6            8.2           8.6        7.8            7.3         7.5         7.0
10-14                8.6           9.1          8.2            8.7           9.1        8.2            8.4         8.9         7.9
15-19                8.2           8.7          7.7            8.4           8.9        7.8            7.5         8.0         7.1
20-24                8.9           8.8          8.9            9.0           9.0        9.0            8.6         8.5         8.8
25-29                8.2           7.8          8.5            8.2           7.8        8.5            8.2         7.8         8.5
30-34                7.4           7.1          7.7            7.4           7.1        7.6            7.6         7.3         7.9
35-39                7.6           7.2          8.0            7.6           7.2        7.9            7.8         7.4         8.2
40-44                6.6           6.5          6.7            6.5           6.4        6.7            6.8         7.0         6.6
45-49                6.1           6.4          5.7            6.0           6.5        5.6            6.3         6.3         6.2
50-54                5.7           5.3          6.1            5.5           5.0        6.0            6.1         6.0         6.2
55-59                4.9           4.9          4.8            4.8           4.9        4.8            5.0         5.0         4.9
60-64                3.6           3.7          3.6            3.6           3.6        3.5            3.9         3.9         3.9
65-69                3.0           2.7          3.2            2.9           2.7        3.1            3.3         2.9         3.6
70-74                2.2           2.0          2.3            2.1           2.0        2.3            2.3         2.2         2.3
75-79                1.5           1.2          1.7            1.5           1.3        1.6            1.4         1.0         1.8
80+                  1.6           1.3          1.8            1.5           1.3        1.8            1.6         1.5         1.7

Below 15            24.7         26.0          23.4           25.0          26.3       23.6           23.6       25.0         22.2

Number of
Persons**        66,939        32,046       34,893         51,302         24,593     26,709         15,637      7,453        8,184
            1
Sex ratio          1,089           na            na         1,086            na          na          1,098         na           na

Note 1: Table is based on the de facto population, i.e. persons who stayed in the household the night before the interview (including
both usual residents and visitors).
 na = Not applicable.
** Unweighted cases.
1
  Females per 1000 males.




                                                                     33
Table 2.2 MARITAL STATUS OF THE HOUSEHOLD POPULATION
Percent distribution of the household population (age10 years and above) by marital status, age and sex, Kerala, 2007-08
                                        Marital status                                                   Number of
            Never         Currently     Married, gauna not        Widowed/ divorced/      Total          persons**
Age         married       married           performed                 separated          percent
                                                             Total

10-14          99.4            0.6                0.0                      0.0             100.0             5,755
15-19          94.2            5.7               0.02                      0.1             100.0             5,472
20-24          66.1           33.5               0.03                      0.3             100.0             5,954
25-29          34.4           64.3                0.0                      1.3             100.0             5,487
30-44           6.5           89.9                0.0                      3.6             100.0            14,504
45-59           1.9           87.2                0.0                     10.9             100.0            11,125
60+             1.6           59.4               0.01                     38.9             100.0             7,898
Total          32.0           59.3               0.01                      8.7             100.0            56,195

                                                             Male

10-14          99.3            0.7                0.0                      0.0             100.0             2,912
15-19          99.1            0.9                0.0                      0.0             100.0             2,796
20-24          93.8            6.1               0.07                      0.0             100.0             2,835
25-29          60.4           39.2                0.0                      0.4             100.0             2,505
30-44           9.5           89.8                0.0                      0.7             100.0             6,700
45-59           1.3           97.5                0.0                      1.2             100.0             5,330
60+             1.5           89.6                0.0                      8.9             100.0             3,532
Total          39.8           58.5               0.01                      1.6             100.0            26,610

                                                         Female

10-14          99.5            0.5                0.0                      0.0             100.0             2,843
15-19          89.0           10.7               0.04                      0.2             100.0             2,676
20-24          41.0           58.4                0.0                      0.6             100.0             3,119
25-29          12.6           85.3                0.0                      2.2             100.0             2,982
30-44           3.9           90.0                0.0                      6.1             100.0             7,804
45-59           2.5           77.7                0.0                     19.8             100.0             5,795
60+             1.7           35.0               0.02                     63.2             100.0             4,366
Total          25.0           59.9               0.01                     15.1             100.0            29,585

**Unweighted cases




                                                             34
Table 2.3 AGE AT MARRIAGE
Mean age at marriage and percentage of marriages below legally prescribed minimum age at marriage by sex,
residence and districts, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                          Percentage of marriages
                                                             below legal age at
                          Mean age at marriage                   marriage
                                                                                      Currently married
                                                             Boys         Girls      women aged 20-24
Place of residence/                                       (<21 years)     (<18       who were married
       district            Boys          Girls                           years)        before age 18

District

Kasaragod                 28.0            21.6              2.3           5.1             20.0
Kannur                    29.4            22.2              0.0           6.7              7.3
Wayanad                   27.0            21.2              4.6           9.4             20.1
Kozhikode                 28.4            21.3              0.5           3.1             24.8

Malappuram                26.0            19.2              3.1          25.0             34.8
Palakkad                  28.3            22.1              0.0          12.6             19.5
Thrissur                  29.1            22.0              1.9           2.7             11.1
Ernakulam                 29.5            23.7              0.0           3.9              4.1

Idukki                    27.9            23.6              0.7           3.1              6.3
Kottayam                  28.8            24.3              0.9           0.8              5.9
Alappuzha                 28.3            22.9              0.8           0.0              2.5
Pathanamthitta            28.9            23.7              0.0           0.0              0.0

Kollam                    28.9            22.2              1.7           2.6              3.4
Thiruvananthapuram        28.4            23.3              0.0           1.8             11.5

Rural                     28.1            22.0              1.4           7.5             16.5
Urban                     28.9            22.6              0.7           4.3             11.7

Kerala                    28.3            22.1              1.2           6.8             15.5
                            st
Reference period: January 1 , 2004 to survey date.




                                                     35
Table 2.4 EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF THE HOUSEHOLD POPULATION
Percent distribution of household population age 7 years and above by literacy levels and years of schooling, age, residence and sex,
Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                                                                         Number
                                                                                                            Total
                                    Years of schooling among those who are literate                        Percent          of
                                                                                              Missing                   persons**
                   Non-                                                            11 or
Age              literate     Less than 5          6-8            9 - 10           more
                                                              Total

7-9                1.4            99.8               0.2               0.0         0.0            0.0      100.0          3,293
10-14              0.4            38.9              52.6               8.5         0.1            0.0      100.0          5,755
15-19              0.9             1.0               8.7              42.7        47.6            0.0      100.0          5,472
20-29              1.4             2.5              11.7              40.0        45.8            0.1      100.0         11,441
30-39              3.4             8.7              19.4              39.3        32.5            0.2      100.0         10,077
40-49              7.2            19.8              21.6              35.6        22.5            0.4      100.0          8,495
50+               20.2            40.0              20.8              24.7        13.3            1.1      100.0         14,955
Total              7.1            23.5              19.7              30.6        25.8            0.3      100.0         59,488

                                                                Males

7-9                2.1            99.9               0.0               0.0         0.0            0.1      100.0          1,671
10-14              0.5            41.2              52.7               6.1         0.1            0.0      100.0          2,912
15-19              0.8             1.2              11.7              45.0        42.1            0.0      100.0          2,796
20-29              1.0             2.9              14.0              40.6        42.6            0.0      100.0          5,340
30-39              2.3             8.5              20.0              40.7        30.7            0.2      100.0          4,605
40-49              5.2            18.9              21.2              36.9        22.8            0.2      100.0          4,160
50+               10.8            35.7              20.6              26.4        16.3            0.9      100.0          6,797
Total              4.2            23.3              20.6              31.2        24.7            0.3      100.0         28,281

                                                              Females

7-9                0.8            99.7               0.3               0.0         0.0            0.0      100.0          1,622
10-14              0.3            36.4              52.5              11.0         0.1            0.0      100.0          2,843
15-19              0.9             0.7               5.6              40.3        53.3            0.0      100.0          2,676
20-29              1.6             2.2               9.7              39.4        48.6            0.1      100.0          6,101
30-39              4.3             8.9              18.8              38.1        34.0            0.2      100.0          5,472
40-49              9.2            20.8              22.0              34.4        22.2            0.6      100.0          4,335
50+               27.9            44.4              21.1              22.9        10.2            1.3      100.0          8,158
Total              9.8            23.8              18.9              30.0        26.9            0.4      100.0         31,207

Note: **Unweighted cases.                                                                                               Continued….




                                                                 36
Table 2.4 EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF THE HOUSEHOLD POPULATION
Percent distribution of household population age 7 years and above by literacy levels and years of schooling, age, residence and sex,
Kerala, 2007-08
                                  Years of schooling among those who are literate                                     Number
                 Non-                                                                                     Total          of
Age            literate     Less than 5        6-8              9 - 10        11 or more      Missing    Percent      persons**
                                                              Rural

7-9               1.7            99.9             0.1               0.0              0.0         0.0      100.0           2,605
10-14              .5            39.6            51.8               8.6              0.1         0.0      100.0           4,447
15-19             1.0             1.1             9.3              43.5             46.1         0.0      100.0           4,295
20-29             1.6             2.6            12.1              41.7             43.4         0.1      100.0           8,809
30-39             4.1             9.6            20.0              40.3             29.9         0.2      100.0           7,667
40-49             8.1            21.8            22.1              35.8             20.0         0.4      100.0           6,446
50+              22.2            43.1            21.6              23.4             10.7         1.2      100.0          11,271
Total             7.9            24.7            20.0              31.0             23.9         0.4      100.0          45,540

                                                                Males

7-9               2.5            99.9             0.0               0.0              0.0         0.1      100.0           1,338
10-14             0.6            42.6            51.4               5.9              0.1         0.0      100.0           2,247
15-19             0.9             1.4            12.4              46.0             40.2         0.0      100.0           2,199
20-29             1.2             2.8            14.4              42.0             40.8         0.0      100.0           4,125
30-39             2.7             9.4            20.7              41.6             28.0         0.2      100.0           3,512
40-49             5.9            20.5            22.3              37.2             19.9         0.2      100.0           3,164
50+              12.1            38.8            21.5              25.5             13.1         1.1      100.0           5,110
Total             4.7            24.5            21.0              31.5             22.6         0.3      100.0          21,695

                                                              Females

7-9               0.8            99.8             0.2               0.0              0.0         0.0      100.0           1,267
10-14             0.4            36.5            52.2              11.3              0.0         0.0      100.0           2,200
15-19             1.0             0.8             5.9              41.0             52.3         0.0      100.0           2,096
20-29             1.9             2.5            10.1              41.5             45.8         0.1      100.0           4,684
30-39             5.2             9.8            19.3              39.2             31.5         0.2      100.0           4,155
40-49            10.2            23.1            21.8              34.4             20.1         0.6      100.0           3,282
50+              30.6            47.6            21.7              21.2              8.3         1.3      100.0           6,161
Total            10.8            24.9            19.1              30.4             25.2         0.4      100.0          23,845

Note: **Unweighted cases.                                                                                              Continued….




                                                                 37
Table 2.4 EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF THE HOUSEHOLD POPULATION
Percent distribution of household population age 7 years and above by literacy levels and years of schooling, age, residence and sex,
Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                                                                         Number
                                                                                                           Total
                                   Years of schooling among those who are literate                        Percent           of
                                                                                              Missing                   persons**
                 Non-
Age            literate      Less than 5       6-8              9 - 10        11 or more
                                                              Urban

7-9               0.6             99.6            0.4               0.0              0.0          0.0     100.0             688
10-14             0.1             36.5           55.2               8.2              0.1          0.0     100.0           1,308
15-19             0.6              0.4            6.9              39.7             53.0          0.0     100.0           1,177
20-29             0.6              2.1           10.3              34.1             53.5          0.0     100.0           2,632
30-39             1.2              5.9           17.5              36.2             40.4          0.0     100.0           2,410
40-49             4.6             13.9           20.3              35.2             30.2          0.4     100.0           2,049
50+              13.8             31.5           18.8              28.3             20.5          0.9     100.0           3,684
Total             4.7             19.8           18.7              29.4             31.8          0.3     100.0          13,948

                                                                Males

7-9               0.6            100.0            0.0               0.0              0.0          0.0     100.0             333
10-14             0.3             36.7           56.9               6.5              0.0          0.0     100.0             665
15-19             0.5              0.3            9.1              41.4             49.1          0.0     100.0             597
20-29             0.5              3.1           12.5              35.6             48.7          0.0     100.0           1,215
30-39             0.8              5.4           18.0              37.5             39.0          0.1     100.0           1,093
40-49             3.0             13.9           18.1              36.1             31.8          0.1     100.0             996
50+               7.1             26.8           18.2              29.0             25.6          0.4     100.0           1,687
Total             2.6             19.1           19.3              30.1             31.4          0.1     100.0           6,586

                                                              Females

7-9               0.6             99.1            0.9               0.0              0.0         0.0      100.0             355
10-14             0.0             36.3           53.6               9.9              0.2         0.0      100.0             643
15-19             0.7              0.5            4.6              37.8             57.1         0.0      100.0             580
20-29             0.7              1.2            8.4              32.7             57.6         0.1      100.0           1,417
30-39             1.5              6.4           17.1              35.0             41.5         0.0      100.0           1,317
40-49             6.1             14.0           22.5              34.3             28.7         0.6      100.0           1,053
50+              19.5             36.1           19.5              27.5             15.5         1.4      100.0           1,997
Total             6.6             20.4           18.2              28.8             32.2         0.4      100.0           7,362

Note: ** Unweighted cases.




                                                                 38
Table 2.5 CURRENTLY ATTENDING SCHOOL
Percentage of household population (age less than 18 years) attending school/college , Kerala, 2007-08
                                           Total                             Male                          Female
         Age (years)
                                 Rural    Urban        Total      Rural      Urban        Total   Rural         Urban    Total

             6-10                99.9     100.0        99.9         99.9      100.0       99.9    99.9          100.0    99.9
            11-13                99.5      99.9        99.6         99.6       99.8       99.6    99.5          100.0    99.6
            14-17                92.3      94.5        92.8         92.4       94.7       93.0    92.1           94.3    92.6

             6-11                99.8     100.0        99.9         99.8      100.0       99.8    99.8          100.0    99.9
            12-17                94.9      96.5        95.2         95.1       96.5       95.4    94.7           96.5    95.1

                Total            97.5      98.3        97.7         97.5       98.3       97.7    97.4           98.3    97.6




Table 2.6 REASONS FOR DROPPING OUT OF SCHOOL
Percentage of household population age less than 18 years who dropped out of school by main reasons, Kerala, 2007-08

                                                   Total                           Rural                        Urban
Reason                                   Males          Females            Males       Females       Males           Females

School too far                              0.6            1.2                0.0        1.5              3.7            0.0
Transport not available                     0.0            1.9                0.0        1.5              0.0            3.9
Further education not necessary             6.9            3.7                6.0        4.3             11.3             .0
Required for household work                 4.4            8.0                4.5        8.0              3.5            7.6
Required for work on family/business        2.5            1.2                3.0        1.5                0              0
Required for outside work                  11.8            0.6               10.5        0.0             18.1            3.9
Cost too much                               8.8           14.1                8.3       13.1             11.3           19.3
No proper school                            0.0            0.0                0.0        0.0              0.0            0.0
Not safe to send girls                      0.0            0.6                0.0        0.7              0.0            0.0
For taking care of siblings                 9.4            4.9                9.0        5.1             11.1            3.9
Not interested in studies                  41.3           27.0               44.4       27.1             26.1           26.9
Repeated failures                           3.1            5.5                3.0        3.0              3.6           18.9
Got married                                 0.0            9.2                0.0       10.2              0.0            4.0
Others                                     11.3           22.0               11.2       24.0             11.3           11.5

Total percent                             100.0          100.0             100.0        100.0         100.0             100.0

Number of persons**                         160            163               133         137               27             26

Note: **Unweighted cases.




                                                               39
Table 2.7 HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS
Percent distribution of the households by selected characteristics of the household head,
household size and residence, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                              Residence
                                                 Total
Characteristics                                                     Rural                 Urban

  Sex
  Male                                            75.7                76.0                 74.6
  Female                                          24.3                24.0                 25.4

  Age (years)
  < 30                                             2.0                 2.1                  1.7
  30-44                                           26.5                27.2                 24.3
  45-59                                           39.1                38.9                 39.6
  60+                                             32.3                31.7                 34.4

  Median age                                        52                  52                   53

  Religion
  Hindu                                           57.8                57.3                 59.7
  Muslim                                          22.7                22.3                 24.3
  Christian                                       19.4                20.4                 15.9
  Sikh                                             0.0                 0.0                  0.0
  Buddhist                                         0.0                 0.0                  0.0
  Jain                                             0.0                 0.0                  0.0
  Others                                           0.1                 0.0                  0.1

  Caste/tribe
  Scheduled castes                                10.3                11.4                  6.7
  Scheduled tribes                                 2.1                 2.6                  0.4
  Other backward classes                          57.5                55.0                 65.9
  Others                                          30.1                31.1                 27.0

  Number of usual members
  1                                                2.5                 2.7                  1.8
  2                                                9.7                 9.3                 10.9
  3                                               15.7                15.9                 15.2
  4                                               29.2                29.0                 30.0
  5                                               20.1                20.5                 18.8
  6                                               10.7                11.0                  9.5
  7                                                4.8                 4.8                  4.9
  8                                                2.7                 2.6                  3.2
  9+                                               4.6                 4.2                  5.7

Total percent                                      100                 100                  100

Mean household size                                4.6                  4.5                 4.6

Number of households**                         14,711               11,329                3,382

Total figure may not add to 100 percent due to ‘do not know’ or ‘missing cases’.
Note: **Unweighted cases.




                                                  40
Table 2.8 HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS AND ASSETS
Percent distribution of the households by housing characteristics and selected durable goods, by residence, Kerala 2007-08
                                                                                          Residence
                                                        Total
Housing characteristics                                                         Rural                   Urban

Electricity
Having electricity connection                            91.8                     90.3                   96.7

Source of drinking water
Improved source                                          28.8                     24.2                   44.3
 Piped water into dwelling/yard/plot                      9.3                      6.7                   18.0
 Public tap/standpipe                                    11.6                     10.1                   16.6
 Tube Well or borehole                                    3.9                      3.6                    4.9
 Other improved                                           4.2                      3.7                    8.3
Non Improved source                                      71.2                     75.8                   55.7

Sanitation facility
Improved sanitation                                      96.1                     95.5                   98.4
Flush to sewer/septic/pit                                93.3                     92.3                   96.7
Pit with slab                                             2.7                      3.0                    1.6
Pit ventilated improved                                   0.1                      0.1                    0.1
Other                                                     0.0                      0.0                    0.0
Not improved                                              3.9                      4.5                    1.6
 Flush not to sewer/septic/pit/twin pit                   0.2                      0.1                    0.5
 Pit without slab                                         0.3                      0.3                    0.1
 Dry toilet                                               0.0                      0.0                    0.0
 No toilet/open space                                     3.3                      4.0                    1.0

Fuel used for cooking
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)                            30.2                     24.2                   50.3
Electricity                                               0.1                      0.0                    0.3
Kerosene                                                  0.3                      0.2                    0.5
Wood                                                     67.3                     73.7                   46.1
Others                                                    2.1                      1.9                    2.8

Type of house
Kachha                                                    4.4                      4.8                    3.2
Semi - pucca                                             16.4                     17.7                   11.9
Pucca                                                    79.2                     77.5                   84.9

Number of rooms
1                                                         1.9                      2.1                    1.2
2                                                         4.7                      5.1                    3.3
3+                                                       93.4                     92.8                   95.5

Household assets
Fan                                                      75.3                     70.9                   90.0
Radio/transistor                                         42.0                     40.4                   47.6
Sewing machine                                           23.2                     21.0                   30.3
Television                                               71.3                     67.5                   84.0
Telephone                                                72.1                     69.4                   81.1
Bicycle                                                  20.0                     17.9                   27.2
Motor cycle/ scooter                                     20.6                     17.5                   30.8
Car / Jeep                                                7.7                      5.8                   14.0
Tractor                                                   0.2                      0.2                    0.1

Wealth Index
Lowest                                                    0.5                      0.6                    0.1
Second                                                    2.7                      3.2                    1.0
Middle                                                   10.6                     12.4                    4.5
Fourth                                                   36.9                     40.3                   25.5
Highest                                                  49.4                     43.6                   69.0

Number of households**                                14,711                   11,329                   3,382

Note: **Unweighted cases.




                                                            41
Table 2.9 HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS BY DISTRICT
Percentage of household with selected characteristics by district, Kerala, 2007-08
                              With          With drinking       With toilet       Using Liquefied         Living in pucca        Having
District                   electricity         water
                                                     1
                                                                 facility
                                                                         2
                                                                                  Petroleum Gas                house            BPL Card

Kasaragod                      88.8             26.5                 93.9                24.4                    83.3               37.3
Kannur                         93.7             16.7                 98.9                23.2                    86.0               26.9
Wayanad                        77.8             30.6                 95.7                 9.9                    71.2               44.6
Kozhikode                      91.8             19.4                 99.4                21.9                    76.1               31.0

Malappuram                     93.5             10.3                 99.0                20.1                    90.6               33.5
Palakkad                       89.8             48.7                 91.8                29.4                    73.4               26.0
Thrissur                       94.2             31.1                 98.7                34.6                    70.8               35.7
Ernakulam                      95.4             49.9                 99.5                46.4                    90.8               27.6

Idukki                         91.4             39.3                 89.8                27.8                    74.6               43.4
Kottayam                       95.0             22.0                 98.4                35.8                    83.9               39.2
Alappuzha                      94.4             48.7                 95.9                44.6                    76.5               43.6
Pathanamthitta                 92.6             14.1                 98.2                34.2                    91.4               35.0

Kollam                         93.9             18.0                 98.1                37.1                    71.3               40.1
Thiruvananthapuram             92.6             35.9                 96.6                38.4                    69.1               32.5

Kerala                         91.8             28.8                 96.7                30.2                    79.2               35.6
      1
Note: Includes piped into dwelling piped to yard/plot, public tap/stand pipe/hand pump,/tube well/ bore well/well covered/spring tanker,
cart with small tank and bottled water.
2
  Household having access to toilet facility = improved source of sanitation + flush not to sewer/septic/pit/twin pit + pit without slab + dry
toilet.




                                                                       42
Table 2.10 DISTANCE FROM THE NEAREST EDUCATIONAL FACILITY
Percent distribution of sampled villages by distance from the nearest educational facility, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                          Distance from the village
                                      Within
Educational facility                  village       < 5 km          5-9 km        10+ km                 Total percent

Primary school                         100.0             -              -                -                      100.0
Middle school                           99.8             -            0.2                -                      100.0
Secondary school                        99.4             -            0.6                -                      100.0
Higher secondary school                 88.3           2.2            6.3              3.3                      100.0
College                                 23.8           3.4           26.1             46.7                      100.0
Madarasa                                92.6           1.1            2.9              3.4                      100.0

Number of villages                       537             -             -                 -

Note: Distance from the village is calculated for only those villages which do not have the facility within the village.
     Table is based on unweighted cases.




Table 2.11 DISTANCE FROM THE NEAREST HEALTH FACILITY
Percent distribution of sampled villages by distance from the nearest health facility, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                                        1
                                                             Distance from the village
                                    Within           Within             Within             Within             More than
Health facility                     village             3km              5km                10km                10km

Sub-Centre                             99.6                  99.8          100.0             100.0                0.0
Primary Health Centre                  79.1                  80.8           84.4              94.9                5.0
Community Health Centre                23.8                  27.4           35.9              72.1               27.9
District/Govt. Hospital                 2.8                   3.5            6.9              79.7               10.8
Government Dispensary                  10.8                  92.9           93.3              95.7                4.3
Private Clinic                         89.6                  91.6           93.7              98.0                2.0
Private Hospital                       64.6                  69.6           77.3              92.9                7.1
                        2
AYUSH Health Facility                  92.6                  94.0           95.7              99.6                0.4
1
    including facilities within village.
2
    AYUSH - Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy.




                                                              43
Table 2.12 AVAILABILITY OF FACILITY AND HEALTH PERSONNEL BY DISTRICT
Percentage of availabilities of facility and health personnel of villages by district, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                                     Percentage of villages with**

District                 Primary or                                   Any                                                                  Aware of    Number
                          middle                                  government                         Anganwadi          JSY                 Untied         of
                                                                                1                                                                2
                           school       Sub-centre      PHCs     health facility     Doctor     ASHA workers         beneficiary   VHSC     fund       villages

Kasaragod                   100.0          100.0         70.0          100.0           92.5       65.0    100.0        95.0        100.0    62.5           40
Kannur                      100.0          100.0         68.0          100.0          100.0       16.0    100.0       100.0        100.0    32.0           25
Wayanad                     100.0          100.0         91.7          100.0           52.1       97.9    100.0       100.0         85.4    43.8           48
Kozhikode                   100.0          100.0         77.4          100.0          100.0       51.6    100.0        87.1         90.3    48.4           31
Malappuram                  100.0          100.0         88.9          100.0           97.8       26.7    100.0        97.8        100.0    31.1           45
Palakkad                    100.0           97.7         86.0          100.0          100.0        2.3    100.0        97.7         90.7    11.6           43
Thrissur                    100.0          100.0         83.3          100.0           94.4       11.1    100.0        97.2        100.0    30.6           36
Ernakulam                   100.0          100.0         88.5          100.0           88.5        3.8    100.0       100.0         96.2    46.2           26
Idukki                      100.0          100.0         78.7          100.0           59.6       14.9    100.0       100.0         93.6    74.5           47
Kottayam                    100.0          100.0         64.3          100.0          100.0       23.8    100.0       100.0        100.0    69.0           42
Alappuzha                   100.0          100.0         77.1          100.0          100.0       22.9    100.0        97.1        100.0    85.7           35
Pathanamthitta              100.0          100.0         84.4          100.0           86.7        0.0    100.0        91.1        100.0    84.4           45
Kollam                      100.0           97.6         63.4           97.6           63.4        7.3    100.0        95.1         97.6    61.0           41
Thiruvananthapuram          100.0          100.0         81.8          100.0          100.0       24.2    100.0        97.0        100.0    75.8           33

Kerala                      100.0           99.6         79.1            99.8          86.6       27.4    100.0         96.8        96.5    54.6         537

**
   Facilities as reported by village pradhan/up pradhan/any other panchayat member/teacher/gram sevak/aganwadi worker.
1
  Includes Sub-Centre, Primary Health Centre (including Block PHC), Community Health Centre or referral hospital, government hospital, and government dispensary
within the village.
2
  This information was collected from Sarpanch/Pradhan, PRI member, Gram Sevak, Village Secretary/officer or any other official at village level.
VHSC = Village Health and Sanitation Committee.
Note: Table is based on unweighted cases.




                                                                                      44
Table 2.13 KNOWLEDGE ABOUT GOVERNMENT HEALTH PROGRAMMES
Percentage of ever married women (age 15-49 years) who have heard about Government health programmes, among them, percentage who received information from specific sources,
Kerala, 2007-08.

                                                                                             Sources of knowledge
                                   Women
                                                                                                                                                                       Number of
     Health programmes           aware about                                                                   Group
                                                                News paper     Drama/Song/     Exhibition/                   Doctor/ANM/AWW/     Friends/              women**
                                 programmes    T.V.   Radio                                                   meeting/                                       Others
                                                                /books, etc.   Dance, etc.       Mela                              ASHA          Relatives
                                                                                                             Pro-grammes

Antenatal care                       96.1      55.3    34.9          57.5         0.8              0.3               5.9            49.6           46.9       0.0       11,874
Institutional Delivery               85.9      51.7    31.6          49.8         0.6              0.3               5.3            45.8           44.6       0.0       10,619
Breastfeeding                        97.3      56.1    35.7          57.3         0.9              0.2               6.4            57.5           45.9       0.0       12,025
Immunization                         98.8      65.2    39.0          58.9         2.1              0.3               7.7            60.5           40.0       0.0       12,216
Family Planning                      95.7      60.1    35.3          54.3         0.9              0.3               7.1            50.3           37.1       0.1       11,833
Personal hygiene                     96.3      59.4    36.9          53.4         0.9              0.3              12.0            36.8           42.6       0.2       11,901
Sanitation/Safe drinking water       98.1      59.6    36.9          51.6         0.9              0.3              13.4            38.9           42.5       0.2       12,122
Prevention of Sex Selection          89.9      64.8    36.7          57.5         0.9              0.3               5.8            37.4           29.1       0.0       11,113

Awareness about Government health programmes                                                                                                                           Number of
(based on response from household questionnaire)                                                                                                                      Household**

DOTS (Tuberculosis)                     84.2   63.0    35.1        54.0            1.5                                                             26.1       0.1       12,393
                                                                                                  0.5               6.6            22.0
Leprosy eradication                     80.5   62.5    32.8        54.6            1.7            0.5               6.1            20.0            26.7       0.1       11,850
Malaria/Dengue/Chikun Guinea            96.8   70.2    38.3        59.5            2.0            0.9               10.2           31.2            34.3       0.1       14,254
                                        82.6   67.3    35.1        56.7            1.4            0.6               5.7            28.2            24.9       0.0       12,149
Prevention of sex selection
Note: **Unweighted cases 




                                                                                    45
CHARACTERISTICS OF WOMEN AND FERTILITY
TABLE 3.1 BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS OF EVERMARRIED WOMEN
Percent distribution of ever married women age 15-49 years according to selected
background characteristics, and place of residence, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                       Place of residence
Background characteristics                    Total           Rural         Urban

Age Group
 15-19                                           2.0             2.2          1.4
 20-24                                          12.2            12.4         11.4
 25-29                                          17.7            17.8         17.4
 30-34                                          18.3            18.2         18.6
 35-39                                          19.1            19.0         19.7
 40-44                                          16.6            16.8         16.1
 45-49                                          14.0            13.6         15.4

Age at consummation of marriage
 Below 18 years                                 18.8            19.5         16.5
 18 years & above                               81.2            80.5         83.5

Marital Duration
 Less than 5 years                              18.0            17.9         18.3
 5-9 years                                      18.2            18.4         17.4
 10-14 years                                    18.6            18.4         19.2
 15 or more years                               45.2            45.2         45.1

Woman’s education
 Non-literate
              a                                  3.3             3.9          1.4
 Less than 5 years                               7.2             7.9          4.9
 5-9 years                                      45.3            46.4         41.6
 10 or more years                               44.2            41.8         52.0

Non-literate
             a†                                  2.3             2.7          0.9
10 or more years
                 †                              48.1            45.9         55.2

Husband’s education
 Non-literate
              a                                  2.5             2.9          1.2
 Less than 5 years                               9.8            10.5          7.2
 5-9 years                                      48.1            49.4         44.1
 10 or more years                               38.6            36.1         46.8

Religion
 Hindu                                          53.3            53.4         53.2
 Muslim                                         30.7            29.8         33.6
 Christian                                      15.9            16.7         13.2
 Others                                          0.0             0.0          0.0

Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                                9.6            10.5          6.4
 Scheduled tribes                                2.1             2.6          0.4
 Other backward classes                         63.1            60.7         71.1
 Others                                         25.2            26.2         22.1

Wealth index
 Lowest                                          0.3             0.4          0.1
 Second                                          2.0             2.4          0.7
 Middle                                          9.2            10.9          3.5
 Fourth                                         37.9            41.6         25.9
 Highest                                        50.6            44.8         69.8

Number of women (15-49)**                     12,360           9,484        2,876
Number of women (15-44)**
                          †                   10,148           7,805        2,343

**Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attended school, are also included.
†
  Represents figures for currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                         49
TABLE 3.2 LEVEL OF EDUCATION OF EVER MARRIED WOMEN
Percent distribution of ever married women age 15-49 years according to selected background characteristics and years of
schooling, Kerala, 2007-08

                                              Literate             Years of schooling
                                    Non-       but no     0 -5      6-8      9-10     11 or more     Total     Number of
                                                                                                           b
  Background characteristics      literate   schooling   years     years    years       years      percent     women**

Age group
 15-19                              0.4          0.4      0.4       9.2     47.6          41.7      100.0          249
 20-24                              1.3          0.1      1.6       9.0     47.1          40.6      100.0        1,505
 25-29                              2.2          0.0      1.7      14.2     42.8          38.4      100.0        2,188
 30-34                              4.2          0.3      4.2      16.1     39.5          35.4      100.0        2,261
 35-39                              6.7          0.2      8.2      21.4     34.6          28.7      100.0        2,367
 40-44                              8.2          0.4     13.0      19.7     34.0          23.4      100.0        2,057
 45-49                             14.6          0.8     17.5      20.4     29.5          16.0      100.0        1,733

Place of residence
 Rural                              6.9          0.3      8.0      17.0     38.7          28.2      100.0        9,484
 Urban                              3.1          0.2      5.6      16.7     35.3          38.7      100.0        2,876

Husband’s education
              a
 Non-literate                      54.7          2.9     14.6      15.3      9.3           0.7      100.0          309
 Less than 5 years                 18.3          0.8     26.4      29.3     20.7           2.8      100.0        1,207
 5-9 years                          4.9          0.2      7.8      22.9     47.7          15.8      100.0        5,949
 10 or more years                   0.7          0.1      1.4       6.3     32.4          58.9      100.0        4,769


Religion
 Hindu                              6.9          0.2      5.9      14.9     37.0          34.3      100.0        6,601
 Muslim                             6.1          0.6     12.0      23.5     40.7          16.5      100.0        3,792
 Christian                          2.9          0.1      3.8      11.3     35.7          45.9      100.0        1,962
 Others                               *            *        *         *        *             *      100.0            5


Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                  13.3         0.1      10.0      20.1     37.5          17.8      100.0        1,184
 Scheduled tribes                  39.9          1.5     11.1      19.2     19.1           8.1      100.0          261
 Other backward classes             5.3          0.4      8.9      19.1     40.0          25.7      100.0        7,802
 Others                             2.3          0.1      2.7      10.3     34.4          50.0      100.0        3,113

Wealth index
 Lowest                            48.9          0.0     11.5      21.0     13.9           4.6      100.0           43
 Second                            30.6          0.4     14.1      26.5     21.5           4.1      100.0          246
 Middle                            18.0          0.9     11.4      25.5     35.2           7.1      100.0        1,134
 Fourth                             7.3          0.3     10.8      20.8     42.2          17.8      100.0        4,685
 Highest                            1.6          0.2      4.0      12.1     36.0          45.9      100.0        6,252

Kerala                              6.0          0.3      7.5      17.0     37.9          30.7      100.0       12,360

Note: Total includes women with missing information on husband’s education, who are not shown separately.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attended school, are also included.
b
  Total percent may not add to 100 due to ‘don’t know’ or ‘missing cases’.




                                                            50
TABLE 3.3 BIRTH ORDER
                             #
Percent distribution of births among ever married women age 15-49 years according to selected background
characteristics and birth order, Kerala, 2007-08
                              Distribut                 Birth order
                               ion of
                                      †                                           2&                 Number
                               births                                                  †
Background characteristics                   1         2             3    4+     above      Total   of births**

Age group
 15-19                            2.7      99.0        1.0        0.0     0.0      1.0     100.0        102
 20-24                           30.2      69.7       26.7        3.3     0.3     28.2     100.0        968
 25-29                           40.2      39.6       43.3       14.4     2.7     56.8     100.0      1,112
 30-34                           19.5      22.2       45.7       21.3    10.8     78.9     100.0        490
 35-39                            6.3      23.0       42.9       17.4    16.8     79.7     100.0        161
 40-44                            1.1      15.5       42.0       19.1    23.4     82.9     100.0         26
 45-49                             na         *          *          *       *       na     100.0          1

Place of residence
 Rural                           77.6      46.7       37.3       11.7     4.4     54.2     100.0      2,222
 Urban                           22.4      51.4       34.1       10.9     3.6     47.5     100.0        638

Education
              a
 Non-literate                     1.0      28.2       31.1       18.8    21.9     71.1     100.0         32
 Less than 5 years                1.7      23.1       38.4       19.2    19.2     75.0     100.0         47
 5-9 years                       41.4      39.8       36.9       16.3     7.0     60.4     100.0      1,164
 10 or more years                55.9      54.6       36.3        7.7     1.4     46.0     100.0      1,617

Religion
 Hindu                           48.0      52.4       39.7        6.8     1.2     47.9     100.0      1,376
 Muslim                          37.9      41.8       31.6       17.4     9.1     58.5     100.0      1,091
 Christian                       14.0      48.0       39.0       11.7     1.3     53.5     100.0        390
 Others                           0.1         *          *          *       *     66.7     100.0          3

Caste/tribes
 Scheduled castes                 8.9      51.0       37.9        9.6     1.5     51.5     100.0        261
 Scheduled tribes                 2.2      31.2       37.5       20.8    10.5     65.9     100.0         67
 Other backward classes          67.6      46.9       34.9       12.7     5.5     53.4     100.0      1,940
 Others                          21.3      50.9       41.2        7.4     0.5     49.6     100.0        592

Wealth index
 Lowest                           0.4     (41.7)    (33.3)      (25.0)   (0.0)    57.1     100.0         12
 Second                           2.2       33.3      37.8        21.3     7.6    61.4     100.0         66
 Middle                           8.9       38.9      40.1        13.7     7.3    61.4     100.0        247
 Fourth                          37.5       48.0      36.7        11.0     4.4    53.4     100.0      1,065
 Highest                         51.0       49.7      35.8        11.0     3.5    50.2     100.0      1,470

                              100.0           -          -          -       -        -         -          -
Kerala                        3,792        47.7       36.6       11.5     4.2     52.7     100.0      2,860

na= Not applicable
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
#
  Last live/still birth since 01-01-2004.
* Percentage not shown; because of less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate, but did not attended school are also included.
†
  Represents figures for currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                           51
TABLE 3. 4 BIRTH ORDER DISTRIBUTION BY DISTRICT
Percent distribution of births to ever married women age 15-49 years by birth order
and district, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                  Birth order
                                                                         Number
District                      1           2           3          4+     of Births**

Kasaragod                   39.1         34.4       14.5        12.0         263
Kannur                      58.0         34.3        5.5         2.2         226
Wayanad                     43.3         34.8       14.9         7.0         253
Kozhikode                   41.7         38.5       17.7         2.1         240
Malappuram                  34.2         31.5       19.5        14.8         301

Palakkad                    46.5         36.5       13.6         3.4         231
Thrissur                    48.2         40.3       11.5         0.0         173
Ernakulam                   57.0         33.4        9.6         0.0         158
Idukki                      55.9         38.5        5.6         0.0         182
Kottayam                    48.6         36.2       12.4         2.9         189

Alappuzha                   52.5         40.2        6.7         0.6         176
Pathanamthitta              49.7         45.6        4.0         0.7         131
Kollam                      56.4         37.6        6.0         0.0         184
Thiruvananthapuram          49.4         42.2        8.5         0.0         153

Kerala                      47.7         36.6       11.5         4.2       2,860
#
  Last live/still birth since 01-01-2004.
** Unweighted cases (Based on district weight).




                                        52
TABLE 3.5 CHILDREN EVER BORN
Mean children ever born (MCEB) according to selected background characteristics of ever married women age 15-49 years and 40-49 years, Kerala,
2007-08
                               Mean children ever born to women age 15-49        Mean children ever born to women age 40-49
                                                  years                                             years
                                                                                                                                Mean children
                                                                                                                                 ever born to
                                                                   Number                                         Number       currently married
                                                                     of                                             of         women aged 40-
Background characteristics      Total      Males      Females      Women**        Total     Males     Females     Women**          44 years

Age Group
 15-19                          0.41        0.21         0.21          249          na         na          na          na               na
 20-24                          0.96        0.49         0.46        1,505          na         na          na          na               na
 25-29                          1.63        0.83         0.80        2,188          na         na          na          na               na
 30-34                          2.10        1.07         1.03        2,261          na         na          na          na               na
 35-39                          2.27        1.17         1.10        2,367          na         na          na          na               na
 40-44                          2.37        1.24         1.13        2,057        2.37       1.24        1.13       2,057             2.41
 45-49                          2.67        1.38         1.29        1,733        2.67       1.38        1.29       1,733               na

Residence
 Rural                          2.02        1.04         0.98        9,484        2.54       1.32        1.22       2,882             2.45
 Urban                          1.93        0.99         0.94        2,876        2.38       1.25        1.13         908             2.29

Education
              a
 Non-literate                   2.94        1.54         1.40          414        3.24       1.71        1.53         243             2.81
 Less than 5 years              2.74        1.39         1.35          885        2.98       1.55        1.43         560             2.96
 5-9 years                      2.18        1.12         1.06        5,596        2.54       1.33        1.21       1,794             2.50
 10 or more years               1.63        0.84         0.79        5,465        2.08       1.07        1.02       1,193             2.07

Religion
 Hindu                          1.82        0.94         0.88        6,601        2.24       1.15        1.09       2,167             2.15
 Muslim                         2.36        1.21         1.15        3,792        3.41       1.79        1.63         868             3.26
 Christian                      1.90        0.99         0.91        1,962        2.22       1.18        1.04         753             2.14
 Others                            *           *            *            5           *          *           *           2             2.50

Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes               1.94        1.02         0.92        1,184        2.40       1.29        1.11         373             2.32
 Scheduled tribes               2.17        1.08         1.09          261        2.65       1.30        1.35          60             2.31
 Other backward classes         2.07        1.06         1.01        7,802        2.72       1.41        1.31       2,176             2.61
 Others                         1.82        0.94         0.88        3,113        2.14       1.12        1.03       1,181             2.08

Wealth index
 Lowest                         2.07        1.14         0.93           43       (2.64)    (1.27)       (1.36)         11             2.50
 Second                         2.18        1.12         1.06          246         2.67      1.31         1.36         61             2.41
 Middle                         2.16        1.06         1.10        1,134         2.44      1.20         1.24        342             2.35
 Fourth                         2.04        1.04         1.00        4,685         2.59      1.35         1.24      1,395             2.48
 Highest                        1.93        1.01         0.92        6,252         2.45      1.29         1.17      1,981             2.37

Kerala                          2.00        1.03         0.97       12,360        2.51       1.30        1.20       3,790             2.41

Note: Total figure may not add to 100 due to ‘don’t know’ and ‘missing cases’.
na = Not applicable.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but not attended school are also included.




                                                                          53
TABLE 3.6 FERTILITY PREFERENCES
Percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 years by desire for additional child, by number of
surviving children, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                         Number of surviving children

Desire for children                            0           1           2          3          4+          Total

Desire for additional/next child
                    1
 Want another soon                           59.9        24.6         3.2        2.2         2.4          12.7
                   2
 Want another later                          25.9        39.3         5.3        3.2         2.8          14.0
 Want another, undecided when                 3.2         3.5         0.5        0.4         0.3           1.3
 Undecided                                    2.0         2.2         0.8        0.4         0.5           1.1
 Want no more                                 2.2        23.6        20.6       13.5        27.9          18.9
            3
 Sterilized                                   0.2         3.7        68.5       79.2        64.4          49.9
 Declared infecund                            5.3         2.0         1.1        1.0         1.6           1.7
 Inconsistent response                        1.1         1.1         0.1        0.0         0.0           0.4

Total percent                               100.0       100.0      100.0       100.0       100.0        100.0

Number of women**                           1,042       2,532      5,308       2,011         779       11,672
                                   †
Wanting no more children (15-44)               1.9       22.8       63.2        64.1        77.0         35.0
                             †
 Number of women (15-44)**                  1,000       2,352      1,495         369         213        5,429

Preferred sex of additional/ next child
 Boy                                          3.7        20.7        24.4       20.2        23.1          16.4
 Girl                                         2.5        21.0        26.3       25.7        19.0          16.7
 Doesn’t matter                              87.4        54.0        45.4       46.4        51.0          61.9
 Up to God                                    6.3         4.3         3.9        7.7         6.9           4.9

Total percent                               100.0       100.0      100.0       100.0       100.0        100.0
                      4
Number of women **                            940       1,735        481         118          43        3,317

** Unweighted cases.
1
  Want next birth within 2 years.
2
  Want to delay next birth for 2 or more years.
3
  Includes both female and male sterilization.
4
  Includes women who want another/next child.
†
  Represents figures for currently married women aged 15-44 years and It excludes sterilised cases.




                                                        54
TABLE 3.7 OUTCOMES OF PREGNANCY
                                                                                              #
Percent distribution of all pregnancies of currently married women age 15-49 years by outcomes according to background
characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                             Live       Still       Induced    Spontaneous    Total           Number
Background characteristics                   birth      birth       abortion     abortion    percent     of pregnancies**

Age group
  15-19                                      89.4       0.0           2.7            7.9     100.0               113
  20-24                                      90.2       0.7           2.6            6.5     100.0             1,065
  25-29                                      90.6       0.8           2.9            5.7     100.0             1,217
  30-34                                      89.9       0.6           2.5            7.0     100.0               543
  35-39                                      89.3       1.1           3.9            5.7     100.0               178
  40-44                                      82.7       0.0           7.0           10.4     100.0                29
  45-49                                         *         *             *              *     100.0                 1
                                     1
Sex-composition of living children
  One son only                               91.1       0.7           2.6            5.6     100.0              691
  One daughter only                          88.3       0.8           3.0            7.9     100.0              657
  One son, one daughter only                 94.6       0.2           2.9            2.4     100.0              595
  Two sons only                              97.1       0.3           1.3            1.3     100.0              312
  Three sons only                            96.4       0.0           1.7            1.9     100.0               59
  Three daughters only                       94.1       0.0           0.0            5.9     100.0               51
  Four and above                             97.5       0.0           0.0            2.5     100.0              119

Woman’s Education
              a
 Non-literate                                88.8       0.0           0.0           11.2     100.0                36
 Less than 5 years                           95.7       2.1           0.0            2.1     100.0                47
 5-9 years                                   90.7       0.6           2.3            6.4     100.0             1,266
 10 or more years                            89.7       0.7           3.4            6.2     100.0             1,797

Husband’s education
               a
  Non-literate                               92.9       0.0           0.0            7.1     100.0                42
  Less than 5 years                          91.4       1.9           1.0            5.7     100.0               105
  5-9 years                                  90.9       0.5           2.9            5.7     100.0             1,508
  10 or more years                           89.3       0.8           3.1            6.8     100.0             1,483

Religion
  Hindu                                      88.3       0.8           3.5            7.3     100.0             1,546
  Muslim                                     91.8       0.7           1.8            5.7     100.0             1,174
  Christian                                  92.2       0.2           3.3            4.2     100.0               423
  Others                                        *         *             *              *     100.0                 3

Castes/tribes
  Scheduled castes                           90.8       1.4           2.5            5.3     100.0               284
  Scheduled tribes                           90.5       1.4           1.3            6.8     100.0                74
  Other backward classes                     90.3       0.6           2.6            6.5     100.0             2,126
  Others                                     89.2       0.6           4.0            6.2     100.0               662

Wealth index
 Lowest                                    (100.0)     (0.0)         (0.0)          (0.0)    100.0                12
 Second                                       91.4       0.0           1.4            7.2    100.0                70
 Middle                                       89.9       1.1           1.5            7.4    100.0               269
 Fourth                                       89.4       0.9           2.5            7.2    100.0             1,177
 Highest                                      90.6       0.5           3.4            5.5    100.0             1,618

Kerala                                       90.2       0.7           2.9            6.3     100.0             3,146

( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
# Outcome since 01-01-2004.
* Percentage not shown; because of less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attended school, are also included.
1
  117 cases with no child were excluded.




                                                               55
TABLE 3.8 OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY BY DISTRICTS
                                                                                               #
Percent distribution of all pregnancies of currently married women age 15-49 years by outcomes by districts,
Kerala, 2007-08
                            Live       Still      Induced    Spontaneous     Total          Number
Districts/State             birth      birth      abortion     abortion     percent    of pregnancies**

Kasaragod                  94.3         1.3         1.1            3.2      100.0                   275
Kannur                     90.1         0.0         3.2            6.6      100.0                   249
Wayanad                    90.7         1.0         1.5            6.7      100.0                   277
Kozhikode                  86.4         0.3         4.0            9.3      100.0                   274
Malappuram                 87.9         0.7         1.7            9.7      100.0                   339

Palakkad                   91.5         1.6         3.9            3.0      100.0                   251
Thrissur                   90.8         0.0         4.1            5.1      100.0                   189
Ernakulam                  90.5         0.0         6.5            3.0      100.0                   173
Idukki                     89.8         0.0         1.9            8.4      100.0                   204
Kottayam                   89.8         0.5         2.7            7.1      100.0                   213

Alappuzha                  95.7         0.5         0.5            3.3      100.0                   183
Pathanamthitta             89.2         0.7         2.0            8.1      100.0                   146
Kollam                     87.3         0.9         6.9            4.9      100.0                   207
Thiruvananthapuram         91.4         1.6         2.0            5.0      100.0                   166

Kerala                     90.2         0.7         2.9            6.3      100.0                  3,146

# Outcome since 01-01-2004.
** Unweighted cases (Based on district weight).




                                                      56
MATERNAL HEALTH CARE
TABLE 4.1 PLACE OF ANTENATAL CHECK-UP
                                   #
Percentage of women (aged 15-49) who received any antenatal check-up (ANC) during pregnancy by
source and place of antenatal check-ups, according to selected background characteristics, Kerala,
2007-08
                                                                               b
                                                   Place of antenatal check-up
                                  Any       Government                                   Number
                                                              Private     Community
                               antenatal       health          health        based         of
                                        1             2               3             4         **
Background characteristics     check-up       facility        facility     services     women

Age group
 15-19                            100.0           36.6           75.6            7.2            98
 20-24                             99.8           38.6           68.6            6.1           968
 25-29                             99.8           41.2           66.6            4.5         1,307
 30-34                            100.0           37.7           69.1            3.9           660
 35 +                              99.3           38.1           64.2            5.2           269

Children ever born
 0                               (100.0)         (54.4)         (63.8)          (0.0)           11
 1                                 99.9           35.1           72.0            5.6         1,375
 2                                100.0           41.4           65.6            5.4         1,321
 3                                 99.8           46.7           60.2            3.7           433
 4+                                98.2           37.7           69.2            0.6           162

Residence
 Rural                             99.8           40.9           66.5            4.9         2,562
 Urban                            100.0           33.9           72.1            5.5           740

Education
              a
 Non-literate                      88.5           83.9           25.8            0.0            35
 Less than five years              98.3           61.5           43.8            8.6            58
 5-9 years                         99.9           48.5           60.0            4.3         1,333
 10 or more years                 100.0           31.4           74.7            5.4         1,876

Religion
 Hindu                             99.7           49.4           58.0            5.0         1,591
 Muslim                            99.9           28.6           79.3            4.9         1,251
 Christian                        100.0           34.2           69.9            5.5           457
 Others                             *              *              *               *              3

Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                  99.6           65.9           40.6            6.3           288
 Scheduled tribes                  94.3           78.8           39.5            5.9            70
 Other backward classes           100.0           37.6           69.9            4.6         2,237
 Others                           100.0           30.6           74.6            5.5           707

Wealth index
 Lowest                          (100.0)         (92.3)         (23.2)          (7.6)           13
 Second                            94.3           77.5           31.5            8.9            71
 Middle                            99.3           74.6           33.7            5.7           266
 Fourth                           100.0           53.3           57.4            4.7         1,236
 Highest                          100.0           22.0           82.2            5.0         1,716

Kerala (15-49)                     99.8           39.3           67.7            5.0         3,302
               †
Kerala (15-44)                     99.8           39.3           67.8            5.0         3,299

( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
#
  Women who had their last live/still birth since 01-01-2004.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
1
  Antenatal check-up done outside home or at home.
2
  Includes sub-centre, primary health centre, community health centre or rural hospital, urban health
  centre/ urban health post/ urban family welfare centre, government hospital or dispensary.
3
  Includes private hospital/clinic.
4
  Includes non-governmental hospital/ trust hospital or clinic, own home , parents home, other home
  and other.
a
  Literate but did not attend school are also included.
b
  Among those who had received any ANC those who had received any ANC. Total figure may not add
to 100 percent due to multiple responses, ‘do not know’ and ‘missing cases’.
† Represents figure for currently married women aged 15-44 years.


                                                 59
TABLE 4.2 ANTENATAL CARE BY DISTRICT
                                         #
Percentage of women (aged 15-49) who received any antenatal check-up (ANC) during
pregnancy by source and place of antenatal check-ups by districts, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                              a
                                Place of antenatal check-up
                                     1                2                 3
                        Government           Private      Community                 Number
                          health              health        based           Any       of
District                  facility            facility     services         ANC     Women**

Kasaragod                    26.2              80.2               0.7        99.3      293
Kannur                       21.9              85.6               0.1       100.0      281
Wayanad                      61.4              52.4               7.3        98.8      286
Kozhikode                    50.3              66.5               4.7       100.0      272

Malappuram                   31.6              75.8           1.9            99.7      340
Palakkad                     30.8              77.9          10.2           100.0      253
Thrissur                     29.0              78.1          14.0           100.0      199
Ernakulam                    22.1              78.8           8.2           100.0      185

Idukki                       43.6              63.0               0.0       100.0      203
Kottayam                     54.1              49.2               0.9       100.0      213
Alappuzha                    54.0              49.2               1.6       100.0      200
Pathanamthitta               36.8              64.4               0.6       100.0      171

Kollam                       44.9              61.7          13.9           100.0      215
Thiruvananthapuram           55.3              46.2           7.7            99.5      191

Kerala (15-49)               39.3              67.7               5.0        99.8     3,302
               †
Kerala (15-44)               39.3              67.8               5.0        99.8     3,299
#
  Women who had their last live/still birth since 01-01-2004.
** Unweighted cases.
1
  Includes sub-centre, primary health centre, community health centre or rural hospital,
  urban health centre/ urban health post/ urban family welfare centre, government hospital or
  dispensary.
2
  Includes Private hospital/clinic,
3
  Includes non-governmental hospital/ trust hospital or clinic, own home , parents home,
   other home and other.
a
  Total figure may not add to 100 percent due to ‘do not know’ and ‘missing cases’.
† Represents figure for currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                               60
TABLE 4.3 COMPONENTS OF ANTENATAL CHECK-UP
                                       #
Percentage of women (aged 15-49)           who received specific components of antenatal check-up according to selected background
characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                         Blood                                                           Number
                              Weight          Height    pressure    Blood      Urine   Abdomen     Breast    Sonography/   of
Background characteristics   measured        measured   checked     tested    tested   examined   examined    ultrasound Women**

Age group
 15-19                         98.0             44.7      94.9       99.0    100.0       99.0       88.9        95.9          98
 20-24                         97.1             45.6      98.9       98.6     98.7       98.0       88.1        94.4         968
 25-29                         96.3             45.3      98.2       98.9     98.8       98.0       85.3        92.7       1,307
 30-34                         97.0             48.3      98.6       99.1     99.2       98.2       87.0        92.8         660
 35+                           97.4             46.1      99.3       97.8     98.9       98.5       88.1        92.9         269

Children ever born
 0                           (100.0)           (36.4)   (100.0)    (100.0)   (100.0)    (90.9)     (90.9)      (90.9)         11
 1                             97.2             47.1      98.7       99.0      99.2      98.5       88.2        97.5       1,375
 2                             97.2             47.1      98.4       99.0      98.7      98.2       85.7        92.5       1,321
 3                             96.5             42.8      98.6       97.9      98.8      97.3       85.1        87.8         433
 4+                            91.4             37.7      96.3       96.3      97.6      97.6       88.4        79.3         162

Residence
 Rural                         96.9             46.4      98.5       98.6      98.8      98.3       87.5        92.8       2,562
 Urban                         96.6             44.7      98.1       99.1      99.3      97.5       84.4        95.3         740

Education
               a
 Non- literate                 85.7             20.1      85.7       80.0      85.7      85.7       77.1        57.0          35
 Less than five years          89.8             49.9      96.5       93.0      94.8      93.0       84.5        75.8          58
 5-9 years                     96.1             43.4      98.3       98.8      98.8      98.4       88.4        90.8       1,333
 10 or more years              97.8             48.3      98.8       99.2      99.3      98.4       85.9        96.4       1,876

Religion
 Hindu                         96.7             45.9      98.4       98.2      98.5      97.5       86.2        92.8       1,591
 Muslim                        96.2             45.8      98.0       99.0      99.2      98.6       88.1        92.4       1,251
 Christian                     98.7             46.8      99.8       99.8      99.3      98.9       85.4        97.6         457
 Others                         *                *         *          *         *         *          *           *             3

Castes/tribes
 Scheduled Castes              99.0             50.7      98.3       97.6      97.9      96.9       86.9        91.7         288
 Scheduled Tribes              87.1             47.1      90.0       87.1      87.1      84.2       72.6        59.7          70
 Backward Classes              96.7             44.7      98.6       99.1      99.4      98.6       87.3        93.6       2,237
 Others                        97.3             48.1      99.0       99.0      98.9      98.5       86.5        96.4         707

Wealth index
 Lowest                       (92.3)           (30.8)     (92.3)    (92.3)   (100.0)    (84.6)     (61.5)      (61.5)         13
 Second                        87.2             39.6       88.7      85.8      85.8      85.8       71.6        64.8          71
 Middle                        95.4             39.7       98.1      96.2      97.0      98.1       85.3        85.7         266
 Fourth                        96.5             45.3       99.0      99.4      99.4      98.6       89.0        91.9       1,236
 Highest                       97.7             47.9       98.6      99.2      99.4      98.4       86.2        96.9       1,716

Kerala (15-49)                 96.8             46.0      98.5       98.7      98.9      98.1       86.8        93.3       3,302
               †
Kerala (15-44)                 96.8             46.1      98.5       98.8      98.9      98.2       86.8        93.4       3,299

Note: Percentage may not add to 100.0 due to multiple responses.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
#
  Women who had their last live/still birth since 01-01-2004.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.
† Represents figure for currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                                   61
TABLE 4.4 WOMEN RECEIVED ADVICE DURING ANTENATAL CARE
                                       #
Percentage of women (aged 15-49)           who received advice on different components, according to selected background
characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                             Keep                                                                  Number
                              Breast         baby                                                  Institutional     of
Background characteristics   feeding         warm     Cleanliness Spacing   Limiting   Nutrition     delivery      Women**

Age group
 15-19                        72.5            65.4       79.7       46.8     36.8        77.4          51.9           98
 20-24                        80.1            74.4       79.4       58.4     52.3        82.3          60.5          968
 25-29                        78.2            74.9       78.2       59.7     56.3        83.0          60.9         1307
 30-34                        80.0            77.2       81.4       63.4     60.5        83.3          63.7          660
 35+                          84.3            79.4       82.1       65.5     63.6        83.5          62.7          269

Children ever born
 0                           (63.6)          (54.5)     (63.6)     (54.5)   (45.5)      (72.7)        (45.5)          11
 1                            81.0            76.2       80.3       59.7     53.3        83.3          61.0         1375
 2                            78.8            75.6       79.6       63.2     60.0        83.0          63.5         1321
 3                            80.3            75.0       79.7       56.2     56.2        81.9          57.7          433
 4+                           70.9            67.8       73.1       49.5     46.4        77.7          54.6          162

Residence
 Rural                        78.5            74.4       79.0       59.9     56.3        82.3          61.3         2562
 Urban                        82.8            78.3       81.5       61.1     54.7        84.0          60.9          740

Education
              a
 Non-literate                 64.5            74.2       71.0       48.2     45.0        67.6          58.0           35
 Less than 5 years            77.1            64.7       79.0       56.2     52.7        78.8          63.1           58
 5-9 years                    78.2            73.3       78.3       55.4     52.4        82.3          58.7         1333
 10 or more year              80.7            77.0       80.6       63.9     58.8        83.3          63.0         1876

Religion
 Hindu                        80.4            76.9       80.4       64.0     59.8        83.1          63.1         1591
 Muslim                       78.5            73.3       77.3       53.9     49.4        81.8          58.3         1251
 Christian                    78.9            75.4       83.0       63.9     60.6        83.5          62.7          457
 Others                        *               *          *          *        *           *             *              3

Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes             80.3            71.9       81.3       64.2     60.0        80.9          61.1          288
 Scheduled Tribes             63.3            69.7       68.1       54.5     50.0        68.1          57.7           70
 Other backward classes       79.6            75.4       78.9       58.5     54.1        82.7          60.5         2237
 Others                       80.2            76.9       82.1       64.3     60.8        84.7          64.0          707

Wealth index
 Lowest                      (76.9)          (69.2)     (69.2)     (46.2)   (46.2)      (69.2)        (53.8)          13
 Second                       65.7            64.3       71.6       55.3     50.7        79.0          59.9           71
 Middle                       81.1            75.8       80.3       64.0     59.1        81.8          65.2          266
 Fourth                       78.3            73.7       77.8       57.6     54.5        82.1          60.1         1236
 Highest                      80.6            76.8       81.1       61.7     56.8        83.5          61.5         1716

Kerala                        79.5            75.3       79.6       60.1     56.0        82.7          61.2         3302

( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
#
  Women who had their last live/still birth since 01-01-2004.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school are also included.




                                                             62
TABLE 4.5 (A) ANTENATAL CARE
                                           #
Percent distribution of women (aged 15-49) by the number of antenatal check-up and the stage of pregnancy at the
time of first check-up during pregnancy according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                        Stage of pregnancy at the time of
                                        Number of ANC visits               the first antenatal check-up
                                                                                                            Number
                                  No                                      First        Second        Third    of
Background characteristics        visit    1         2        3+       trimester      trimester   trimester Women**

Age group
 15-19                          2.1     0.0       0.0     97.9          96.0         4.0          0.0         98
 20-24                          3.7     0.1       0.3     95.9          96.3         3.4          0.0        968
 25-29                          4.5     0.1       0.1     95.3          95.9         3.8          0.1      1,307
 30-34                          5.3     0.1       0.0     94.5          95.6         3.9          0.3        660
 35+                            6.3     0.0       0.0     93.7          91.5         6.2          1.1        269

Children ever born
 0                             (9.1)   (0.0)     (0.0)    (90.9)      (100.0)       (0.0)        (0.0)        11
 1                              3.9     0.0       0.1      96.0         97.6         2.0          0.1      1,375
 2                              5.6     0.2       0.2      94.1         95.1         4.5          0.2      1,321
 3                              3.5     0.0       0.2      96.3         93.5         5.5          0.5        433
 4+                             3.6     0.6       0.0      95.8         87.8        10.4          0.0        162

Residence
 Rural                          4.6     0.1       0.2     95.2          95.5         4.0          0.2      2,562
 Urban                          4.4     0.0       0.1     95.5          96.1         3.6          0.3        740

Education
              a
 Non literate                 14.2      0.0       0.0     85.8          74.3        14.2          0.0         35
 Less than 5 years             3.4      0.0       1.7     94.8          86.4        10.1          0.0         58
 5-9 years                     3.4      0.1       0.2     96.3          93.6         6.0          0.2      1,333
 10 or more years              5.2      0.1       0.1     94.7          97.7         2.0          0.2      1,876

Religion
 Hindu                          5.1     0.0       0.1     94.8          95.5         3.8          0.3      1,591
 Muslim                         3.1     0.2       0.1     96.6          94.9         4.9          0.0      1,251
 Christian                      6.3     0.2       0.4     93.0          98.0         1.5          0.2        457
 Others                          *       *         *       *             *            *            *           3

Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes              5.2      0.0       0.4     94.4          94.8         4.5          0.0        288
 Scheduled tribes             11.4      0.0       1.4     87.2          83.0         9.9          0.0         70
 Other backward classes        3.7      0.1       0.0     96.2          95.2         4.4          0.3      2,237
 Others                        6.2      0.1       0.3     93.4          98.4         1.4          0.0        707

Wealth index
 Lowest                       (0.0)    (0.0)     (0.0)   (100.0)       (84.6)      (15.4)        (0.0)        13
 Second                       12.8      0.0       1.4      85.8         84.4         8.4          0.0         71
 Middle                        4.9      0.0       0.0      95.1         91.4         6.4          1.2        266
 Fourth                        4.0      0.2       0.2      95.7         94.9         4.9          0.1      1,236
 Highest                       4.6      0.1       0.1      95.3         97.3         2.5          0.1      1,716

Kerala (15-49)                  4.5     0.1       0.2     95.2          95.6         3.9          0.2      3,302
               †
Kerala (15-44)                  4.5     0.1       0.2     95.3          95.6         3.9          0.2      3,299

Note: Percentage may not add to 100.0 due to multiple responses, do not know or missing cases.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
#
  Women who had their last live/still birth since 01-01-2004.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school are also included.
† Represents figure for currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                         63
TABLE 4.5 (B) ANTENATAL CARE
                                              #
Percent distribution of women (aged 15-49) by the number of tetanus toxoid injections (TT) and iron folic acid (IFA)
tablets/syrup received during pregnancy, and the percentage who received full antenatal check-up (ANC) according to
selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                               Women who received IFA
                                 Women who received TT                tablets/syrup
                                                                                 Consumed IFA                    Number
                                                                     No IFA/      for at least 3      Full         of
                                                                                                           b
Background characteristics      No TT         1          2+           syrup          months          ANC         Women**

Age group
 15-19                            0.9        4.1        95.0            3.0           71.3           64.2              98
 20-24                            1.3        3.3        93.4            5.8           79.8           72.2             968
 25-29                            1.6        4.4        91.8            5.5           80.5           73.4           1,307
 30-34                            1.2        4.4        92.2            8.2           78.8           72.4             660
 35+                              2.6        1.9        94.8            7.0           77.5           68.9             269

Children ever born
 0                                (9.1)      (0.0)     (90.9)          (0.0)         (72.7)         (63.6)             11
 1                                 1.3        2.5       93.9            5.2           80.9           73.7           1,375
 2                                 1.3        4.8       92.1            6.4           80.0           73.4           1,321
 3                                 1.9        5.7       90.8            7.5           76.4           68.9             433
 4+                                3.0        3.1       92.1            9.9           71.4           59.0             162

Residence
 Rural                            1.7        3.8        92.5            6.6           80.0           72.4           2,562
 Urban                            0.9        3.9        93.2            5.0           77.7           71.4             740

Education
              a
 Non literate                    14.3        5.7        71.3           16.9           60.2           51.6              35
 Less than 5 years                6.8        3.5        86.3           13.8           63.9           54.7              58
 5-9 years                        1.3        3.8        93.0            7.1           74.2           66.7           1,333
 10 or more years                 1.2        3.9        93.0            5.2           84.1           77.0           1,876

Religion
 Hindu                            1.6        3.3        93.2            6.4           79.1           72.7           1,591
 Muslim                           1.5        3.9        92.5            6.7           77.5           68.3           1,251
 Christian                        1.1        5.8        91.4            4.0           86.1           81.1             457
 Others                            *          *          *               *             *              *                 3

Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                 1.1        3.8        93.0            9.1           72.5           66.6             288
 Scheduled tribes                10.1        9.9        74.3            5.7           67.4           57.3              70
 Other backward classes           1.5        3.6        93.0            6.1           78.8           70.8           2,237
 Others                           0.9        4.0        93.4            5.5           85.7           80.3             707

Wealth index
 Lowest                           (7.7)      (7.7)     (76.9)        (23.1)          (53.8)         (50.0)             13
 Second                            8.5        2.8       85.8           7.0            70.4           62.0              71
 Middle                            3.0        4.5       89.1           8.7            67.7           61.3             266
 Fourth                            1.0        3.7       93.7           5.7            79.8           72.3           1,236
 Highest                           1.3        3.9       92.9           6.0            81.6           74.4           1,716

Kerala (15-49)                    1.5        3.9        92.7            6.2           79.5           72.2           3,302
               †
Kerala (15-44)                    1.5        4.8        93.7            6.2           79.5           72.3           3,299

Note: Percentage may not add to 100.0 due to multiple responses, do not know or missing cases.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
#
  Women who had their last live/still birth since 01-01-2004.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school are also included.
b
  At least three visits for antenatal check-up, at least one TT injection received and 100+ IFA tablets/ syrup consumed.
† Represents figure for currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                               64
TABLE 4.6 ANTENATAL CARE INDICATORS AND COMPLICATIONS BY DISTRICT
                                     #
Percentage of women (aged 15-49) who received different types of antenatal care (ANC) by districts, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                                                     2
                        Antenatal check-up       Three or more    At least one    100+ IFA       Full                      Number
                        in the first trimester     antenatal     tetanus toxoid    tablets/    antenatal       Any           of
                                                                                          1
District                    of pregnancy           check-up         injection       syrup      check-up    complications   Women**

Kasaragod                       95.6                 99.7             99.3          61.7         61.0           58.4         293
Kannur                          96.4                 89.0             99.5          78.7         78.1           47.8         281
Wayanad                         93.7                 97.9             95.8          71.0         68.0           70.4         286
Kozhikode                       91.0                 98.9             98.4          70.1         68.9           69.3         272

Malappuram                      96.2                 99.1             98.5          56.5         55.9           66.6         340
Palakkad                        94.9                 87.7             98.6          82.6         82.0           48.8         253
Thrissur                        96.0                 98.0             95.3          82.8         79.2           70.0         199
Ernakulam                       96.3                 95.7             96.2          68.2         65.4           69.4         185

Idukki                          97.6                 96.1            100.0          73.0         73.0           64.5         203
Kottayam                        97.2                 86.4             99.6          85.2         84.4           49.3         213
Alappuzha                       94.4                 95.0            100.0          79.6         79.6           78.4         200
Pathanamthitta                  97.6                 98.2             99.4          80.4         79.8           58.1         171

Kollam                          96.5                 91.2             98.7          73.6         72.8           75.1         215
Thiruvananthapuram              97.1                 99.5             98.1          84.3         82.4           63.0         191

Kerala (15-49)                  95.6                 95.2             96.6          73.3         72.2           63.2        3,302
               †
Kerala (15-44)                  95.6                 95.3             98.5          74.3         72.3           63.5        3,299
#
  Women who had their last live/still birth since 01-01-2004.
** Unweighted cases.
1
 100 or more iron folic acid tablets including syrup.
2
  At least three visits for antenatal check-up, at least one TT injection received and 100+ IFA tablets/ syrup consumed.
† Represents figure for currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                                 65
TABLE 4.7 PLACE OF DELIVERY AND ASSISTANCE
                                              #
Percent distribution of women (aged 15-49) according to place of delivery, assistance during home deliveries, and safe
deliveries according to background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                 Percentage of          Percentage of      Home delivery       Percentage      Number
                                women who had          women who had        assisted by          of safe         of
                                                                                          1              2
Background characteristics    institutional delivery   delivery at home   skilled persons       delivery       women**

Age group
 15-19                              100.0                     0.0                0.0             100.0              98
 20-24                               98.9                     1.1                0.0              98.9             968
 25-29                               99.6                     0.4                0.0              99.6           1,307
 30-34                               99.5                     0.5                0.0              99.5             660
 35+                                 99.3                     0.7                0.0              99.3             269

Children ever born
 0                                 (100.0)                   (0.0)              (0.0)            (100.0)            11
 1                                   99.9                     0.1                0.0               99.9          1,375
 2                                   99.1                     0.9                0.0               99.1          1,321
 3                                   99.3                     0.7                0.0               99.3            433
 4+                                  97.6                     2.4                0.0               97.6            162

Residence
 Rural                                99.2                    0.8                0.0              99.2           2,562
 Urban                                99.9                    0.1                0.0              99.9             740

Education
              a
 Non literate                         74.1                   25.9                0.0              74.1              35
 Less than 5 years                    94.8                    5.2                0.0              94.8              58
 5-9 years                            99.4                    0.6                0.0              99.4           1,333
 10 or more years                     99.9                    0.1                0.0              99.9           1,876

Religion
 Hindu                               98.8                     1.2                0.0              98.8           1,591
 Muslim                              99.8                     0.2                0.0              99.8           1,251
 Christian                          100.0                     0.0                0.0             100.0             457
 Others                               *                        *                  *                *                 3

Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                     98.6                    1.4                0.0              98.6             288
 Scheduled tribes                     85.6                   14.4                0.0              85.6              70
 Other backward classes               99.8                    0.2                0.0              99.8           2,237
 Others                               99.7                    0.3                0.0              99.7             707

Wealth index
 Lowest                              (69.2)                 (30.8)              (0.0)             (69.2)            13
 Second                               84.6                   15.4                0.0               84.6             71
 Middle                               98.9                    1.1                0.0               98.9            266
 Fourth                               99.8                    0.2                0.0               99.8          1,236
 Highest                              99.9                    0.1                0.0               99.9          1,716

Kerala (15-49)                        99.4                    0.6                0.0              99.4           3,302
               †
Kerala (15-44)                        99.4                    0.6                0.0              99.4           3,299

Note: Percent distribution of institutional and home delivery may not add to 100.0, because the places of delivery are on
the way to the institute, working place and other place.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
#
  Women who had their last live/still birth since 01-01-2004.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
1
  Includes Doctor/ANM/Nurse.
2
  Either institutional delivery or home delivery assisted by skilled person.
a
  Literate but did not attend school are also included.
† Represents figure for currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                           66
TABLE 4.8 MODE OF TRANSPORTATION USED FOR DELIVERY AND ARRANGEMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
                                            #
Percent distribution of women (aged 15-49) who had institutional delivery, according to the transportation used to reach the
health facility for delivery and transportation arrangement made according to selected background characteristics,
Kerala,2007-08
                                       Mode of transportation used                                         Govt.
                                      to reach the health facility for             Mean Delivery cost financial
                                                 delivery                              (Rupees)         assistance
                                                                           Mean                             for
                                     Ambulance Motor                     Transport                       delivery   Number
                                        Jeep/       cycle/                 cost                            care        of
                                                                       1                                        c
     Background characteristics           car      scooter Others (Rupees)                                (JSY)     women**
                                                                                    Govt.     Private

Age group
 15-19                                    63.6        0.0      36.4      229       2,463      7,951       13.5          99
 20-24                                    57.7        0.6      41.8      213       3,432      8,537       18.3         966
 25-29                                    58.3        0.5      41.2      218       3,707      8,803       15.0       1,315
 30-34                                    58.0        1.1      41.0      185       4,343     10,477       10.3         661
 35+                                      57.8        0.4      41.8      187       3,770     11,524        8.6         271

Children ever born
 0                                       (54.5)      (0.0)    (45.5)     (193)     (4,377)    (6,000)     (0.0)         11
 1                                        61.3        0.6      38.1       218       3,814      9,758      17.7       1,391
 2                                        57.1        0.8      42.1       207       3,987      9,101      17.2       1,319
 3                                        54.0        0.7      45.3       185       2,960      8,788       4.3         432
 4+                                       50.9        0.0      49.1       178       3,122      7,740       5.2         159

Residence
 Rural                                    58.3        0.5      41.2      219       3,737      8,954       17.4       2,566
 Urban                                    57.5        1.2      41.4      164       3,703     10,349        6.6         746

Education
              a
 Non literate                             43.3        0.0      56.7      162       3,202      9,049       29.5          28
 Less than 5                              42.3        0.0      57.7      218       3,777      5,151       14.3          57
 5-9 years                                50.0        0.3      49.7      203       3,589      8,060       17.6       1,347
 10 or more years                         64.7        0.9      34.4      211       3,903     10,022       13.0       1,880

Religion
 Hindu                                    56.4        0.3      43.2      210       3,815     10,076       20.4       1,586
 Muslim                                   58.9        0.5      40.6      199       3,216      8,133        8.3       1,266
 Christian                                62.2        2.0      35.9      219       4,231     10,331       15.3         457
 Others                                    *           *        *         *          *          *          *             3

Castes/tribes
 Scheduled Castes                         44.5        0.0      55.5      235       3,827      9,228       36.5         287
 Scheduled Tribes                         60.9        0.0      39.1      234       2,556      7,824       27.5          61
 Other backward classes                   57.1        0.5      42.4      195       3,525      8,732       11.9       2,257
 Others                                   66.9        1.3      31.8      234       4,500     10,932       14.2         707

Wealth index
 Lowest                                  (30.0)      (0.0)    (70.0)     (246)      (835)    (4,018)    (100.0)         10
 Second                                   51.0        0.0      49.0       240      4,159     10,244       22.3          61
 Middle                                   46.4        0.0      53.6       199      3,725      9,072       27.7         269
 Fourth                                   45.8        0.4      53.8       202      3,522      8,149       25.0       1,251
 Highest                                  69.4        0.9      29.7       212      4,097      9,842        5.2       1,721

Kerala (15-49)                            58.2        0.6      41.2      207       3,730       9,285      15.3       3,312
               †
Kerala (15-44)                            58.3        0.6      41.0      208       3,731       9,285      15.3       3,279
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
#
  Women who had their last live/still birth since 01-01-2004.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
JSY= Janani Suraksha Yojna.
a
  Literate but did not attend school are also included.
b
  Total figure may not add to 100 percent due to don’t know or missing cases.
c
  Percentage women who got JSY assistance.
† Represents figure for currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                             67
TABLE 4.9 PLACE OF DELIVERY AND ASSISTANCE CHARACTERISTICS BY DISTRICT
                                              #
Percent distribution of women (aged 15-49) according to place of delivery, assistance during home
deliveries, and safe deliveries by districts, Kerala, 2007-08
                           Percentage of         Percentage of   Home delivery Percentage
                          women who had           women who       assisted by       of     Number
                             institutional       had delivery at    skilled       safe       of
                                                                            1           2
District                       delivery               home         persons      delivery  Women**

Kasaragod                     98.6                1.3               0.0            98.6           293
Kannur                       100.0                0.0               0.0           100.0           281
Wayanad                       95.5                4.7               0.0            95.5           286
Kozhikode                    100.0                0.0               0.0           100.0           272

Malappuram                   100.0                0.0               0.0           100.0           340
Palakkad                      99.2                0.7               0.0            99.2           253
Thrissur                     100.0                0.0               0.0           100.0           199
Ernakulam                    100.0                0.0               0.0           100.0           185

Idukki                        99.5                0.5               0.0            99.5           203
Kottayam                     100.0                0.0               0.0           100.0           213
Alappuzha                     99.5                0.0               0.0            99.5           200
Pathanamthitta               100.0                0.0               0.0           100.0           171

Kollam                        99.5                0.0               0.0            99.5           215
Thiruvananthapuram            99.0                1.1               0.0            99.0           191

Kerala (15-49)                99.4                0.6               0.0            99.4         3,302
               †
Kerala (15-44)                99.4                0.6               0.0            99.4         3,299
Note: Percent distribution of institutional and home delivery may not add to 100.0, because the places of
delivery are on the way to the institute, working place and other place.
#
  Women who had their last live/still birth since 01-01-2004.
** Unweighted cases.
1
  Includes Doctor/ANM/Nurse.
2
  Either institutional delivery or home delivery assisted by skilled person.
† Represents figure for currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                  68
TABLE 4.10 REASONS FOR NOT GOING TO HEALTH INSTITUTIONS FOR DELIVERY
                                                #
Percent distribution of women (aged 15-49) according to main reasons for not going to health institution for delivery, according to
selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                   Reason
                              Cost      Poor    Too far/        No                Not         Better       Family    Lack of            Number
                               too     quality    No           time      Not     Cus-         care at      did not   Know-                 of
Background characteristics    much     service transport      to go   Necessary tomary         home         allow     ledge    Other    women**

Age group
 15-19                          nc        nc          nc       nc            nc        nc        nc           nc        nc       nc        0
 20-24                        (54.5)    (0.0)       (18.2)   (27.3)        (9.1)     (0.0)     (9.1)        (9.1)     (0.0)    (9.1)      11
 25-29                          *         *           *        *             *         *         *            *         *        *         6
 30-34                          *         *           *        *             *         *         *            *         *        *         3
 35+                            *         *           *        *             *         *         *            *         *        *         3

Children ever born
 0                              nc        nc          nc       nc            nc        nc       nc           nc         nc       nc        0
 1                              *         *           *        *             *         *        *            *          *        *         3
 2                            (23.1)    (0.0)       (7.7)    (53.8)        (0.0)     (0.0)    (15.4)       (15.4)     (0.0)    (7.7)      13
 3                              *         *           *        *             *         *        *            *          *        *         3
 4+                             *         *           *        *             *         *        *            *          *        *         4

Residence
 Rural                        (31.8)    (0.0)       (13.6)   (36.4)        (4.5)     (0.0)     (9.1)       (22.7)     (4.5)    (4.5)      22
 Urban                          *         *           *        *             *         *         *           *          *        *         1

Education
              a
 Non literate                   *         *           *         *            *         *         *            *         *        *         9
 Less than 5 years              *         *           *         *            *         *         *            *         *        *         3
 5-9 years                      *         *           *         *            *         *         *            *         *        *         8
 10 or more years               *         *           *         *            *         *         *            *         *        *         3

Religion
 Hindu                        (33.3)    (0.0)       (14.3)   (42.9)        (4.8)     (0.0)     (9.5)       (14.3)     (4.8)    (4.8)      21
 Muslim                         *         *           *        *             *         *         *           *          *        *         2
 Christian                      nc        nc          nc       nc            nc        nc        nc          nc         nc       nc        0
 Others                         nc        nc          nc       nc            nc        nc        nc          nc         nc       nc        0

Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes               *         *           *        *             *         *         *           *          *        *         5
 Scheduled tribes             (40.0)    (0.0)       (10.0)   (40.0)        (0.0)     (0.0)     (0.0)       (20.0)     (0.0)    (10.0)     10
 Other backward classes         *         *           *        *             *         *         *           *          *        *         6
 Others                         *         *           *        *             *         *         *           *          *        *         2

Wealth index
 Lowest                         *         *           *        *             *         *         *           *          *        *         4
 Second                       (54.5)    (0.0)       (9.1)    (27.3)        (0.0)     (0.0)     (0.0)       (18.2)     (0.0)    (9.1)      11
 Middle                         *         *           *        *             *         *         *           *          *        *         4
 Fourth                         *         *           *        *             *         *         *           *          *        *         2
 Highest                        *         *           *        *             *         *         *           *          *        *         2

Kerala                        30.7       0.0        12.9      38.9         4.4       0.0        8.7         21.7       4.2      4.4       23
#
  Women who had their last live/still birth since 01-01-2004.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
nc= Not calculated because there are no cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.
b
  Total figure may not add to 100 percent due to ‘ Multiple responses’, ‘don’t know’ or ‘missing cases’.




                                                                      69
TABLE 4.11 DELIVERY COMPLICATIONS
                                       #
Percentage of women (aged 15-49) who had complication during delivery and type of complications during delivery, according to selected
background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                   Type of delivery complications
                                   Any                                                                                        Number
                                delivery    Premature Excessive Prolonged obstructed          Breech    Convulsion               of
Background characteristics    complication    labour   bleeding   labour        labour     presentation  high BP    Other Women**

Age group
 15-19                             23.3           29.0         12.7           12.6        58.3            4.1     21.1     0.0      98
 20-24                             24.7           31.5         11.6           11.4        37.8           13.4     20.3     0.8     968
 25-29                             24.3           33.2         13.1           17.6        36.0            9.6     15.2     0.3    1307
 30-34                             21.3           26.1         10.7           11.7        36.1           19.4     19.4     0.8     660
 35+                               27.1           43.7          8.2           13.7        36.9           11.0     12.5     1.4     269

Children ever born
 0                                (54.5)         (83.3)       (16.7)        (0.0)        (33.3)         (16.7)    (0.0)   (0.0)     11
 1                                 27.0           31.5          8.6         16.0          40.1           12.2     17.8     0.6    1375
 2                                 22.3           31.7         13.4         13.3          36.8           12.5     15.2     0.7    1321
 3                                 20.7           31.0         13.3          9.8          25.5           12.5     26.9     1.1     433
 4+                                19.2           41.4         29.2         16.8          43.0           13.2     10.0     0.0     162

Residence
 Rural                             22.3           31.9         11.7           12.9        36.9           12.8     18.2     0.3    2562
 Urban                             29.9           33.3         12.0           17.5        38.3           11.6     15.4     1.4     740

Number of ANC Visits
 No visit                          24.2           19.2          5.5           16.7        55.9           14.0     11.4     2.8     149
 1                                  *              *             *             *           *               *        *       *        3
 2                                  *              *             *             *           *               *        *       *        5
 3+                                24.0           32.9         12.1           14.0        36.5           12.4     17.7     0.5    3145

Delivery
 Normal                            13.8           41.6         17.7          18.6         22.8            4.1     20.1     0.9    2258
 Caesarean                         46.1           26.1          8.0          11.2         46.6           18.1     15.6     0.4    1030
 By Instrument or Assisted        (42.9)         (33.3)        (0.0)        (16.7)       (66.7)          (0.0)   (16.7)   (0.0)     14

Place of Delivery
 Government facility               24.0           32.1         13.9         17.9          37.3           12.5     16.9     0.0    1195
 Private facility                  24.1           32.4         10.5         12.1          37.3           12.5     17.8     1.0    2086
 Home                             (14.3)         (33.3)       (33.3)        (0.0)        (33.3)          (0.0)    (0.0)   (0.0)     21

Kerala                             24.0           32.3         11.8           14.2        37.3           12.4     17.4     0.6    3302

Note: Total figure may not add to 100 percent due to ‘multiple responses’, ‘don’t know’ or ‘missing cases’.
#
  Women who had their last live/still birth since 01-01-2004.
* Percentage not shown, based on ess than 10 unweighted cases.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.




                                                                         70
TABLE 4.12 POST-DELIVERY COMPLICATIONS
                                  #
Percentage of women (aged 15-49) who had post-delivery complications and type of complications, according to selected
background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                        Type of post delivery complication
                                Any post                  Lower     Foul smelling                           Number
                                delivery      High      abdominal     vaginal       Excessive                 of
Background characteristics    complication    fever        pain      discharge       bleeding     Other     women**

Age group
 15-19                            20.2        62.3        38.2           9.0            9.6        33.3         98
 20-24                            22.7        48.6        40.5           5.1           11.4        38.7        968
 25-29                            21.9        43.8        40.2           5.2           15.1        36.8       1307
 30-34                            19.3        43.2        48.8           4.8           10.2        41.3        660
 35+                              21.9        44.3        50.4           6.8           10.0        36.6        269

Children ever born
 0                               (18.2)       (50.0)    (100.0)         (50.0)         (0.0)      (0.0)         11
 1                                19.4         49.0       36.9            5.6          12.3       36.0        1375
 2                                22.8         43.9       44.8            4.7          13.8       40.3        1321
 3                                22.8         45.7       46.9            4.0           9.0       36.0         433
 4+                               26.5         38.7       50.2            9.3          13.7       41.0         162

Residence
 Rural                            21.4        46.5        42.4           4.9           11.8        37.2       2562
 Urban                            22.1        43.4        43.3           6.8           14.9        40.7        740

Delivery
 Normal                           18.4         47.8        40.5           5.7          11.6       32.8        2258
 Caesarean                        28.4         42.6        45.7           4.9          14.0       45.9        1030
 By Instrument or Assisted       (21.4)       (66.7)      (33.3)         (0.0)         (0.0)      (0.0)         14

Place of delivery
 Government facility              24.6         47.6        46.1           6.1          13.4        36.6       1195
 Private facility                 19.6         44.9        39.9           4.9          11.6        39.3       2086
 Home                            (38.1)       (25.0)      (50.0)         (0.0)        (25.0)     (25.0)         21

Who conducted the last
delivery
 Dai                             (35.5)       (40.0)      (80.0)         (0.0)         (0.0)     (20.0)          14
 Relatives/Friends                 *            *           *              *             *         *              7

Kerala                            21.5        45.8        42.6           5.3           12.5        38.0       3302

( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
#
  Women who had their last live/still birth since 01-01-2004.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than1 0 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.




                                                         71
TABLE 4.13 ANY CHECK-UP AFTER DELIVERY
                                      #
Percentage of women (aged 15-49) whether received any check-up after delivery according to
background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08

                                  Check up within            Check up within          Number
Background characteristics     2 weeks after delivery     48 hours after delivery   of Women**

Age group
 15-19                               100.0                          100.0                  98
 20-24                                99.1                           98.6                 968
 25-29                                99.5                           99.2               1,307
 30-34                                99.5                           99.5                 660
 35+                                  99.3                           99.3                 269

Children ever born
 0                                   (100.0)                        (100.0)                11
 1                                     99.6                           99.1              1,375
 2                                     99.2                           99.0              1,321
 3                                     99.5                           99.5                433
 4+                                    98.8                           98.2                162

Residence
 Rural                                    99.3                        99.0              2,562
 Urban                                    99.9                        99.5                740

Education
              a
 Non literate                             82.9                        79.9                 35
 Less than 5 years                        93.1                        93.1                 58
 5-9 years                                99.5                        99.2              1,333
 10 or more years                         99.8                        99.6              1,876

Religion
 Hindu                                99.1                           98.6               1,591
 Muslim                               99.6                           99.4               1,251
 Christian                           100.0                          100.0                 457
 Others                                *                              *                     3

Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                         99.3                        99.3                288
 Scheduled tribes                         87.1                        85.6                 70
 Other backward classes                   99.6                        99.4              2,237
 Others                                   99.9                        99.4                707

Wealth index
 Lowest                               (76.9)                         (69.2)                13
 Second                                90.1                           87.4                 71
 Middle                                99.2                           98.9                266
 Fourth                                99.6                           99.4              1,236
 Highest                               99.8                           99.6              1,716

Kerala (15-49)                            99.4                        99.1              3,302
               †
Kerala (15-44)                            99.4                        99.1              3,299
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
#
  Women who had their last live/still birth since 01-01-2004.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school are also included.
† Represents figure for currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                 72
TABLE 4.14 COMPLICATIONS DURING PREGNANCY, DELIVERY AND POST-DELIVERY PERIOD
                                   #
Percentage of women (aged 15-49) who had extent of pregnancy, delivery and post-delivery complications and sought
treatment for the problem according to background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                               Who had          Sought                             Who had         Sought
                             complication   treatment for           Who had         post-       treatment for    Number
                                during        pregnancy             delivery       delivery     post-delivery      of
                                                         1                                                   2
Background characteristics    pregnancy     complication          complication   complication   complication     women**

Age group
 15-19                           66.3            86.4                23.3            20.2            66.5           98
 20-24                           64.6            87.8                24.7            22.7            82.3          968
 25-29                           64.4            84.4                24.3            21.9            83.4         1307
 30-34                           63.5            84.9                21.3            19.3            86.0          660
 35+                             55.2            86.0                27.1            21.9            85.1          269

Children ever born
 0                              (54.5)          (83.3)               (54.5)         (18.2)         (100.0)          11
 1                               64.9            85.7                 27.0           19.4            81.5         1375
 2                               63.4            85.7                 22.3           22.8            81.5         1321
 3                               61.2            85.7                 20.7           22.8            94.0          433
 4+                              60.6            85.9                 19.2           26.5            79.8          162

Residence
 Rural                           62.4            85.6                22.3            21.4            83.1         2562
 Urban                           67.6            85.9                29.9            22.1            83.5          740

Education
              a
 Non literate                    68.6            70.8                22.6            22.6            77.6           35
 Less than five years            67.1            82.5                20.6            30.7            55.1           58
 5-9 years                       66.1            86.5                24.1            26.8            83.7         1333
 10 or more years                61.6            85.5                24.1            17.5            84.3         1876

Religion
 Hindu                           63.4            84.0                24.4            20.4            85.7         1591
 Muslim                          65.6            88.3                23.8            23.4            81.4         1251
 Christian                       58.7            83.9                23.0            20.3            79.7          457
 Others                           *                *                   *              *               *              3

Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                63.6            79.7                22.7            25.6            87.9          288
 Scheduled tribes                69.9            77.4                18.7            20.1            71.3           70
 Other backward classes          65.5            87.4                25.1            23.0            82.2         2237
 Others                          56.9            83.1                21.7            15.5            86.4          707

Wealth index
 Lowest                         (53.8)          (71.4)               (30.8)         (23.1)          (66.7)          13
 Second                          62.0            75.7                 12.4           25.1            60.8           71
 Middle                          69.5            89.8                 21.7           26.7            90.1          266
 Fourth                          65.0            85.3                 23.4           24.3            83.4         1236
 Highest                         61.8            85.8                 25.2           18.6            82.9         1716

Kerala                           63.6            85.7                24.0            21.5            83.2         3302

( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
#
  Women who had their last live/still birth since 01-01-2004.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
1
  Women who reported at least one complication of pregnancy.
2
  Women who reported at least one post delivery complication.
a
  Literate but did not attend school are also included.




                                                             73
TABLE 4.15 COMPLICATIONS DURING PREGNANCY, DELIVERY AND POST-DELIVERY PERIOD BY
DISTRICTS
                                      #
Percentage of women (aged 15-49) who had extent of pregnancy, delivery, post-delivery complications and
treatment seeking behaviour by districts, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                        1
                                                    Percentage of women
                           Who had        Sought                         Who had         Sought
                         complication treatment for      Who had          post -      treatment for    Number
                            during      pregnancy        delivery        delivery     post-delivery      of
                                                  2                                                3
District                  pregnancy complication       complication    complication   complication     women**

Kasaragod                   58.4            91.3            23.0            21.2          92.4           293
Kannur                      47.8            84.6            27.4            10.7          90.7           281
Wayanad                     70.4            88.6            18.0            20.4          88.4           286
Kozhikode                   69.3            84.6            29.1            27.5          79.6           272

Malappuram                  66.6            91.3            18.9            20.6          84.9           340
Palakkad                    48.8            90.1            21.6            17.4          81.7           253
Thrissur                    70.0            86.8            27.8            30.3          69.7           199
Ernakulam                   69.4            82.3            23.5            18.1          87.5           185

Idukki                      64.5            80.7            20.5            26.0          82.7           203
Kottayam                    49.3            72.2            16.8            15.1          85.4           213
Alappuzha                   78.4            93.2            34.0            27.6          87.1           200
Pathanamthitta              58.1            80.0            14.2            16.3          82.4           171

Kollam                      75.1            81.9            38.9            28.0          80.8           215
Thiruvananthapuram          63.0            85.1            24.7            24.6          92.0           191

Kerala                      63.2            86.0            24.0            21.5          84.2          3,302
#
  Women who had their last live/still birth since 01-01-2004.
** Unweighted cases.
1
  Women who had last live/still birth during three years preceding the survey.
2
  Women who reported at least one complication of pregnancy.
3
  Women who reported at least one post-delivery complication.




                                                       74
TABLE 4.16 KNOWLEDGE OF DANGER SIGNS OF NEW BORN
                                     #
Percentage of women (aged 15-49) who had knowledge of the danger signs of new born, according to selected
background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                              Blue     Difficulty            Develop yellow              Poor     Baby   Number
                            tongue &       in     Cold/ hot staining on palm Abnormal sucking of did not   of
Background characteristic      lips   breathing to touch        and soles    movement   breast     cry   Women**

Age group
15-19                        27.6        32.6      41.9          49.1      39.7       46.8      48.9        98
20-24                        41.2        47.9      44.6          54.6      42.5       58.3      60.7       968
25-29                        44.9        47.4      46.0          57.8      47.1       62.2      65.5      1307
30-34                        53.2        54.0      50.1          59.9      48.7       63.6      68.5       660
35+                          47.2        53.7      46.9          58.8      48.5       63.0      67.5       269

Children ever born
0                           (18.8)       (9.8)     (0.8)        (27.8)    (18.8)     (18.8)    (18.8)       11
1                            43.8        49.4      46.1          57.3      45.7       60.6      63.0      1375
2                            46.4        49.0      47.5          57.0      45.9       62.0      66.0      1321
3                            47.7        49.2      46.2          59.3      49.6       61.0      65.8       433
4+                           41.1        46.6      42.7          52.9      41.2       59.1      62.7       162

Residence
Rural                        45.1        48.2      45.9          56.4      45.3       60.7      63.7      2562
Urban                        45.2        51.4      48.1          59.7      48.3       61.9      66.7       740

Education
Non literatea                14.1        22.7      19.7          19.8      14.2       37.0      31.3        35
Less than 5 years            28.9        27.2      30.7          32.5      23.8       43.1      48.1        58
9-10 years                   39.6        43.4      42.4          54.4      43.0       60.6      62.3      1333
10 or more years             50.2        54.1      50.2          60.5      49.4       62.2      67.0      1876

Religion
Hindu                        44.2        49.2      46.3          58.8      45.1       60.7      64.2      1591
Muslim                       43.0        46.2      45.8          54.4      46.1       59.8      62.3      1251
Christian                    54.0        55.4      47.8          58.9      48.4       65.0      70.9       457
Others                        *           *         *             *         *          *         *           3

Castes/tribes
Scheduled castes             43.5        48.1      44.2          56.6      44.1       58.0      62.6       288
Scheduled tribes             20.0        29.9      27.0          39.9      24.1       45.7      41.3        70
Other backward classes       44.1        47.6      46.3          56.5      45.3       60.1      62.7      2237
Others                       51.6        55.4      49.3          61.0      51.2       66.3      72.7       707

Wealth index
Lowest                      (23.8)       (15.8)   (15.8)        (30.8)    (23.8)     (30.8)    (30.8)       13
Second                       28.1         43.5     30.9          43.5      30.8       44.9      51.7        71
Middle                       41.8         42.2     38.8          48.1      39.4       54.5      56.7       266
Fourth                       42.9         47.1     46.2          57.5      44.3       62.0      62.9      1236
Highest                      48.1         51.8     48.5          59.0      49.0       62.1      67.4      1716

Kerala                       45.1        48.9      46.4          57.1      46.0       61.0      64.4      3302

( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases
#
  Women who had their last live/still birth since 01-01-2004.
* Percentage not shown, Based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school are also included.




                                                           75
    CHILD HEALTH CARE AND IMMUNIZATION
 
TABLE 5.1 TIMING AND PLACE OF EARLY CHILDHOOD CHECK UP BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
Percentage of children aged under 3 years received check-up and place of check-up according to selected background
characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                        Percentage among those who
                                                                                               b
                               Children received     Number                  received check up                  Number
                                check-up within         of                                                          of
                                                                                 1             2        3
Background characteristics      24 hours of birth   children**     Government        Private       Home                4
                                                                                                               children **

Age group
 15-19                              100.0              102               26.5         73.5           0.0            99
 20-24                               98.7              943               35.5         64.5           0.0           922
 25-29                               99.0            1,064               38.8         61.1           0.1         1,039
 30-34                               99.1              469               30.3         69.4           0.2           460
 35-39                               99.3              149               40.5         59.5           0.0           148
 40-44                              (95.8)              24              (34.8)       (65.2)         (0.0)           23
 45-49                                nc                 0                nc           nc            nc              0

Residence
 Rural                               99.0            2,127              36.9          63.0           0.1         2,084
 Urban                               98.7              624              32.1          67.9           0.0           607

Mother’s education
              a
 Non-literate                        82.8               29             (87.0)        (13.0)         (0.0)           24
 Less than 5 years                   93.5               46              72.2          27.8           0.0            43
 5-9 years                           98.9            1,118              44.0          55.9           0.1         1,094
 10 or more years                    99.5            1,558              28.2          71.8           0.1         1,530

Religion
 Hindu                               98.3            1,321              47.7          52.2           0.1         1,282
 Muslim                              99.8            1,057              22.6          77.4           0.1         1,044
 Christian                           98.9              370              32.1          67.9           0.0           362
 Others                               *                  3                *             *             *              3

Castes/Tribes
 Scheduled Castes                    98.8              245              66.6          33.4           0.0           242
 Scheduled Tribes                    85.9               65              74.6          25.4           0.0            55
 Other Backward Classes              99.4            1,874              32.9          67.0           0.1         1,838
 Others                              99.5              557              28.4          71.6           0.0           547

Wealth index
 Lowest                              (63.6)             11             100.0            *             *              7
 Second                               87.1              63              81.3          18.7           0.0            54
 Middle                               99.5             223              71.2          28.8           0.0           219
 Fourth                               99.1           1,036              49.7          50.3           0.0         1,014
 Highest                              99.6           1,418              18.2          81.6           0.1         1,397

Kerala                               99.0            2,751              35.8          64.1           0.1         2,691
Note: Table based on youngest living child born since 01.01.2004.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
nc= Not calculated because there are no cases.
1
   Includes government hospital or dispensary, urban health centre/urban health post/urban family welfare centre,
   community health centre or rural hospital, primary health centre, sub-centre, ICDS and Govt. AYUSH hospital/clinic.
2
  Includes non-governmental hospital/ trust hospital or clinic, private hospital/clinic and private AYUSH hospital/clinic.
3
  Includes Doctor and ANM/Nurse.
4
  Children who received check-up within 24 hours of birth.
a
  Literate but did not attend school are also included.
b
  Total figure may not add to 100 percent due to ‘do not know’ or ‘missing cases’.




                                                             79
TABLE 5.2 INITIATION OF BREASTFEEDING BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
Percentage of children aged under 3 years whose mother started breastfeeding within one hour of birth, within
24 hours of birth and after 24 hours of birth according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                     Percentage of women started breastfeeding           Number
                                  Children
                                  received           Within one       Within 24          After 24            of
                                              b                                    1
Background characteristics    Colostrum/Khees       hour of birth   hours of birth     hours of birth   children**

Age group
 15-19                                97.0              58.0            99.0                 1.0           102
 20-24                                97.6              66.2            97.6                 2.4           943
 25-29                                96.9              64.6            96.0                 4.0         1,064
 30-34                                97.0              63.4            96.3                 3.7           469
 35-39                                92.6              62.5            96.0                 4.0           149
 40-44                              (100.0)            (62.5)         (100.0)               (0.0)           24
 45-49                                 nc                nc              nc                  nc              0

Residence
 Rural                                97.3              66.1             97.3                2.7         2,127
 Urban                                95.9              59.1             94.9                5.1           624

Mother’s education
              a
 Non-literate                         96.5              72.4             89.7              10.3             29
 Less than 5 years                    95.7              74.0             97.8               2.2             46
 5-9 years                            97.1              70.0             97.3               2.7          1,118
 10 or more years                     96.9              60.2             96.5               3.5          1,558

Religion
 Hindu                                96.8              62.5             95.9                4.1         1,321
 Muslim                               97.3              67.4             98.3                1.7         1,057
 Christian                            96.5              64.1             95.6                4.4           370
 Others                                 *                 *                *                  *              3

Castes/Tribes
 Scheduled Castes                    95.9               64.5             96.3                3.7           245
 Scheduled Tribes                   100.0               81.4             95.3                4.7            65
 Other Backward Classes              96.9               64.1             97.0                3.0         1,874
 Others                              97.3               64.4             96.1                3.9           557

Wealth index
 Lowest                             (100.0)            (63.6)           (90.9)              (9.1)           11
 Second                               96.8              74.6             98.4                1.6            63
 Middle                               97.7              73.2             96.8                3.2           223
 Fourth                               97.6              67.7             97.0                3.0         1,036
 Highest                              96.3              60.5             96.5                3.5         1,418

Kerala (15-49)                       97.0               64.6             96.8                3.2         2,751
               †
Kerala (15-44)                       97.0               65.3             96.8                3.2         2,727
Note: Table based on youngest living child born since 01.01.2004.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
nc= Not calculated because there are no cases.
1
  Includes children whose mother started breastfeeding within one hour of birth.
a
  Literate but did not attend school are also included.
b
  Yellowish thick milk secretion during the first few days after child birth.
†
  Represents figures for children of currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                       80
TABLE 5.3 BREASTFEEDING AND WEANING STATUS BY CHILDREN’S AGE
Percentage of children aged under 3 years having exclusive breastfeeding and weaning status, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                                     1
                                                                    Weaning status
                                                                                                          Number
                              Exclusive        Other     Semi-solid                       Solid/Semi-        of
Age in months               breastfeeding      fluids      food         Solid food         solid food    children**

<2                               98.9           0.0           0.0           0.0                0.0              91
2-3                              89.9           3.8           0.0           0.0                0.0             159
4-5                              37.2          28.3          24.1           4.7               28.8             191
6-8                               3.7          12.2          31.8          48.6               80.4             245
9-11                              0.8           0.8           7.6          88.8               96.4             250
12-17                             0.7           0.2           0.9          89.4               90.3             442
18-23                             3.3           0.4           0.4          76.4               76.8             457
24-35                             3.9           1.1           1.2          39.6               40.8             916

6-9                               3.2           9.5          28.4          56.2               84.6          318
     2
6-35                             22.3           2.0           4.9          62.6               67.5        2,310
           †
6-9 (15-44)                       3.2           9.6          28.1          56.4               84.5          314
     2
6-35 (15-44)
             †                   22.3           2.0           4.9          62.9               67.8        2,287

Median duration (months)         4.30          5.43          6.57          8.03                7.3        2,751

Note: Table based on youngest living child born since 01.01.2004.
** Unweighted cases.
1
  Based on those children who had breastfeeding with other fluids, semi solid food and solid food.
2
  Children aged 6-35 months breastfed for at least 6 months.
†
  Represents figures for children of currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                           81
TABLE 5.4 EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING BY BACKGROUND
CHARACTERISTICS
Percentage of children aged 0-5 months who received exclusive
breastfeeding according to selected background characteristics,
Kerala, 2007-08
                                      Exclusive breastfeeding
                                                       Number
                                                           of
Background characteristics         0-5 months          children**

Age group
 15-19                                67.2              34
 20-24                                70.0             177
 25-29                                69.4             161
 30-34                                65.8              55
 35-39                               (64.3)             14
 40-44                                 nc                0
 45-49                                 nc                0

Residence
 Rural                                67.8             345
 Urban                                72.7              96

Mother’s education
              a
 Non-literate                          *                 5
 Less than 5 years                     *                 4
 5-9 years                            63.9             172
 10 or more years                     72.3             260

Religion
 Hindu                                73.2             202
 Muslim                               63.7             166
 Christian                            68.7              73
 Others                                nc                0

Castes/Tribes
 Scheduled Castes                     82.8              41
 Scheduled Tribes                    (80.0)             10
 Other Backward Classes               66.2             288
 Others                               69.5             101

Wealth index
 Lowest                                *                 1
 Second                                *                 6
 Middle                               74.9              32
 Fourth                               73.0             168
 Highest                              65.5             234

Kerala (15-49)                        68.9              441
               †
Kerala (15-44)                        69.1              440
Note: Table based on youngest living child born since 01.01.2004.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
nc= Not calculated because there are no cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school are also included.
†
  Represents figures for children of currently married women aged
15-44 years.




                              82
TABLE 5.5 BREASTFEEDING BY DISTRICTS
Percentage of children aged under 3 years whose mother started breastfeeding within one hour of birth, within
24 hours of birth, and after 24 hours of birth by districts, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                         Percentage started breastfeeding
                              Children                                                                  Number
                              received            Within one         Within 24          After 24           of
                                          a                                       1
Districts                 Colostrum/Khees        hour of birth     hours of birth     hours of birth   children**

Kasaragod                        98.4                 80.2                97.5              2.5           253
Kannur                           97.6                 57.1                98.0              2.0           224
Wayanad                          98.8                 83.5                97.1              2.9           247
Kozhikode                        98.8                 57.6                97.8              2.2           232

Malappuram                       97.8                 65.1                98.3              1.7           290
Palakkad                         95.2                 57.1                96.5              3.5           224
Thrissur                         94.5                 54.6                96.4              3.6           165
Ernakulam                        90.0                 50.0                91.2              8.8           156

Idukki                           97.6                 73.4                94.1              5.9           170
Kottayam                         98.7                 63.8                98.9              1.1           181
Alappuzha                        95.9                 57.1                95.7              4.3           165
Pathanamthitta                   97.6                 61.1                97.6              2.4           126

Kollam                           96.0                 60.0                96.6              3.4           166
Thiruvananthapuram               96.7                 65.8                95.8              4.2           152

Kerala (15-49)                   97.0                 64.6                96.8              3.2         2,751
               †
Kerala (15-44)                   97.0                 65.3                96.8              3.2         2,727
Note: Table based on youngest living child born since 01.01.2004.
** Unweighted cases.
1
  Includes children whose mother started breastfeeding within one hour of birth.
a
  Yellowish thick milk secretion during the first few days after child birth.
†
  Represents figures for children of currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                      83
TABLE 5.6 VACCINATION OF CHILDREN BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
Percentage of children aged 12-23 months who received specific vaccination according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                           DPT                                             Polio                                                                            Number
                                                                                                                                                   Full            No        Vaccination       of
                                                                                                                                                           1
Background characteristics       BCG            1             2            3               0       1                 2        3      Measles   vaccination     vaccination    card seen    children**

Residence
 Rural                            99.0          97.2          95.2       87.5              1.4     98.2            96.3     86.6       88.1       80.3             0.6          76.0          720
 Urban                            99.5          95.9          93.9       85.5              2.6     99.0            97.0     86.9       87.4       77.0             0.5          75.9          201

Sex of the child
 Male                             99.8          97.0          94.3       87.2              1.7     98.7            96.4     86.3       87.1       79.3             0.2          74.6          475
 Female                           98.4          96.9          95.5       87.0              1.6     98.0            96.4     87.0       88.8       79.8             0.9          77.4          446

Birth order
 1                               99.1           98.0          95.8       89.4              1.8     99.1            97.6     88.9       92.0       83.0             0.4          77.7          450
 2                               99.4           97.8          95.9       87.2              1.6     98.4            97.2     87.5       86.9       79.7             0.6          75.0          321
 3                               99.1           93.2          90.4       81.8              0.0     96.2            91.4     78.6       78.9       70.1             0.0          77.8          104
 4+                             100.0           87.7          87.7       72.9              6.2     97.1            90.7     72.9       72.3       63.4             0.0          54.0           33

Mother’s education
              a
 Non-literate                       *             *             *          *                *        *               *         *         *          *               *             *             9
 Less than 5 years              (100.0)        (90.0)        (90.0)     (90.0)           (90.0)   (90.0)           (90.0)   (90.0)    (80.0)      (80.0)          (0.0)        (80.0)          10
 5-9 years                        98.1          94.5          91.4       80.8              2.2     97.0             93.7     79.3      83.5        73.0            1.1          72.6          365
 10 or more years                 99.8          98.9          97.4       91.3              1.1     99.4             98.4     91.5      91.3        84.0            0.2          78.3          537

Religion
 Hindu                            99.8          98.9          98.7       93.5              1.8     99.5            99.6     91.9       93.5       86.7             0.0          80.0          443
 Muslim                           98.3          93.8          89.0       77.1              2.1     96.5            91.3     77.6       77.6       66.9             1.1          67.9          345
 Christian                        99.3          98.5          97.8       91.8              0.0     99.3            99.3     92.5       96.3       88.8             0.7          83.4          132
 Others                             *             *             *          *                *        *              *         *          *         *                *             *             3

Castes/Tribes
 Scheduled Castes                100.0        100.0         100.0        92.7              1.2    100.0        100.0         92.7      86.6        82.9            0.0          86.6           83
 Scheduled Tribes               (100.0)       (84.6)        (92.3)      (84.6)            (0.0)    (92.3)      (92.3)       (84.6)    (84.6)      (84.6)         (0.0)         (76.9)          13
 Other Backward Classes           99.0         96.4          93.5        84.9              1.6      98.2        95.3         84.3      85.7        76.7            0.6          73.9          616
 Others                           99.0         98.6          97.6        91.9              1.9      99.1        99.1         91.4      95.7        86.6            0.5          77.5          207

Wealth index
 Lowest                             *             *             *          *                *        *               *         *         *          *                *            *             1
 Second                         (100.0)        (83.3)        (83.3)     (83.3)            (0.0)   (83.3)           (83.3)   (75.0)    (75.0)      (66.7)          (0.0)        (75.0)          12
 Middle                          100.0          92.7          92.6       83.2              1.9     96.1             96.4     81.3      69.8        64.2            0.0          70.0           53
 Fourth                           98.7          96.9          95.3       86.9              1.7     98.3             95.3     85.6      88.6        80.5            0.4          76.8          238
 Highest                          99.2          97.6          95.2       87.6              1.7     98.9             97.1     87.7      89.5        80.7            0.6          76.2          617

Kerala (15-49)                    99.1          96.9          94.9       87.1              1.6     98.4             96.4    86.6      87.9        79.6             0.5          76.0          921
              †
Kerala (15-44)                    99.1          96.9          94.9       87.1              1.6     98.4             96.4    86.6      87.9        79.5             0.5          75.8          914
Note: Table based on youngest living child born since 01.01.2004.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
1
 BCG, three injections of DPT, three doses of Polio (excluding Polio “0”) and measles.
a
  Literate but did not attend school are also included.
†
  Represents figures for children of currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                                                                  84
TABLE 5.7 CHILDHOOD VACCINATION BY DISTRICTS
Percentage of children aged 12-23 months received specific vaccination and Vitamin-A supplementation by districts, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                            Percentage immunized                                       Percentage
                                                                                                                                        Number
                                                                                                                       received at
                         Vaccination                                                                                 least one dose        of
                                                                                                         1                         2
Districts                 card seen        BCG         DPT3       Polio 0    Polio 3    Measles   Full       None     of Vitamin-A     children**

Kasaragod                   70.7          100.0         91.9        2.4          91.9    92.4     87.3        0.0           60.2           83
Kannur                      78.7           97.3         91.7        0.0          93.1    88.4     81.7        1.5           60.5           80
Wayanad                     68.2           97.8         85.1        2.1          82.9    82.7     78.3        2.2           59.1           90
Kozhikode                   74.4           98.8         79.7        2.1          79.5    75.6     65.0        1.2           62.9           71

Malappuram                  75.1           98.2         72.5        1.7          72.4    75.7     63.9        0.9           37.6           96
Palakkad                    78.4          100.0         78.7        4.4          73.7    81.9     69.6        0.0           51.8           53
Thrissur                    81.2          100.0         90.9        0.0          87.2    92.2     80.8        0.0           73.0           55
Ernakulam                   75.4          100.0         85.9        0.0          90.2    94.1     77.4        0.0           62.4           56

Idukki                      73.8          100.0         90.5        0.0          88.7    96.7     85.5        0.0           72.5           61
Kottayam                    84.1          100.0         96.4        0.0          95.2    94.5     89.3        0.0           77.5           73
Alappuzha                   84.8          100.0         94.3        2.1          92.5    95.9     92.2        0.0           78.5           49
Pathanamthitta              79.8          100.0         91.2        2.2          93.2    95.1     88.4        0.0           74.4           42

Kollam                      78.8           98.3         94.8        1.6          91.6    92.6     84.5        0.0           78.0           58
Thiruvananthapuram          80.0          100.0         91.5        1.6          94.6    96.9     91.2        0.0           77.4           54

Kerala (15-49)              76.0            99.1        87.1        1.6          86.6    87.9     79.6        0.5           64.1          921
               †                                                                                                                #
Kerala (15-44)              75.8            99.1        87.1        1.6          86.6    87.9     79.5        0.5          60.3           914

Note. Table based on youngest living child born since 01.01.2004.
** Unweighted cases.
1
  BCG, three injections of DPT, three doses of Polio (excluding Polio 0) and measles.
2
  Children aged 12-35 months.
#
  Children aged 9-35 months.
†
  Represents figures for children of currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                                            85
TABLE 5.8 PLACE OF CHILDHOOD VACCINATION BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
Percent of children aged 3 years received vaccination by place of vaccination, according to selected background
characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                        Place of vaccination
                                                Government health sector
                                                                                                               Number
                                                        Primary            Other              Private
                                                        Health          government            health              of
                                                                                                    1
Background characteristics          Sub-Centre          Centre          health facility       sector          children**

Residence
 Rural                                  1.9               34.7               54.6              42.9            2,149
 Urban                                  1.7               18.5               54.3              55.8              626

Sex of the child
 Male                                   1.8               31.3               54.5              45.5            1,428
 Female                                 2.0               30.7               54.5              46.1            1,347

Birth order
 1                                      1.6               28.5               53.3              51.2            1,296
 2                                      2.2               33.2               54.1              43.2            1,012
 3                                      2.2               31.6               61.0              36.8              318
 4+                                     0.9               38.4               54.8              34.2              113

Mother’s education
              a
 Non-literate                           0.0               51.8               63.1               0.0               27
 Less than 5 years                      2.2               35.5               80.1              15.5               45
 5-9 years                              2.7               34.4               62.6              35.2             1116
 10 or more years                       1.3               28.1               47.9              54.9            1,587

Religion
 Hindu                                  2.1               34.7               58.0              39.5            1,345
 Muslim                                 2.0               29.8               53.4              49.1            1,046
 Christian                              0.8               21.7               45.0              58.4              381
 Others                                  *                 *                   *                 *                 3

Castes/Tribes
 Scheduled Castes                       1.2               39.4               60.5              24.7              248
 Scheduled Tribes                       0.0               47.1               71.8               9.3               64
 Other Backward Classes                 2.1               31.5               56.1              44.9            1,882
 Others                                 1.7               24.2               44.7              62.0              571

Wealth index
 Lowest                                  *                 *                   *                 *                 8
 Second                                 6.0               30.3               63.6              21.4               33
 Middle                                 1.3               40.3               69.6              12.6              152
 Fourth                                 2.1               35.4               65.8              25.2              746
 Highest                                1.7               28.3               48.4              57.5             1836

Kerala                                  1.9               31.0               54.5              45.8            2,775

Note: Table based on youngest living child born since 01.01.2004.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
1
  Includes non-governmental hospital/ trust hospital or clinic, private hospital and private doctor/clinic.
a
  Literate but did not attend school are also included.




                                                          86
TABLE 5.9 VITAMIN-A AND HEPATITIS-B SUPPLEMENTATION FOR CHILDREN BY BACKGROUND
CHARACTERISTICS
Percentage of children aged 12-35 months received at least one dose of Vitamin-A, 3-5 doses of Vitamin-A
and Hepatitis-B injection, according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                   Children who            Children who       Children who         Number
                               received at least one    received 3-5 doses received Hepatitis-B       of
Background characteristics       dose of Vitamin-A         of Vitamin- A         injection        children**

Age of the child
 12-23 months                          58.9                    7.0                 71.1              921
  24-35 months                         69.2                   12.8                 74.9              938

Residence
  Rural                                64.3                    8.9                 72.8             1436
  Urban                                63.5                   14.4                 73.7              423

Sex of the child
 Male                                  63.0                   10.3                 71.7              965
 Female                                65.3                   10.0                 74.4              894

Birth order
 1                                     64.2                   10.9                 77.9              873
 2                                     66.8                    9.4                 73.3              665
 3                                     58.7                    9.8                 60.7              209
 4+                                    48.2                    2.7                 48.6               76

Mother’s education
              a
 Non-literate                         (40.9)                 (11.1)               (59.1)              22
 Less than 5 years                     58.7                    0.0                 50.1               34
 5-9 years                             61.0                    9.6                 64.2              754
 10 or more years                      67.0                   10.8                 80.4            1,049

Religion
 Hindu                                 70.9                   11.2                 79.5              895
 Muslim                                52.7                    8.9                 59.8              706
 Christian                             71.4                    8.7                 86.4              257
 Others                                 *                       *                    *                 1

Castes/Tribes
 Scheduled Castes                      67.1                    9.1                 82.6              161
 Scheduled Tribes                      51.4                   14.3                 53.8               41
 Other Backward Classes                62.5                   10.1                 69.4            1,267
 Others                                69.7                   10.0                 82.9              386

Wealth index
 Lowest                                  *                      *                    *                 8
 Second                                51.9                    7.7                 63.9               25
 Middle                                51.0                   15.1                 59.8              104
 Fourth                                67.8                    8.3                 70.2              486
 Highest                               64.2                   10.7                 75.6            1,236

Kerala (15-49)                         64.1                   10.2                 73.0            1,859
               #†
Kerala (15-44)                         60.3                    9.8                 72.2            2,121
Note: Table based on youngest living child born since 01.01.2004.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
* Percentage not shown, Based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but not attend school are also included.
#
  Children aged 9-35 months.
†
  Represents figures for children of currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                       87
TABLE 5.10 KNOWLEDGE REGARDING DIARRHOEA MANAGEMENT BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
Percentage of women who are aware of diarrhoea management according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                                                                   1
                                                              Type of practices followed if child gets diarrhoea
                              Knowledge of                   Salt and                      Continue        Give                 Number
                               diarrhoea         Give         sugar        Continue         breast-      plenty of                of
Background characteristics    management         ORS         solution     normal food      feeding         fluids      Others   women**

Age group
 15-19                            52.4            59.2        48.5             3.1            4.6          54.1         4.6        249
 20-24                            73.6            68.4        54.7             6.7            6.1          55.0         1.8      1,505
 25-29                            83.8            67.5        54.8             6.9            5.2          59.7         2.1      2,188
 30-34                            87.8            64.6        57.2             7.2            4.8          66.2         2.7      2,261
 35-39                            87.9            62.2        59.4             7.4            4.5          65.2         2.7      2,367
 40-44                            88.7            58.8        61.1             7.7            4.9          64.6         2.4      2,057
 45-49                            85.4            51.9        60.7             8.3            4.7          65.2         2.9      1,733

Residence
 Rural                            83.8            61.2        57.5             7.0            4.7          64.9         2.7      9,484
 Urban                            86.5            65.0        59.7             8.2            5.7          57.3         1.9      2,876

Mother’s education
              a
 Non-literate                     57.5            32.7        58.4             5.9            3.4          63.4         3.0        414
 Less than 5 years                75.7            42.7        59.3             6.0            3.4          60.2         3.1        885
 5-9 years                        82.4            55.1        58.0             6.1            3.5          63.4         2.7      5,596
 10 or more years                 90.1            72.8        57.9             8.7            6.6          63.3         2.2      5,465

Religion
 Hindu                            85.6            64.6        56.7             8.0            5.3          63.7         2.6      6,601
 Muslim                           78.8            56.0        60.8             5.5            4.1          59.8         2.4      3,792
 Christian                        91.8            64.6        57.6             8.2            5.3          66.8         2.5      1,962
 Others                             *               *           *                *              *           *             *          5

Castes/Tribes
 Scheduled Castes                 80.0            60.7        54.7             9.6            6.3          63.5         3.2      1,184
 Scheduled Tribes                 59.4            52.9        51.0             1.3            1.9          58.6         2.6        261
 Other Backward Classes           83.5            60.5        58.9             6.9            4.6          61.9         2.4      7,802
 Others                           90.9            67.0        57.6             8.0            5.4          66.1         2.5      3,081

Wealth index
 Lowest                           46.3            34.5        79.8             5.0            0.0          45.3         0.0         43
 Second                           66.6            55.7        60.2             9.8            8.0          54.2         3.0        246
 Middle                           77.0            53.7        57.9             8.1            4.8          62.6         2.4      1,134
 Fourth                           84.1            58.7        57.6             6.6            4.4          63.8         2.8      4,685
 Highest                          87.0            66.3        58.2             7.6            5.3          63.1         2.3      6,252

Kerala                            84.5            62.1        58.0             7.3            4.9          63.1         2.5     12,360

Note: Table based on women with youngest living children born since 01.01.2004.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
1
  Among women who are aware of diarrhoea management.
a
  Literate but did not attend school are also included.




                                                                     88
TABLE 5.11 TREATMENT OF DIARRHOEA BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
Percentage of children who suffered from diarrhoea and sought advice/treatment according to selected background characteristics,
Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                                          Source of treatment
                               Children
                               suffered      Number                                    Government        Private     Number
                                 from           of       Given     Children sought        health          health        of
                                        1                                                         2              3
Background characteristics   diarrhoea       children    ORS      advice/treatment        facility       facility   children**

Age group
 Less than 25                    6.6         1,242         43.5           84.4              37.4           65.5            69
 25-29                           5.6         1,516         46.1           76.4              45.0           58.0            65
 30-34                           5.9           731         51.2           76.6              30.6           69.4            33
 35-39                           4.1           238         29.8           60.5                *             *               6
 40-49                           2.3            42        100.0          100.0                *             *               1

Residence
 Rural                           5.9         2,924         43.7           76.8              40.1           62.9           132
 Urban                           5.7           845         52.5           86.1              33.5           66.5            42

Mother’s education
              a
 Non-literate                    2.6            39          0.0          100.0                *             *               1
 Less than 5 years              10.5            66         56.3           85.4                *             *               6
 5-9 years                       6.5         1,560         39.7           75.3              46.1           56.5            76
 10 or more years                5.3         2,104         50.8           81.4              29.7           72.4            91

Religion
 Hindu                           6.1         1,810         41.3           77.7               43.0          57.0            86
 Muslim                          6.1         1,438         51.0           83.0               33.0          72.4            73
 Christian                       4.3           518         45.9           68.1              (40.0)        (60.0)           15
 Others                           *              3           *              *                 nc            nc              0

Castes/Tribes
 Scheduled Castes                6.6           332         59.4           86.8              (52.6)        (47.4)           19
 Schedule Tribes                 8.4            84          0.0           57.3                 *            *               4
 Other Backward Classes          6.3         2,557         48.4           80.8               36.9          66.1           130
 Others                          3.9           786         32.1           67.7              (28.6)        (71.4)           21

Wealth index
 Lowest                        (27.3)           11          0.0          100.0                 *            .*              3
 Second                         12.2            41         20.1           60.2                 *             *              3
 Middle                          6.8           220         52.8           79.6              (75.0)        (25.0)           12
 Fourth                          5.6         1,032         53.8           76.2               43.5          56.5            44
 Highest                         5.7         2,465         43.4           80.1               29.5          74.0           112

Kerala (15-49)                   5.9         3,769         45.6           78.8              38.5           63.7           174
               †
Kerala (15-44)                   5.9         3,733         45.1           78.6              38.4           64.0           172
Note: Table based on women with youngest living children born since 01.01.2004.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
1
  Last two weeks prior to survey.
2
  Includes government hospital or dispensary, urban health centre/ urban health post/urban family welfare centre, community health
  centre or rural hospital, primary health centre, sub-centre, ICDS and Govt. AYUSH hospital /clinic.
3
  Includes non-governmental hospital/trust hospital or clinic, private hospital/clinic and private AYUSH hospital/clinic.
a
  Literate but did not attended school are also included.
†
  Represents figures for children of currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                               89
Table 5.12 KNOWLEDGE AND TREATMENT OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION (ARI) BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
Percentage of women who are aware of danger signs of ARI and whose children suffer from ARI and sought advice/treatment according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                                                                 1
                             Women                             Danger signs of Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI)                                            Source of treatment
                                                                                                                                                                                  5

                             aware of                                Pain in                                              Children
                              danger      Number       Difficulty  chest and                                               suffered         Children       Government        Private     Number
                             signs of        of            in      productive    Wheezing/        Rapid          Other
                                                                                                                      2      from            sought           health         health         of
Background characteristics     ARI       women**      breathing       cough       whistling     breathing        signs        ARI
                                                                                                                                 3
                                                                                                                                        advice/treatment
                                                                                                                                                         4
                                                                                                                                                             facility
                                                                                                                                                                     6
                                                                                                                                                                             facility
                                                                                                                                                                                     7
                                                                                                                                                                                        children**

Age group
 15-19                            13.3            249          39.3         39.9         21.7            12.5         36.6          12.7             100.0               29.2          70.8          102
 20-24                            27.2          1,505          44.2         33.5         17.4            11.9         32.6          11.8              91.4               32.7          67.3        1,140
 25-29                            35.8          2,188          50.6         41.1         15.0            10.1         33.4          10.7              89.8               40.5          59.5        1,516
 30-34                            41.1          2,261          49.1         42.3         14.1             9.0         29.3          12.3              88.1               37.1          62.9          731
 35-39                            42.6          2,367          48.9         42.7         14.3             8.0         28.0          11.4              82.4               38.1          61.9          238
 40-44                            43.9          2,057          51.8         43.7         15.4             8.4         30.5          12.5             100.0               22.2          77.8           40
 45-49                            40.0          1,733          46.5         45.6         13.9             8.4         32.3            *                 *                 *              *             2

Residence
 Rural                            37.0          9,484          47.9         40.9         14.4             8.7         29.5          11.4              89.5               39.1          60.9        2,924
 Urban                            43.5          2,876          51.9         45.7         16.2            10.1         34.0          11.6              90.6               28.3          71.7          845

Mother’s education
              a
 Non-literate                      5.8            414          37.4         25.2         12.5             8.6         41.7           5.1              87.5               71.4          28.6           39
 Less than 5 years                19.1            885          43.8         34.9         12.3             8.7         33.7          18.2              86.4               31.6          68.4           66
 5-9 years                        30.7          5,596          42.8         40.2         13.9             8.2         31.7          13.3              89.0               44.0          56.0        1,560
 10 or more years                 52.1          5,465          53.1         44.0         15.6             9.6         29.8          10.0              90.9               29.7          70.3        2,104

Religion
 Hindu                            40.3          6,601          48.5         41.7         14.0             8.2         29.5          11.4              91.4               40.7          59.3        1,810
 Muslim                           27.6          3,792          47.7         40.7         19.1            12.5         33.8          11.5              89.2               34.8          65.2        1,438
 Christian                        53.6          1,962          51.2         44.7         12.6             7.6         30.6          11.9              85.8               27.2          72.8          518
 Other                             *                5            *            *            *               *           *              *                 *                 *              *             3

Caste/Tribe
 Scheduled Castes                 31.6          1,184          50.2         42.0         13.7             8.4         30.6          15.1              90.1               47.3          52.7          332
 Scheduled Tribes                 13.1            261          46.9         38.2         11.8             8.8          5.8          15.5              86.4               36.8          63.2           84
 Other Backward Classes           35.1          7,802          47.5         41.9         15.6             9.5         31.8          11.3              90.8               38.4          61.6        2,557
 Others                           52.1          3,081          51.1         42.8         13.9             8.3         29.4          10.2              86.5               23.8          76.2          786

Wealth index
 Lowest                            2.3             43        100.0        100.0         100.0             0.0          0.0         (18.2)           (100.0)             (66.7)        (33.3)          11
 Second                           19.9            246         53.2         49.1          14.3            10.2         32.6          14.6              91.7               63.6          36.4           41
 Middle                           26.6          1,134         42.8         43.5          12.9             7.3         29.3          17.8              94.1               59.4          40.6          220
 Fourth                           33.0          4,685         44.7         40.1          14.7             9.4         31.8          12.7              91.2               47.9          52.1        1,032
 Highest                          45.8          6,252         51.8         43.0          15.1             9.0         30.2          10.3              88.5               27.3          72.7        2,465

Kerala (15-49)                    38.5         12,360         49.0          42.2         14.8             9.1         30.7          11.5              89.8               36.7          63.3        3,769
              †
Kerala (15-44)                    38.8         10,148         49.4          41.7         15.2             9.2         30.7          11.5              89.8               35.7          64.3        3,733
Note: Table based on women with youngest living children born since 01.01.2004.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases. ** Unweighted cases.
1                                                             2
   Among women who are aware of any danger signs of ARI. Includes not able to drink or take a feed, excessive drowsy and difficulty to keep awake, running nose and others.
3                                   4                                                                                   5
   Last two weeks prior to survey. Among children with ARI or fever in last two weeks who sought advice/ treatment. Among children who sought advice/treatment.
6
   Includes government hospital or dispensary, urban health centre/urban health post/urban family welfare centre, community health centre or rural hospital, primary health centre, sub-centre, ICDS and
                                 7                                                                                                                    a
  Govt. AYUSH hospital/clinic. Includes non-governmental hospital/trust hospital or clinic, private hospital/clinic and private AYUSH hospital/clinic. Literate but did not attend school are also included.
 †
    Represents figures for children of currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                                                                    90
Table 5.13 KNOWLEDGE OF ORS AND ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION (ARI) BY DISTRICTS
Percentage of women by awareness of ORS and percentage of children suffered from diarrhoea and ARI and
advice/treatment by districts, Kerala, 2007-08

                        Women           Children                             Children                         Number
                        aware of      suffered from    Children sought       suffered     Children sought         of
                                                  1                                  1                    2
Districts                ORS           diarrhoea       advice/treatment     from ARI     advice/treatment     children**

Kasaragod                 44.9            3.2                62.9              6.2              90.5            339
Kannur                    55.1            7.0                89.7              7.9              91.3            306
Wayanad                   71.0           13.0                84.2             16.2              89.6            332
Kozhikode                 64.0            5.7                68.4             12.1              90.9            312

Malappuram                52.2            2.6                69.5              8.7              89.8            395
Palakkad                  64.0            4.4                92.4             13.2              91.0            289
Thrissur                  71.7            7.7                53.2             14.5              78.6            233
Ernakulam                 66.0            2.4                81.8             14.0              82.2            202

Idukki                    61.2            8.3                78.4              8.8              98.6            237
Kottayam                  63.7            4.2                74.5              9.7              90.2            255
Alappuzha                 75.9            4.7                68.2             21.1              97.9            221
Pathanamthitta            54.3            7.6                79.8             10.4              85.2            190

Kollam                    59.6            5.1                82.7             13.8              90.2            243
Thiruvananthapuram        61.7            5.6                93.5              9.0              95.9            215

Kerala (15-49)            62.1            5.9                78.8             11.5              89.8          3,769
               †
Kerala (15-44)            64.2            5.9                78.6             11.5              89.8          3,733

Note: Table based on women with youngest living children born since 01.01.2004.
** Unweighted cases.
1
  Last to two weeks prior survey.
2
  Among children with ARI or fever in last two weeks sought advice /treatment.
†
  Represents figures for children of currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                          91
        
FAMILY PLANNING
TABLE 6.1 AWARENESS OF CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS
Percentage of ever married and currently married women age 15-49 years who are aware of
specific contraceptive method by place of residence, Kerala, 2007-08
                                      Ever married women               Currently married women
Contraceptive methods               Total     Rural     Urban          Total     Rural     Urban

Any method                            99.9      99.9       99.8          99.9      99.9       99.8
                  1
Any modern method                     99.9      99.9       99.7          99.9      99.9       99.7

Female sterilization                  99.4      99.4       99.0          99.4      99.5       99.0
Male sterilization                    90.1      89.9       90.7          90.3      90.2       90.6

Intra Uterine Device                  94.3      94.3       94.4          94.8      94.9       94.7
Pill                                  94.4      94.4       94.5          94.9      94.9       94.6
Emergency contraceptive pill          70.0      70.0       69.9          70.9      70.9       70.7
Injectables                           64.7      65.4       62.6          65.4      66.1       62.8
Condom/nirodh                         92.8      92.5       93.6          93.4      93.3       93.8
Female condom                         45.8      44.7       49.6          46.5      45.4       50.0

Rhythm method                         77.8      78.0       77.2          78.8      79.1       78.0
Withdrawal method                     72.4      73.1       69.8          73.3      74.2       70.3
Others                                 0.0       0.0        0.1           0.0       0.0        0.1

Number of women**                  12,360      9,484     2,876        11,672      8,933     2,739

** Unweighted cases.
1
 Includes female sterilization, male sterilization, Intra Uterine Device, pill, condom, female condom,
Emergency Contraceptive Pill and Injectables




                                                 95
TABLE 6.2 AWARENESS OF CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS
Percentage of currently married women age 15-49 years who are aware of specific contraceptive method according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                           Any        Male       Female                                                                              With-               Number
                                Any       modern      sterili-    sterili-                              Inject-   Condom/     Female     Rhythm     drawal                 of
Background characteristics     method     method      zation      zation     IUD      Pill     ECP       ables     Nirodh     condom     method     method     Other     women**

Age group
 15-24                           99.9       99.9       80.9        98.1      90.5    95.1      70.3      66.7        94.1        44.0       73.8      67.2      0.0       1,728
 25-29                           99.9       99.9       90.5        99.3      96.4    96.6      73.6      67.9        96.4        47.7       81.4      75.9      0.0       2,133
 30-34                           99.9       99.9       93.1        99.7      97.1    95.7      73.3      66.0        95.1        47.6       82.5      77.9      0.0       2,184
 35-39                           99.9       99.9       92.1        99.6      96.9    95.4      70.5      65.6        93.8        47.8       79.4      74.0      0.0       2,241
 40-49                           99.9       99.9       92.1        99.8      93.2    92.8      68.1      62.6        89.8        45.5       77.0      71.3      0.1       3,386

No. of living children
 0                               99.5       99.4       82.3        97.7      85.3    92.0      69.6      64.7        92.8        48.4       75.4      64.4      0.0       1,042
 1                               99.9       99.9       90.3        99.0      96.6    96.7      76.3      69.2        96.3        51.0       82.2      76.2      0.1       2,532
 2                               99.9       99.9       93.2        99.7      97.0    96.3      73.8      66.7        94.9        49.5       82.2      77.7      0.0       5,308
 3                              100.0      100.0       89.5        99.8      94.7    92.9      64.4      61.2        90.3        40.3       74.9      68.4      0.1       2,011
 4+                             100.0      100.0       84.1        99.9      87.3    87.7      51.9      55.9        82.7        25.3       60.0      58.4      0.1         779

Residence
 Rural                           99.9       99.9       90.2        99.5      94.9    94.9      70.9      66.1        93.3        45.4       79.1      74.2      0.0       8,933
 Urban                           99.8       99.7       90.6        99.0      94.7    94.6      70.7      62.8        93.8        50.0       78.0      70.3      0.1       2,739

Education
              a
 Non-literate                    99.4       99.4       78.9        99.4      70.6    72.0      41.0      44.0        65.1        17.7       49.0      43.6      0.3         349
 Less than five years            99.6       99.6       83.4        99.0      85.3    84.8      51.0      53.5        76.7        27.3       60.5      58.5      0.0         741
 5-9 years                       99.9       99.9       88.2        99.3      95.0    94.8      65.5      62.4        92.7        40.9       73.7      69.2      0.0       5,258
 10 or more years               100.0      100.0       94.1        99.6      97.6    97.9      80.9      71.4        98.3        56.6       88.5      81.3      0.1       5,324

Religion
 Hindu                           99.9       99.9       91.9        99.5      95.3    94.8      71.9      65.0        93.8        49.5       80.5      72.8      0.1       6,208
 Muslim                          99.9       99.9       85.1        99.0      92.4    93.5      62.5      63.0        90.8        36.5       70.2      67.4      0.0       3,574
 Christian                      100.0      100.0       95.2        99.8      97.9    97.5      83.2      70.8        96.9        55.8       89.8      85.9      0.1       1,885
 Others                             *          *          *           *         *       *         *         *           *           *         *         *         *           5

Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                99.7       99.7       87.4        99.3      93.1    90.9      63.4      59.6        89.7        40.3       74.3      68.9      0.0       1,078
 Scheduled tribes                99.6       99.6       85.1        99.1      79.4    82.8      54.7      54.3        74.2        22.5       66.7      61.7      0.4         234
 Other backward classes          99.9       99.9       89.2        99.3      94.5    94.8      68.8      64.6        93.2        44.9       76.2      70.7      0.0       7,398
 Others                          99.9       99.9       94.6        99.6      97.5    97.4      80.0      70.3        96.8        54.7       87.9      82.2      0.0       2,962

Wealth index
 Lowest                         100.0      100.0       66.8      100.0       72.3    66.6      36.2      36.1        69.3        19.5       47.4      33.3      0.0          36
 Second                          97.8       97.8       84.4       97.3       81.6    81.6      46.7      51.1        74.9        26.1       66.5      64.6      0.5         223
 Middle                          99.9       99.9       86.9       99.5       91.6    90.6      60.2      59.0        87.8        37.9       71.1      67.5      0.0       1,014
 Fourth                          99.9       99.9       89.7       99.4       94.9    94.4      67.2      64.0        92.4        42.5       75.9      70.9      0.0       4,364
 Highest                        100.0      100.0       91.7       99.4       95.9    96.5      76.4      68.1        95.9        51.8       82.9      76.5      0.0       6,035

 Kerala                          99.9       99.9       90.3        99.4      94.8    94.9      70.9      65.4        93.4        46.5       78.8      73.3      0.0      11,672

Note: IUD = Intra Uterine Device; ECP = Emergency Contraceptive Pill.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literates but did not attend school, are also included.


                                                                                        96
TABLE 6.3 AWARENESS OF CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS BY DISTRICT
Percentage of currently married women age 15-49 years who are aware of specific contraceptive method by district, Kerala, 2007-08
                                    Any        Male       Female                                                                              With-           Number
                         Any       modern      sterili-    sterili-                              Inject-   Condom/    Female        Rhythm   drawal             of
District                method     method      zation      zation     IUD     Pill        ECP     ables     Nirodh    condom        method   method   Other   women**

Kasaragod                100.0      100.0       87.5        99.9      88.2    90.6        65.0    60.1       88.9       35.3         56.3    50.0      0.1       899
Kannur                    99.9       99.9       93.4        99.6      97.5    96.1        56.7    48.9       97.4       40.3         75.9    60.2      0.1       968
Wayanad                  100.0      100.0       93.6        99.8      94.3    94.6        75.2    72.3       91.9       40.4         80.9    77.5      0.1       900
Kozhikode                100.0      100.0       90.7        99.4      94.4    94.0        58.0    63.0       92.3       40.1         67.7    55.3      0.2     1,010
Malappuram               100.0      100.0       80.7        99.8      93.8    95.3        57.7    64.7       94.5       28.5         74.7    74.7      0.0     1,056

Palakkad                  99.5       99.4       74.0       97.8       89.3    88.1        41.2    41.9       82.8       22.6         61.5    51.7      0.0      792
Thrissur                 100.0      100.0       86.7       98.4       96.1    94.7        76.5    67.5       91.8       48.1         79.4    68.9      0.0      794
Ernakulam                100.0      100.0       89.9       99.4       94.6    97.1        79.9    65.7       95.7       64.4         88.5    84.8      0.1      680
Idukki                    99.8       99.8       97.3       99.8       96.2    93.6        84.8    77.4       94.7       55.2         91.6    92.0      0.0      736
Kottayam                 100.0      100.0       98.9      100.0       99.5    99.2        94.1    77.6       98.0       69.7         95.1    91.7      0.0      761

Alappuzha                 99.6       99.6       95.9       98.7       97.8    96.1        78.6    63.4       95.2       65.8         89.0    86.6      0.0      771
Pathanamthitta           100.0      100.0       98.5      100.0       98.3    97.5        88.7    77.2       98.6       46.9         94.4    96.2      0.0      736
Kollam                   100.0      100.0       92.1      100.0       95.5    97.8        68.4    58.5       94.4       56.1         80.1    78.9      0.0      816
Thiruvananthapuram       100.0      100.0       91.2       99.9       94.9    96.2        82.7    81.3       95.0       56.8         85.3    77.7      0.0      753

Kerala                    99.9       99.9       90.3        99.4      94.8    94.9        70.9    65.4       93.4       46.5         78.8    73.3      0.0    11,672

Note: IUD = Intra Uterine Device; ECP = Emergency Contraceptive Pill.
** Unweighted cases.




                                                                                     97
TABLE 6.4 EVER USE OF CONTRACEPTIVE METHOD
Percentage of currently married women age 15-49 years who ever used specific contraceptive method according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                            Any        Male      Female                                                                          With-                Number
                                Any        modern     sterili-    sterili-                           Inject-   Condom/    Female     Rhythm     drawal                  of
Background characteristics     method      method     zation      zation       IUD    Pill    ECP     ables     Nirodh    condom     method     method     Other      women**

Age group
 15 - 19                         38.3       19.8        0.0        0.0          2.0   2.9     0.0     0.0       16.1         0.4      14.8       17.8        0.0         242
 20 - 24                         54.6       33.3        0.0        6.6          7.8   3.2     0.2     0.3       20.6         0.4      19.9       24.2        0.0       1,486
 25 - 29                         72.7       55.8        0.1       29.3         10.9   5.9     0.6     0.5       24.1         0.3      29.7       28.2        0.0       2,133
 30 - 34                         83.8       71.7        0.4       55.7         15.2   6.0     0.7     0.7       18.2         0.5      30.2       27.7        0.0       2,184
 35 - 39                         86.1       77.1        0.6       64.8         16.1   6.4     0.3     0.4       14.9         0.6      29.2       26.4        0.0       2,241
 40 - 44                         88.5       79.8        1.3       69.1         15.8   4.9     0.4     0.3       11.6         0.3      27.7       24.7        0.1       1,862
 45 – 49                         86.5       79.6        3.6       69.3         10.4   3.0     0.2     0.2        8.6         0.1      23.8       20.5        0.0       1,524

No. of living children
  0                              21.9        9.9        0.1        0.1          0.2   0.6     0.2     0.0        8.7         0.1      10.0        9.3        0.0       1,042
 1                               64.4       38.2        0.4        3.4         11.1   4.3     0.6     0.2       24.7         0.5      29.4       28.4        0.0       2,532
 2                               91.3       81.8        1.2       67.4         16.2   5.4     0.4     0.7       17.3         0.5      31.2       29.0        0.0       5,308
 3                               91.2       86.0        1.1       78.4         13.9   6.4     0.3     0.4       11.2         0.2      25.8       22.8        0.0       2,011
 4+                              82.8       75.3        1.0       63.4          9.7   7.6     0.4     0.1        9.9         0.3      17.5       20.9        0.1         779

Residence
 Rural                           79.3       66.9        0.9       50.1         13.5   5.2     0.4     0.4       16.2         0.4      27.3       25.8        0.0       8,933
 Urban                           76.8       63.8        0.8       45.9         10.8   4.6     0.4     0.5       17.9         0.4      26.2       24.5        0.0       2,739

Education
              a
 Non-literate                    71.9       64.8        2.0       61.6          3.7   2.3     0.0     0.0        4.0         0.0      13.2       13.1        0.3         349
 Less than five years            82.3       77.1        2.6       69.0          8.0   2.6     0.0     0.3        5.4         0.0      15.5       17.0        0.0         741
 5-9 years                       78.9       68.6        1.1       55.4         11.4   5.3     0.3     0.4       12.6         0.3      23.4       24.5        0.0       5,258
 10 or more years                78.4       62.4        0.4       39.3         15.6   5.4     0.5     0.5       22.9         0.6      33.2       28.4        0.0       5,324

Religion
 Hindu                           81.4       70.5        1.1       54.1         13.7   4.2     0.4     0.4       16.9         0.5      27.9       25.3        0.0       6,208
 Muslim                          69.5       57.0        0.4       38.1          8.9   7.6     0.3     0.5       16.4         0.3      19.5       23.5        0.0       3,574
 Christian                       86.8       69.4        1.1       53.8         17.5   3.0     0.5     0.5       16.0         0.5      38.3       29.8        0.0       1,885
 Others                             *          *          *          *            *     *       *       *          *           *         *          *          *           5

Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                81.0       71.5        0.9       59.9         10.0   2.7     0.3     0.0       13.7         0.4      23.2       26.0        0.0       1,078
 Scheduled tribes                72.1       62.8        3.0       50.8          6.8   5.2     0.4     0.4        7.2         0.4      17.5       16.2        0.4         234
 Other backward classes          75.9       63.9        0.8       46.2         11.3   5.7     0.3     0.5       16.7         0.4      24.5       24.8        0.0       7,398
 Others                          85.1       70.3        1.0       52.4         18.3   4.3     0.6     0.5       18.2         0.6      35.6       27.8        0.0       2,962

Wealth index
 Lowest                          58.4       55.6        2.8       44.5          2.8   2.8     0.0     0.0        5.5         0.0      27.7       16.6        0.0          36
 Second                          73.2       64.2        0.5       53.9          8.5   4.9     0.0     0.4       12.0         0.0      17.6       21.1        0.5         223
 Middle                          82.8       71.5        1.6       61.1         11.9   2.6     0.2     0.3        9.8         0.2      23.8       24.1        0.0       1,014
 Fourth                          79.1       67.6        1.1       54.1         11.4   3.7     0.3     0.3       13.4         0.4      25.4       25.7        0.0       4,364
 Highest                         78.0       64.4        0.6       43.4         14.2   6.4     0.5     0.5       20.3         0.5      29.2       25.7        0.0       6,035

 Kerala (15-49)                  78.7       66.2        0.9       49.1         12.8   5.1     0.4     0.4       16.6         0.4      27.1       25.5        0.0      11,672
                †
 Kerala (15-44)                  77.5       64.2        0.5       46.1         13.2   5.4     0.4     0.5       17.8         0.5      27.5       26.2        0.0      10,148
Note: IUD = Intra Uterine Device; ECP = Emergency Contraceptive Pill.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
                       a
** Unweighted cases. Literates but did not attend school, are also included.
†
  Represents figures for currently married women aged 15-44 years.

                                                                                         98
TABLE 6.5 (A) CURRENT USE OF CONTRACEPTIVE METHOD
Percentage of currently married women age 15-49 years who are currently using specific contraceptive method according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08

                                                  Any         Male       Female                                                                                   Number
                                                                                                                                             With-
                                    Any          modern       sterili-    sterili-                                 Condom/      Rhythm      drawal                  of
Background characteristics         method        method       zation      zation      IUD       Pill     ECP        Nirodh      method      method      Other     women**

Age group
 15 - 19                             15.6           8.6         0.0         0.0        1.6      1.2       0.0          5.8         1.7         5.3        0.0         242
 20 - 24                             29.4          18.0         0.0         6.6        4.0      0.6       0.0          6.6         4.6         6.8        0.0       1,486
 25 - 29                             51.3          39.9         0.1        29.3        2.9      0.8       0.0          6.9         6.3         5.1        0.0       2,133
 30 - 34                             70.7          62.2         0.3        55.7        2.1      0.3       0.0          3.7         4.8         3.7        0.0       2,184
 35 - 39                             77.0          69.1         0.5        64.8        1.1      0.2       0.1          2.4         4.4         3.5        0.0       2,241
 40 - 44                             79.8          72.3         1.0        69.1        0.4      0.1       0.1          1.6         4.2         3.2        0.0       1,862
 45 – 49                             78.1          73.9         3.4        69.3        0.3      0.1       0.0          0.9         2.7         1.4        0.0       1,524

No. of living children
 No children                          5.5           2.0         0.1         0.1        0.0      0.0       0.0          1.8         1.6         1.8        0.0       1,042
 1 child                             34.2          17.7         0.4         3.4        4.5      0.6       0.0          8.7         8.7         7.8        0.0       2,532
   1 son                             33.9          17.7         0.5         3.3        4.8      0.6       0.0          8.4         8.6         7.6        0.0       1,307
   No son                            34.4          17.8         0.2         3.4        4.2      0.6       0.0          9.1         8.7         7.9        0.0       1,225
 2 children                          81.2          73.3         1.1        67.4        1.4      0.4       0.0          3.1         4.4         3.4        0.0       5,308
   1 or more sons                    82.1          74.5         1.0        68.7        1.4      0.4       0.0          3.0         4.3         3.3        0.0       4,132
   No sons                           77.9          69.1         1.4        62.8        1.4      0.4       0.0          3.2         5.0         3.7        0.0       1,176
 3 children                          85.1          81.5         0.8        78.4        0.8      0.2       0.0          1.1         1.7         1.9        0.0       2,011
   1 or more sons                    85.0          81.8         0.8        78.8        0.8      0.2       0.1          1.1         1.4         1.8        0.0        1753
   No sons                           85.6          79.0         0.8        75.6        1.2      0.0       0.0          1.5         3.9         2.7        0.0         258
 4+ children                         73.5          66.8         1.0        63.4        0.4      0.4       0.2          1.4         3.0         3.6        0.0         779
   1 or more sons                    73.0          66.3         1.0        63.0        0.4      0.4       0.3          1.3         3.1         3.5        0.0         717
   No sons                           79.3          72.6         1.6        67.9        0.0      0.0       0.0          3.2         1.6         5.1        0.0          62

Residence
 Rural                               65.3          56.9         0.8        50.1        1.8      0.4       0.0          3.7         4.4         4.0        0.0       8,933
 Urban                               61.5          52.4         0.6        45.9        1.7      0.3       0.0          3.8         5.1         4.0        0.0       2,739

Education
              a
 Non-literate                        68.5          64.2         1.7        61.6        0.3      0.3       0.0          0.3         1.4         2.6        0.0         349
 Less than five years                75.2          72.6         2.6        69.0        0.4      0.1       0.1          0.4         0.8         1.8        0.0         741
 5-9 years                           66.9          60.6         0.9        55.4        1.3      0.4       0.1          2.5         2.6         3.7        0.0       5,258
 10 or more years                    60.1          48.3         0.4        39.3        2.5      0.4       0.0          5.6         7.1         4.6        0.0       5,324

Religion
 Hindu                               69.3          61.6         1.0        54.1        2.0      0.3       0.0          4.1         4.3         3.4        0.0       6,208
 Muslim                              51.7          43.9         0.3        38.1        1.4      0.6       0.1          3.4         3.0         4.8        0.0       3,574
 Christian                           72.0          59.7         0.9        53.8        1.7      0.2       0.0          3.1         8.1         4.2        0.0       1,885
 Others                                 *             *           *           *          *        *         *           *            *           *          *           5

                                                                                                                                                                       Contd …




                                                                                      99
TABLE 6.5 (A) CURRENT USE OF CONTRACEPTIVE METHOD —Continued
                                                  Any          Male       Female                                              With-           Number
                                     Any         modern        sterili-    sterili-                       Condom/   Rhythm   drawal             of
Background characteristics          method       method        zation      zation      IUD   Pill   ECP    Nirodh   method   method   Other   women**

Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                    70.5          65.0          0.8        59.9       1.3   0.5    0.0      2.5      2.7      2.8     0.0     1,078
 Scheduled tribes                    64.1          57.6          3.0        50.8       0.9   0.9    0.0      2.1      3.0      3.0     0.0       234
 Other backward classes              61.1          52.9          0.7        46.2       1.7   0.3    0.0      3.9      4.0      4.1     0.0     7,398
 Others                              70.4          59.7          0.9        52.4       2.1   0.4    0.1      3.8      6.6      4.1     0.0     2,962

Wealth index
 Lowest                              58.4          52.9          2.8        44.5       2.8   2.8    0.0      0.0      2.7      2.8     0.0        36
 Second                              64.7          58.4          0.5        53.9       1.8   0.5    0.4      1.4      1.8      4.0     0.0       223
 Middle                              74.1          67.5          1.5        61.1       2.7   0.2    0.0      2.1      3.4      3.1     0.0     1,014
 Fourth                              67.9          59.8          1.0        54.1       1.5   0.3    0.0      3.0      3.8      4.3     0.0     4,364
 Highest                             60.2          50.9          0.5        43.4       1.8   0.4    0.1      4.7      5.4      3.9     0.0     6,035

 Kerala (15-49)                      64.4          55.9          0.8       49.1        1.8   0.4    0.0     3.7       4.5      4.0     0.0    11,672
                †
 Kerala (15-44)                      62.3          53.1          0.4       46.1        2.0   0.4    0.0     4.2       4.8      4.4     0.0    10,148

Note: IUD = Intra Uterine Device; ECP = Emergency Contraceptive Pill.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literates but did not attend school, are also included.
†
  Represents figures for currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                                                      100
TABLE 6.5 (B) DURATION OF USE OF SPACING METHODS
Percentage of currently married women age 15-49 years who are currently using spacing method by duration of use according to selected
background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                               IUD                                Pill               Condom/Nirodh          Spacing
                                                                                                                                   c†
                                                                                                                            method
                                                                                                                 Number of
                                                     4 or      Number                   Number                    condom/
                                 <2        2-3      more       of IUD         >6         of Pill       >6          nirodh        >6
 Background characteristics     years     years     years      users**       months     users**       months       users        months

Age group
 15 - 19                            *         *         *         4               *         3         (21.4)          14              1.4
 20 - 24                        65.9       30.5       3.7        59               *         9           57.7          98              7.5
 25 - 29                        60.1       31.1       8.7        61          (37.5)        17           71.2         146              7.8
 30 - 34                        32.4       44.2      23.5        45               *         8           90.0          81              5.5
 35 - 39                        (8.7)    (52.2)    (39.1)        24               *         7           90.7          54              3.3
 40 - 44                            *         *         *         7               *         3           96.3          30              1.8
 45 - 49                            *         *         *         4               *         1         (92.9)          14               na

No. of living children
  0                                nc        nc        nc         0             nc          0         (26.3)          19           0.5
 1                               53.9      33.0      13.1       113          (31.3)        16           72.1         222          11.1
 2                               42.6      40.7      16.7        71          (47.6)        22           81.2         162           4.2
 3                             (46.7)    (26.7)    (26.7)        17               *         5         (87.0)          23           1.9
 4+                                 *         *         *         3               *         5         (90.9)          11           2.7

Residence
 Rural                           51.3     33.2       15.5       158            38.4        40          74.4          333              5.0
 Urban                           41.7     44.1       14.2        46               *         8          75.7          104              4.9

Education
              a
 Non-literate                      *         *          *         1               *         1             *            1              0.9
 Less than five years              *         *          *         3               *         2             *            3              1.4
 5-9 years                      53.1      31.4       15.5        68          (29.2)        24          71.0          133              3.3
 10 or more years               47.0      38.3       14.8       132          (42.9)        21          76.0          300              7.1

Religion
 Hindu                          42.1      39.3       18.6       123          (50.0)        21          76.0          257              5.7
 Muslim                         69.0      24.7        6.3        49          (21.7)        23          73.3          122              4.0
 Christian                      45.7      38.8       15.4        32               *         4          72.2           58              4.3
 Others                           nc        nc         nc         0             nc          0            nc            0              0.0

Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes              (42.9)    (42.9)    (14.3)        14               *         5          59.3           27              3.1
 Scheduled tribes                   *         *         *         2               *         2             *            5              1.9
 Other backward classes          52.1      33.6      14.4       125            21.3        28          75.0          292              4.9
 Others                          44.6      37.6      17.8        63          (84.6)        13          78.3          113              6.2

Wealth index
 Lowest                             *        *          *         1               *         1             nc           0              6.7
 Second                             *        *          *         4               *         2              *           3              2.7
 Middle                          45.8     31.0       23.2        27               *         2         (76.2)          21              4.3
 Fourth                          62.1     29.8        8.2        66          (41.7)        12           73.9         129              3.9
 Highest                         42.4     39.4       18.2       106            32.1        31           75.4         284              6.0

 Kerala                          49.0     35.7       15.2       204            38.1        48          74.7          437              5.0

Note: IUD = Intra Uterine Device.
nc= Not calculated because there are no cases.
na= not applicable
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literates but did not attend school, are also included.
c
  Spacing method includes IUD, daily/weekly pills, Injectables, condom/nirodh and female condom. Percentage calculated out of total
women but excluding pregnant women.
†
  Represents figures for currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                                  101
TABLE 6.6 AGE AT THE TIME OF STERILIZATION
Percent distribution of women age 15-49 years by age at the time of sterilization, according to selected background
characteristics, Kerala, 2007- 2008
                                              Age at the time of sterilization                                          Number
                                                                                                         Mean age
                                                                                                              of          of
                                                                                                    1
Background characteristics        <20      20 -24    25 -29    30 -34     35 -39    40 +    Total       sterilization   women**

Years since sterilization
  <2                                0.0      14.7      42.4     30.5      10.9       1.6    100.0           29.0           514
 2-3                                0.2      19.7      42.9     27.9       8.2       1.1    100.0           28.3           529
 4-5                                0.8      20.7      46.6     25.3       6.3       0.4    100.0           27.9           512
 6-7                                0.5      24.5      43.3     26.0       5.4       0.2    100.0           27.6           555
 8-9                                1.2      25.1      46.2     21.9       5.6       0.0    100.0           27.2           519
 10+                                3.4      36.3      44.5     14.2       1.7       0.0    100.0           25.7         3,190

No. of living children
  0                                   *         *         *        *          *        *    100.0              *             2
 1                                  6.4      33.5      30.0     21.4        6.5      2.2    100.0           26.7            94
 2                                  2.4      31.3      43.6     18.7        3.7      0.2    100.0           26.5         3,638
 3                                  1.3      28.4      46.3     19.6        4.1      0.3    100.0           26.9         1,593
 4+                                 1.8      17.0      47.0     26.5        7.3      0.4    100.0           28.1           501

Residence
 Rural                              2.3      29.8      44.0     19.3        4.3      0.3    100.0           26.7         4,547
 Urban                              1.3      27.6      45.8     21.0        3.9      0.4    100.0           27.0         1,281

Education
              a
 Non-literate                       6.3      34.0      40.2     15.4        3.2      0.9    100.0           25.9           221
 Less than five years               5.9      37.5      39.2     14.5        2.3      0.6    100.0           25.6           530
 5-9 years                          2.4      35.4      43.8     15.3        3.0      0.2    100.0           26.1         2,960
 10 or more years                   0.4      18.4      47.0     27.5        6.5      0.3    100.0           28.1         2,117

Religion
 Hindu                              2.3      30.2      45.1     18.7        3.5      0.2    100.0           26.6         3,419
 Muslim                             2.6      35.7      41.1     16.6        3.8      0.1    100.0           26.2         1,373
 Christian                          0.8      18.0      46.8     26.7        7.0      0.8    100.0           28.2         1,032
 Others                               *         *         *        *          *        *    100.0              *             4
Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                   3.0      37.6      41.7     14.6        2.9      0.2    100.0           25.9           655
 Scheduled tribes                  11.0      39.6      32.7     11.9        3.9      0.8    100.0           24.8           126
 Other backward classes             2.1      31.7      44.0     18.6        3.4      0.2    100.0           26.5         3,468
 Others                             1.1      20.0      47.3     24.6        6.5      0.5    100.0           27.9         1,579
Wealth index
 Lowest                          (23.5)    (35.3)    (29.4)    (11.8)     (0.0)     (0.0)   100.0         (23.4)            17
 Second                             6.6      32.6      39.1      18.3       2.5       0.8   100.0           25.9           121
 Middle                             3.3      36.3      42.4      15.2       2.5       0.3   100.0           25.9           635
 Fourth                             2.5      33.8      43.7      16.6       3.2       0.3   100.0           26.2         2,404
 Highest                            1.2      23.5      45.9      23.6       5.6       0.3   100.0           27.5         2,651
Kerala                               2.1      29.4      44.4     19.7       4.2      0.3    100.0           26.8         5,828
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
1
  Total figure may not add to 100 percent due to ‘don’t know’ or ‘missing cases’.
a
  Literates but did not attend school, are also included.




                                                              102
TABLE 6.7 CONTRACEPTIVE PREVALENCE RATE BY DISTRICT
Percentage of currently married women age 15-49 years who are currently using any contraceptive method, by districts, Kerala, 2007-08

                                      Any          Male       Female                                                                     With-           Number
                         Any         modern        sterili-    sterili-                                    Condom/       Rhythm         drawal             of
District                method       method        zation      zation      IUD         Pill      ECP        Nirodh       method         method   Other   women**

Kasaragod                 47.8         42.9          0.3        38.1       1.2         0.5        0.1         2.6          1.7            3.2     0.0       899
Kannur                    53.2         46.7          1.2        40.5       1.8         0.1        0.1         3.1          3.8            2.7     0.0       968
Wayanad                   71.3         61.7          1.9        52.0       2.4         0.9        0.0         4.5          7.2            2.2     0.0       900
Kozhikode                 58.5         53.1          0.8        46.6       1.1         0.1        0.0         4.3          2.7            2.7     0.0     1,010
Malappuram                56.7         46.4          0.2        39.2       1.3         0.6        0.1         5.0          4.5            5.8     0.0     1,056

Palakkad                  55.9         52.1          0.0        44.4       2.7         0.8        0.2         3.9          2.5            1.4     0.0      792
Thrissur                  64.5         60.0          0.5        55.0       1.3         0.3        0.0         2.9          2.5            2.0     0.0      794
Ernakulam                 67.8         59.6          1.3        52.6       1.7         0.3        0.0         3.7          4.3            3.9     0.0      680
Idukki                    78.5         60.4          0.9        53.2       2.7         0.6        0.0         2.9          8.7            9.5     0.0      736
Kottayam                  74.5         62.8          1.5        54.5       2.6         0.0        0.0         4.1          9.0            2.6     0.0      761

Alappuzha                 74.7         58.6          1.8        49.3       2.3         0.2        0.0         5.0          8.0            8.1     0.0      771
Pathanamthitta            66.8         59.0          0.4        55.0       1.1         0.1        0.0         2.3          3.0            4.9     0.0      736
Kollam                    73.8         67.0          0.1        62.2       1.3         0.3        0.0         3.0          1.7            5.1     0.0      816
Thiruvananthapuram        74.7         65.5          0.3        59.5       0.6         0.5        0.0         4.5          6.2            3.0     0.0      753

Kerala (15-49)            64.4         55.9          0.8        49.1       1.8         0.4        0.0         3.7          4.5            4.0     0.0    11,672
               †
Kerala (15-44)            62.3         53.1          0.4        46.1       2.0         0.4        0.0         4.2          4.8            4.4     0.0    10,148

Note: IUD = Intra Uterine Device; ECP = Emergency contraceptive pill.
** Unweighted cases.
†
  Represents figures for currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                                                 103
TABLE 6.8 SOURCES OF MODERN CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS
Percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 years who are currently using modern contraceptive methods by source according to
selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                          Spacing Method                                            Limiting method
                                                                                Number                                                    Number
                              Govern-                                             of      Govern-                                           of
                                    2               3           4           1                   5             6           7           1
Background Characteristics     ment       Private       Other       Total       women**    ment     Private       Other       Total       women**

Age group
 15 - 19                       (29.4)      (35.3)       (35.3)      100.0         17          nc       nc           nc        100.0            0
 20 - 24                         21.1        46.8         32.1      100.0        109        64.0     34.9          1.1        100.0           99
 25 - 29                         21.3        63.4         15.2      100.0        164        60.7     38.5          0.8        100.0          627
 30 - 34                         21.0        55.0         24.0      100.0         91        57.0     42.6          0.4        100.0        1,222
 35 - 39                         22.9        55.5         21.6      100.0         61        62.4     36.9          0.8        100.0        1,465
 40 - 44                         12.0        60.7         27.3      100.0         33        65.3     33.8          0.9        100.0        1,306
 45 – 49                       (26.7)      (46.7)       (26.7)      100.0         15        68.3     31.1          0.6        100.0        1,109

No. of living children
  0                             (5.3)      (57.9)       (36.8)      100.0         19           *        *            *        100.0            2
 1                               21.9        56.1         21.9      100.0        242        68.1     29.8          2.1        100.0           94
 2                               21.0        56.3         22.7      100.0        185        62.1     37.1          0.8        100.0        3,638
 3                               21.5        53.9         24.6      100.0         28        64.8     34.8          0.4        100.0        1,593
 4+                            (31.3)      (37.5)       (31.3)      100.0         16        61.4     38.2          0.4        100.0          501

Residence
 Rural                          24.7        51.7         23.6       100.0        377        64.1     35.2          0.7        100.0        4,547
 Urban                           9.7        68.3         22.0       100.0        113        58.6     40.8          0.7        100.0        1,281

Education
              a
 Non-literate                      *           *            *       100.0          2        85.5     13.6          0.9        100.0          221
 Less than five years              *           *            *       100.0          5        81.3     18.3          0.4        100.0          530
 5-9 years                      27.9        48.1         24.0       100.0        158        69.7     29.8          0.5        100.0        2,960
 10 or more years               18.1        59.4         22.5       100.0        325        46.4     52.6          1.0        100.0        2,117

Religion
 Hindu                          21.4        58.0         20.6       100.0        280        68.5     31.1          0.4        100.0        3,419
 Muslim                         16.9        50.3         32.7       100.0        147        56.0     43.4          0.6        100.0        1,373
 Christian                      30.3        56.8         12.9       100.0         63        53.6     44.6          1.8        100.0        1,032
 Others                           nc          nc           nc       100.0          0           *        *            *        100.0            4
Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes               41.0        43.3         15.8       100.0         32        83.1     16.9          0.0        100.0          655
 Scheduled tribes                  *           *            *       100.0          7        88.1     11.1          0.8        100.0          126
 Other backward classes         20.4        53.3         26.3       100.0        323        63.6     35.8          0.6        100.0        3,468
 Others                         18.1        64.8         17.1       100.0        128        51.0     47.8          1.2        100.0        1,579
Wealth index
 Lowest                             *           *            *      100.0          1      (100.0)    (0.0)        (0.0)       100.0           17
 Second                             *           *            *      100.0          5         93.4      5.8          0.8       100.0          121
 Middle                        (52.2)      (26.1)       (21.7)      100.0         23         85.4    14.5           0.2       100.0          635
 Fourth                          35.1        45.8         19.1      100.0        142         75.3    24.3           0.4       100.0        2,404
 Highest                         12.6        62.1         25.3      100.0        319         44.6    54.3           1.1       100.0        2,651
 Kerala                         21.2        55.5         23.3       100.0        490        62.9     36.4          0.7        100.0        5,828
Note: Spacing method includes – pill (Daily/Weekly), condom (Male/Female), and Injectables and limiting method includes – male sterilization
and female sterilization.
nc = Not calculated because there are no cases.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
1
  Total figure may not add to 100 percent due to ‘missing cases’.
2
  Hospital, dispensary, UHC/UHP/UFWC, CHC/ Rural Hospital, PHC, Sub-Centre/ANM, Mobile clinic, Anganwadi / ICDS centre, ASHA, Other
Community Based Worker, AYUSH Hospital/Clinic and Other Public Health Sector.
3
  Hospital, Doctor/Clinic, Mobile Clinic, AYUSH Hospital/Clinic, Traditional Healer, Pharmacy/Drugstore and Other Private Medical Sector.
4
  NGO or Trust Hospital/clinic Private, Shop, Vending Machine, Husband, Relatives/Friends, Others and Don’t Know.
5
  Hospital, Dispensary, CHC/Rural Hospital, PHC, Mobile Clinic, Camp and Other Public Sector Health Facility.
6
  Hospital, Doctor/Clinic, Mobile Clinic and Other Private Health Facility.
7
  NGO or Trust Hospital/Clinic, Other and Don’t Know.
a
  Literates but did not attend school, are also included.


                                                                        104
TABLE 6.9 CASH BENEFITS RECEIVED AFTER STERILIZATION
Percent distribution of currently married women and wives of sterilized men who received cash benefits after
sterilization, by districts, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                   Cash benefits received
                          Received                        At the time        After                Number
                            cash         At the time         of first       several                  of
                                                                                              1
District                  benefits      of discharge       follow-up         visits   Total       women**

Kasaragod                    32.7           89.4              5.3             5.3     100.0         346
Kannur                       48.1           93.3              5.7             1.0     100.0         406
Wayanad                      60.0           89.3              5.5             5.2     100.0         485
Kozhikode                    48.2           83.5             12.2             4.3     100.0         466
Malappuram                   51.7           96.8              1.9             1.4     100.0         412

Palakkad                     45.0           93.7              3.8             2.5     100.0         355
Thrissur                     38.7           72.5             12.3            15.2     100.0         428
Ernakulam                    42.0           89.0              6.5             4.5     100.0         357
Idukki                       49.6           95.5              1.0             3.5     100.0         401
Kottayam                     55.3           89.0              8.9             2.1     100.0         412

Alappuzha                    65.2           72.0             14.0            14.0     100.0         395
Pathanamthitta               56.1           93.0              3.5             3.5     100.0         407
Kollam                       44.3           85.0              6.6             8.4     100.0         506
Thiruvananthapuram           54.0           82.8             11.9             5.3     100.0         452

Kerala                       49.4           87.1              7.3             5.6     100.0        5,828
** Unweighted cases.
1
  Total figure may not add to 100 percent due to ‘don’t know’ or ‘missing cases’.




                                                       105
TABLE 6.10 HEALTH PROBLEMS WITH CURRENT USE OF CONTRACEPTION AND
TREATMENT RECEIVED
Percentage of currently married women age 15-49 years who are currently using
contraceptive method and who were informed about side effects, had side effects with the
method, treatment taken for side effect with the method, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                             Type of method
                                               Female
Health problems/side effect                  sterilization        IUD          Pill

Women who were informed about the side           14.7             37.5        23.1
effects before adoption of the method

Women who had side-effect/health problem         10.7             14.4         8.3
due to use of contraceptive method

Number of current users**                       5,736             204          48
                                      1
Type of health problems/side effects
  Weakness/inability to work                     38.1             17.2           *
  Body ache/ backache                            67.1             58.9           *
  Abdominal pain                                 31.2             41.0           *
  Weight gain                                     7.0              0.0           *
  Dizziness                                       9.9             10.4           *
  Nausea/vomiting                                 2.8              0.0           *
 Fever                                            1.3              0.0           *
  Breast tenderness                               0.8              0.0           *
  Irregular periods                               7.4             16.9           *
  Excessive bleeding                              6.4             34.2           *
  Spotting                                        1.8              0.0           *
  Amenorrhoea                                     1.3              0.0           *
 Cramps                                           3.6              0.0           *
 Decreased libido                                 2.0              3.4           *
 Rashes/allergy                                   3.4              3.4           *
 Infection                                        2.5              0.0           *
 Others                                           0.0              0.0           *

Number of users with side effects**               612              29            4

Percentage of women received treatment           72.9             48.3           *

Source of treatment
 Government health facility                      55.2           (64.3)         nc
                                                 44.6           (35.7)         nc
  Private health facility                         0.2            (0.0)         nc
  Other
                                                  446              14            0
Number of women with treatment taken**
nc = Not calculated because there are no cases.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
1
  Percentages may add to more than 100 because of multiple responses.




                                          106
TABLE 6.11 REASONS FOR DISCONTINUATION OF CONTRACEPTION
Percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 years who are past users
(currently non-users) by reason for discontinuation of the contraceptive method according
to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                      Reasons for discontinuation
                                                                             Number
                                Fertility         Side                         of
                                        1                                2
Background characteristics      related       effect related   Others        women**

Age group
 15 - 19                          74.4              1.8          23.8           55
 20 - 24                          70.0              1.1          28.9          376
 25 - 29                          67.6              1.8          30.6          457
 30 - 34                          54.2              3.1          42.7          285
 35 - 39                          39.5              5.6          54.9          197
 40 - 44                          29.9              9.3          60.7          140
 45 - 49                          21.3             14.8          63.9           94

No. of living children
 0                                83.0              0.0          17.0          171
 1                                62.0              3.5          34.6          749
 2                                42.4              4.8          52.8          504
 3                                51.7              3.7          44.7          114
 4+                               42.8              9.0          48.2           66

Residence
 Rural                            56.6              3.8          39.5        1,207
 Urban                            56.4              3.5          40.1          397

Education
              a
 Non-literate                   (45.5)             (9.1)       (45.5)           11
 Less than five years             53.9             12.5          33.6           48
 5-9 years                        59.9               3.6         36.4          601
 10 or more years                 54.7               3.3         42.0          944

Religion
 Hindu                            58.9              4.0          37.1          723
 Muslim                           56.5              1.9          41.6          626
 Christian                        50.2              7.5          42.4          255
 Others                             nc               nc            nc            0
Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                 66.9               2.8         30.4          109
 Scheduled tribes               (89.5)            (10.5)         (0.0)          19
 Other backward classes           57.9               2.9         39.3        1,076
 Others                           48.7               6.0         45.2          400
Wealth index
 Lowest                             nc                nc           nc            0
 Second                         (72.2)             (5.6)       (22.2)           18
 Middle                           66.2               2.3         31.4           86
 Fourth                           65.9               5.0         29.1          476
 Highest                          51.1               3.2         45.6        1,024
 Kerala                           56.6              3.7          39.7        1,604
nc = Not calculated because there are no cases.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases
1
  Wanted child, method failed/became pregnant.
2
  Others include supply not available, difficult to get method, lack of pleasure, method
  was inconvenient, cost too much, family/husband opposed, not having sex, infrequent
  sex, husband away and others.
a
  Literates but did not attend school, are also included.




                                            107
TABLE 6.12 FUTURE INTENTION TO USE CONTRACEPTION
Percent distribution of currently married women aged 15-49 years who are not using contraceptive method but having
intention to use contraception in future by background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                         1                                                  Number
                               Future intention to use             Want to use any family planning method
                                                                                                              of
                               Spacing        Limiting              Within 12    12 months                   non-
Background Characteristics     Method         Method                 months      and more      Undecided    users**

Age group
 15 - 19                          7.3            7.3                   36.8           3.4         59.8        204
 20 - 24                          3.0           17.6                   11.7          18.9         69.5      1,049
 25 - 29                          1.7           24.3                   15.7          18.5         65.8      1,039
 30 - 34                          2.0           20.6                   20.6          20.0         59.4        640
 35 - 39                          0.6            9.1                   19.9          19.8         60.3        515
 40 - 44                          0.3            1.3                   14.1          30.5         55.4        377
 45 - 49                          0.3            0.3                    0.0           0.0        100.0        333

No. of living children
 0                                0.8            5.2                    4.5           9.0         86.5        985
 1                                3.1           17.1                   10.2          19.5         70.3      1,667
 2                                2.0           23.4                   24.3          19.0         56.7        998
 3                                1.0           16.6                   29.6          20.5         49.9        300
 4+                               0.5            9.3                   29.8          20.3         49.9        207

Residence
 Rural                            2.1           16.0                   16.3          19.7         64.0      3,104
 Urban                            1.8           13.4                   17.3          14.1         68.6      1,053

Education
              a
 Non-literate                     0.0            7.2                   24.7          25.3         49.9        110
 Less than five years             0.0            9.7                   27.4          22.0         50.5        184
 5-9 years                        1.6           16.2                   16.4          20.0         63.6      1,737
 10 or more years                 2.6           15.5                   16.0          17.0         67.0      2,126

Religion
 Hindu                            2.3           17.3                   18.6          20.4         60.9      1,904
 Muslim                           1.7           14.1                   13.2          16.4         70.4      1,726
 Christian                        1.9           12.2                   18.1          16.1         65.8        527
 Others                            nc             nc                     nc            nc           nc          0
Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                 1.5           20.4                   18.3          24.7         57.0        318
 Scheduled tribes                 1.2           25.1                   36.3          18.1         45.6         84
 Other backward classes           2.0           15.1                   15.5          18.1         66.4      2,879
 Others                           2.2           13.3                   16.3          16.3         67.4        876
Wealth index
 Lowest                          (6.6)        (13.3)                  (33.3)       (33.3)        (33.3)        15
 Second                            2.4          20.4                    31.2         16.0          52.7        79
 Middle                            1.9          21.7                    23.9         16.4          59.7       262
 Fourth                            2.1          16.7                    16.0         19.3          64.7     1,402
 Highest                           1.9          13.7                    14.8         18.2          66.9     2,399
 Kerala                           2.0           15.3                   16.5          18.5         65.0      4,157
Note: Spacing method includes IUD, pills, condom (Male/Female) and Injectables. Limiting method includes male
sterilization and female sterilization.
nc = Not calculated because there are no cases.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases
1
  Total figure may not add to 100 percent due to exclusion of other methods (Rhythm/ Periodic abstinence, Withdrawal,
  Undecided and Others).
a
  Literates but did not attend school, are also included.




                                                             108
TABLE 6.13 ADVICE ON CONTRACEPTIVE USE
Percentage of currently married women age 15-49 years who are currently not using any
contraceptive and were advised by the ANM/health worker to use modern contraception by
suggested method and place of residence, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                  Residence
Advice                                               Total    Rural        Urban

 Percent Non-users advised to use        modern       15.5     16.6        12.0
                      1
 contraceptive method

Number of Non-users**                                4,157    3,104       1,053

 Percent of Traditional method users                  37.6     40.4        29.2
 advised to use modern method

Number of traditional method users**                  993       747          246

Percent of non-users or traditional method
users who were advised to use
 Female sterilization                                 35.0     34.7        36.1
 Male sterilization                                    1.3      1.1         2.0
 IUD                                                  62.5     62.6        62.4
 Pill(Daily/weekly)                                  100.0    100.0       100.0
 Injectables                                           1.2      0.7         3.0
 Condom/Nirodh                                        16.0     16.3        14.8
 Female condom                                         1.2      0.7         3.0

 Rhythmic /periodic abstinence                         2.1       2.1          2.5
 Withdrawal                                            1.6       1.5          2.0
 Others                                                0.0       0.0          0.0

 Non-users who ever received                          18.5     19.9        14.4
 counselling/advised by health personnel to
                               †
 adopt family planning (15-44)
                                 †                   3,229    2,413          816
Number of non-users (15-44)**
 Current users ever told about side-effects of        14.9     14.8        15.3
                                  v
 family planning methods (15-44)
Number of current users (15-44)**
                                     †               5,394    4,237       1,157

 Users who received follow-up services for †          88.8     89.9        84.7
 IUD/sterilization within 48 hours (15-44)
                             †
 Number of users (15-44)**                           4,919    3,867       1,052
Note: Exclude women in menopause or those who have undergone hysterectomy.
** Unweighted cases.
1
  Includes Doctor, ANM, Health Worker, anganwadi Worker and ASHA.
†
  Represents figures for currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                               109
TABLE 6.14 REASONS FOR NOT USING MODERN CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS
AMONG RHYTHM AND WITHDRAWAL METHOD USERS
Percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 years who are currently using
rhythm or withdrawal method by reasons for not using modern contraceptive method,
according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                       Reason for not using modern
                                          contraceptive method
                                                Opposition to             Number
                                  Fertility      use/lack of    Method      of
Background characteristics        related        knowledge      related   women**

Age group
 15 - 19                            (0.0)           (29.4)      (70.6)      17
 20 - 24                              9.1             28.1        62.8     170
 25 - 29                              4.6             31.1        64.3     242
 30 - 34                              4.5             24.0        71.4     186
 35 - 39                              3.1             21.2        75.8     176
 40 - 44                              4.5             28.5        67.0     138
 45 - 49                              1.6             36.0        62.4      63

No. of living children
 0                                   5.4             33.9         60.7      36
 1                                   6.3             25.3         68.4     416
 2                                   3.4             28.4         68.2     416
 3                                   5.5             24.3         70.2      73
 4+                                  2.0             36.7         61.3      51

Residence
 Rural                               3.8             26.8         69.4     746
 Urban                               7.7             29.4         62.9     246

Education
              a
 Non-literate                       (0.0)           (53.8)      (46.2)      14
 Less than five years               (5.3)           (31.6)      (63.2)      19
 5-9 years                            5.2             29.6        65.2     335
 10 or more years                     4.7             25.6        69.8     624

Religion
 Hindu                               3.5             26.6         69.9     481
 Muslim                              6.5             33.0         60.4     279
 Christian                           5.4             21.9         72.7     231
 Others                                *                *            *       1
Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                     3.4             22.4        74.2      59
 Scheduled tribes                   (0.0)           (46.2)      (53.8)      14
 Other backward classes               5.4             27.8        66.8     603
 Others                               4.1             26.8        69.1     316
Wealth index
 Lowest                                 *                *           *       2
 Second                             (0.0)           (30.8)      (69.2)      13
 Middle                               1.5             21.1        77.3      67
 Fourth                               5.5             27.1        67.5     350
 Highest                              4.9             28.2        66.9     560
 Kerala                              4.8             27.4         67.8     992
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literates but did not attend school, are also included.




                                              110
TABLE 6.15 UNMET NEED FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES
Percentage of currently married women age 15-49 years by unmet need for family planning
services according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                Unmet need for FP                 Number
                                                                                    of
                                            1                    2
 Background characteristics       Spacing             Limiting       Total        women**

Age group
 15 – 19                             28.9               0.0           28.9           242
  20 - 24                            25.1               3.3           28.4         1,486
  25 - 29                            13.4               6.2           19.6         2,133
  30 - 34                             3.3               8.8           12.1         2,184
  35 - 39                             1.2              12.0           13.2         2,241
  40 - 44                             0.2              12.3           12.5         1,862
  45 - 49                             0.0               9.7            9.7         1,524

Number of living children
 0                                    3.5               0.5            4.0         1,042
 1                                   21.9               8.8           30.7         2,532
 2                                    3.4               9.3           12.7         5,308
 3                                    2.4               7.7           10.1         2,011
 4+                                   1.8              18.2           20.0           779

Residence
 Rural                                7.0               8.2           15.2         8,933
 Urban                                7.4              10.4           17.8         2,739

Education
              a
 Non-literate                         2.3              13.5           15.8           349
 Less than five years                 1.1               9.8           10.9           741
  5-9 years                           6.2               8.3           14.5         5,258
 10 or more years                     9.2               8.7           17.9         5,324

Religion
 Hindu                                5.0               8.3           13.3         6,208
 Muslim                              12.5              10.2           22.7         3,574
 Christian                            3.8               7.6           11.4         1,885
 Others                                 *                 *              *             5
Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                     4.7               6.3           11.0         1,078
 Scheduled tribes                     5.1              10.3           15.4           234
 Other backward classes               8.5               9.0           17.5         7,398
 Others                               4.6               8.8           13.4         2,962
Wealth index
 Lowest                               8.3              11.2           19.5            36
 Second                               3.1               9.8           12.9           223
 Middle                               4.7               6.3           11.0         1,014
 Fourth                               6.5               6.9           13.4         4,364
 Highest                              8.1              10.5           18.6         6,035
 Kerala (15-49)                       7.1                8.7          15.8        11,672
                †
 Kerala (15-44)                       8.2                8.6          16.8        10,148
Note: Total unmet need refers to unmet for limiting and spacing.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
                        †
** Unweighted cases. Represents figures for currently married women aged 15-44 years.
1
  Unmet need for spacing includes the proportion of currently married women who are neither
  in menopause or had hysterectomy nor are currently pregnant and who want more children
  after two years nor later and are currently not using any family planning method. The women
  who are not sure about whether and when to have next child are also included in unmet need
  for spacing.
2
  Unmet need for limiting includes the proportion of currently married women who are neither in
  menopause nor had hysterectomy nor are currently pregnant and do not want any more
  children but are currently not using any family planning method. Total unmet need refers to
  unmet for limiting and spacing.
a
  Literates but did not attend school, are also included.




                                                111
TABLE 6.16 UNMET NEED FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES BY DISTRICT
Percentage of currently married women age 15-49 years by unmet need for family
planning services by districts, Kerala, 2007-08
                                         Unmet need for FP            Number
                                                                        of
                                     1                  2
District                   Spacing           Limiting        Total    women**

Kasaragod                      9.1               14.6        23.7        899
Kannur                         9.9               12.5        22.4        968
Wayanad                        7.1                5.5        12.6        900
Kozhikode                      7.3                9.3        16.6      1,010
Malappuram                    11.1                8.0        19.1      1,056

Palakkad                      10.7               13.6        24.3        792
Thrissur                       6.0               12.5        18.5        794
Ernakulam                      5.4                7.9        13.3        680
Idukki                         4.3                3.3         7.6        736
Kottayam                       5.0                5.1        10.1        761

Alappuzha                      4.4                5.6        10.0        771
Pathanamthitta                 3.9               10.1        14.0        736
Kollam                         4.8                5.0         9.8        816
Thiruvananthapuram             4.9                6.0        10.9        753

  Kerala (15-49)               7.1                8.7        15.8     11,672
                 †
  Kerala (15-44)               8.2                8.6        16.8     10,148

Note: Total unmet need refers to unmet for limiting and spacing.
                        †
** Unweighted cases. Represents figures for currently married women aged 15-44
years.
1
  Unmet need for spacing includes the proportion of currently married women who
are neither in menopause nor had hysterectomy nor are currently pregnant and who
want more children after two years or later and are currently not using any family
planning method. The women who are not sure about whether and when to have
next child are also included in unmet need for spacing.
2
  Unmet need for limiting includes the proportion of currently married women who are
neither in menopause nor had hysterectomy nor are currently pregnant and do not
want any more children but are currently not using any family planning method.




                                           112
REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH PROBLEMS AND
           AWARENESS
TABLE 7.1 MENSTRUATION RELATED PROBLEMS BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
Percentage of ever married women aged 15-49 years who had any menstruation related problem during three months prior to survey and among them, reported specific symptoms according to
selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08.
                                                                                  Reported Symptoms among who had any menstruation problem                                   Number of
                               Who had any                                                                                                                                    women
                               menstruation       Total                             Frequent                                                   Inter-            Blood        who had
                                  related       number of              Painful       or short     Irregular    Prolonged         Scanty     menstrual      clots/excessive menstruation
                                                        1
Background characteristics     problem (%)       women    No periods  periods        periods       periods      bleeding        bleeding     bleeding           bleeding     problem**

Age group
 15-19                            28.7            164        0.0          80.9        2.1          19.1           4.3          2.1              0.0             2.1             47
 20-24                            22.0          1,080        1.7          68.7        4.2          28.7           5.4          2.9              0.0             2.6            237
 25-29                            22.7          1,813        1.5          65.0        6.6          31.5           7.1          7.5              0.9             4.6            412
 30-34                            24.8          2,114        2.3          66.1        6.7          28.0           5.5         11.1              0.4             6.1            523
 35-39                            23.6          2,269        1.3          60.7        9.2          24.9           6.2         13.9              0.7             8.0            536
 40-44                            24.1          1,836        1.8          52.6       10.0          34.7           8.2         10.1              1.1             7.9            442
 45-49                            28.7          1,079        6.8          31.3       17.7          45.6          12.7          6.5              0.7            10.3            309

Place of residence
 Rural                            24.6          7,929        2.2          59.3        8.3          31.3           7.1         9.3               0.7             5.9           1,955
 Urban                            22.8          2,426        2.9          56.2       10.6          30.7           7.6         9.9               0.5             9.6             551

Age at consummation of
marriage
 Below18 years                    24.5          1,958        1.9          60.3       10.2          29.5           7.3         11.6              0.4             5.9             480
 18 years & above                 24.1          8,397        2.4          58.2        8.5          31.6           7.2          8.9              0.7             6.9           2,026

Marital duration
 0-4                              22.5          1,580        1.1          69.6        4.2          28.1           4.5          3.9              0.3             3.4             355
 5-9                              22.3          1,939        1.6          64.1        6.0          29.2           9.2          7.9              0.9             3.9             433
 10-14                            25.6          2,163        2.2          63.8        8.7          28.6           4.9         12.2              0.5             7.0             553
 15+                              25.0          4,673        3.0          50.8       11.3          34.0           8.4         10.4              0.8             8.6           1,165

Education
              a
 Non-literate                     22.0            334        6.9          39.7       10.9          35.7          10.9         15.1              0.0             5.4              73
 Less than 5 yrs                  28.1            664        1.6          50.7       10.7          39.0           8.6         16.7              1.1             5.4             187
 5-9 years                        25.4          4,726        2.4          57.6       10.0          32.2           7.6         10.5              0.8             7.7           1,199
 10 or more years                 22.6          4,631        2.0          62.5        6.9          28.3           6.4          6.5              0.6             5.9           1,047

Husband's education
              a
 Non-literate                     21.7            322        4.3          49.8        8.6          35.8           8.6         10.0              2.8             5.7              70
 Less than 5 yrs                  26.8            989        3.0          49.8       12.0          35.9           9.0         13.2              1.5             6.8             266
 5-9 years                        25.3          4,980        2.5          58.0        9.5          32.8           7.5         10.1              0.6             7.0           1,259
 10 or more years                 22.4          4,064        1.8          62.7        6.9          27.1           6.2          7.4              0.3             6.3             911

Religion
 Hindu                            23.3          5,543        3.0          56.8        9.1          31.4           7.4         9.4               0.6             7.0          1,290
 Muslim                           24.5          3,157        2.2          59.9       10.3          30.3           6.8         9.9               0.5             5.5            774
 Christian                        26.6          1,650        0.7          61.5        5.2          31.9           7.4         8.7               1.2             8.1            439
 Other                              *               5         *             *          *             *             *           *                 *                *              3
                                                                                                                                                                            Contd…


                                                                                         115
TABLE 7.1 MENSTRUATION RELATED PROBLEMS BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS - Continued

                                                                                                         Reported Symptoms                                           Number of
                             Who had any                                                                                                                              women
                             menstruation      Total                              Frequent                                                Inter-         Blood        who had
                               related       number of       No        Painful     or short      Irregular    Prolonged       Scanty    menstrual   clots/excessive menstruation
Background characteristics    problem         women
                                                     1
                                                           periods     periods     periods        periods      bleeding      bleeding   bleeding        bleeding     problem**

Castes/Tribes
 Scheduled Castes                 24.3            968        3.9         59.2       6.8           32.2           6.4           9.9          0.0           9.0            234
 Scheduled Tribes                 21.6            222        4.1         66.7       8.3           24.9           8.4          14.5          0.0           6.5             48
 Other Backward Classes           24.7          6,525        2.2         58.5       9.8           31.4           7.1           9.3          0.9           5.8          1,613
 Others                           23.2          2,612        1.8         58.1       6.7           30.7           7.9           9.3          0.5           8.3            606

Wealth index
 Lowest                            8.0             38         *            *         *              *             *             *            *             *               3
 Second                           24.3            201        6.1         59.5      10.2           24.5          18.2           6.1          0.0           4.1             49
 Middle                           25.4            958        3.3         59.9       6.6           28.5           9.4          12.8          0.8           6.2            243
 Fourth                           25.0          3,941        2.2         57.5       9.0           33.4           7.2          11.6          1.0           7.0            985
 Highest                          23.5          5,217        2.0         59.3       9.0           30.0           6.4           7.2          0.4           6.7          1,226

Kerala                            24.2         10,355        2.3         58.6       8.8           31.2           7.2           9.4          0.7           6.7          2,506

Note: Total figure may not add to 100 percent due to multiple responses.
* Percentage not shown; based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.
1
  Excludes pregnant, in amenorrhea, in menopause, had hysterectomy and ever menstruated women.




                                                                                      116
TABLE 7.2 SOURCE OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT RTI/STI BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
Percentage of ever married women aged 15-49 years who have heard about RTI/STI, among them, who received information from specific sources according to selected background
characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                                            Source of Knowledge                                                    Number
                                 Who    Total                                                                                                                         of
                                 have  number                                                       School/adult    Leaders/                 Relative               women
                                 heard   of                                  Print      Health        education    community                      /                heard of
                                                                                   1            2                            4
Background characteristics     RTI/STI women**  Radio    T.V.    Cinema     media     personnel       programs
                                                                                                               3     meeting      Husband     friends    Other     RTI/STI**

Age group
 15-19                       73.2        249     47.1     57.7        4.9       66.0           9.9         23.1            2.7         1.7      24.2       0.0         182
 20-24                       75.1      1,505     42.6     64.9        9.9       68.4          14.2         12.1            5.6         3.9      25.1       1.1       1,130
 25-29                       78.2      2,188     41.4     65.0       10.3       67.8          17.1          8.6            7.1         3.7      25.1       2.7       1,710
 30-34                       77.6      2,261     43.4     65.8        9.5       65.5          17.9          6.7            8.1         4.4      26.5       3.0       1,755
 35-39                       76.4      2,367     41.5     65.8        8.9       60.6          17.6          5.5            9.4         3.2      27.1       2.9       1,808
 40-44                       75.5      2,057     43.6     68.2       11.0       56.6          15.9          5.7            9.9         2.4      27.3       3.6       1,553
 45-49                       70.8      1,733     42.0     67.6       11.1       50.8          15.7          4.5            9.6         3.1      31.7       3.4       1,227

Residence
 Rural                       74.9      9,484     42.6     64.4        9.4       60.5          17.8          7.8            9.0         3.2      27.8       2.8       7,097
 Urban                       78.9      2,876     42.3     71.2       11.7       66.5          12.2          5.8            5.8         4.0      24.4       2.8       2,268

Age at consummation of
marriage
 Below 18 years              66.6      2,333     44.0     59.5        7.5       53.9          15.5          5.0            6.4         4.3      36.1       2.1       1,553
 18 years & above            77.9     10,027     42.2     67.3       10.4       63.5          16.7          7.8            8.6         3.2      25.1       2.9       7,812

Marital duration
 0-4                         78.0      2,225     40.1     65.4        9.9       70.4          12.7         14.3            6.0         3.7      23.3       2.1       1,735
 5-9                         78.3      2,247     43.8     66.9       10.2       66.4          18.3          6.8            6.7         3.9      25.3       2.5       1,760
 10-14                       77.3      2,300     43.2     65.8        9.7       65.2          18.6          7.3            9.1         3.2      25.2       3.2       1,777
 15+                         73.3      5,588     42.7     66.0       10.0       55.0          16.4          4.6            9.5         3.2      30.0       3.0       4,093

Education
              a
 Non-literate                42.0        414     56.5     38.1        5.2       18.4          20.1          4.0            4.7         0.6      43.4       4.0         173
 Less than 5 yrs             57.4        885     45.1     53.0        7.1       24.0          15.2          3.0            7.9         2.0      44.9       2.2         507
 5-9 years                   71.4      5,596     43.5     62.8        8.3       52.6          18.7          4.7            9.3         3.6      30.8       1.6       3,997
 10 or more years            85.8      5,465     40.9     71.2       11.8       75.6          14.5         10.1            7.5         3.5      21.2       3.8       4,688

Husband's education
              a
 Non-literate                49.2        389     58.1     46.8        8.4       27.0          24.1          3.6            5.2         1.1      37.8       2.6         191
 Less than 5 years           64.0      1,207     45.9     54.3        7.4       37.9          21.3          4.4           10.3         2.5      38.2       3.2         773
 5-9 years                   73.9      5,949     43.8     63.6        8.6       56.4          18.9          6.0            9.4         3.3      29.4       1.7       4,395
 10 or more years            83.2      4,815     39.7     71.9       11.9       74.3          12.5          9.5            6.8         3.9      21.6       3.9       4,006

Religion
 Hindu                       76.7      6,601     43.1     67.5        9.7       63.1          17.5          6.2            8.7         3.3      26.1       3.2       5,065
 Muslim                      71.0      3,792     43.9     60.4        9.2       58.0          13.6          6.8            4.6         4.1      32.5       1.3       2,689
 Christian                   82.0      1,962     38.2     70.7       11.7       64.9          18.2         12.0           13.0         2.7      20.5       4.1       1,607
 Others                        *           5       *        *          *          *             *            *              *            *        *         *            4
                                                                                                                                                              Contd…


                                                                                   117
TABLE 7.2 SOURCE OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT RTI/STI BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS —Continued

                               Who         Total                                                          Source of Knowledge                                                      Number
                               have       number                                                                   School/adult        Leaders/                                   of women
Background                     heard        of                                             Print       Health       education          community              Relative/            heard of
                                                                                                 1             2                                4
characteristics               RTI/STI     women**       Radio       T.V.      Cinema      media      personnel      programs
                                                                                                                             3          meeting     Husband    friends    Other   RTI/STI**

Castes/Tribes
 Scheduled Castes               68.3        1,184        42.3       57.4         7.5       53.0          23.6             5.4              10.6        2.7      30.5       3.1       808
 Scheduled Tribes               50.2          261        48.7       29.0         7.7       31.2          38.1             5.4               6.1        1.4      23.5       1.5       131
 Other Backward Classes         75.3        7,802        43.1       64.9         9.5       60.4          15.4             6.6               7.2        3.5      28.2       2.1     5,870
 Others                         82.2        3,081        40.6       73.3        11.7       69.8          15.6             9.8              10.0        3.4      23.2       4.3     2,532

Wealth index
 Lowest                         46.5           43       (70.0)     (20.0)        (0.0)    (30.0)        (25.0)           (5.0)            (0.0)       (0.0)    (35.0)     (5.0)       20
Second                          56.1          246        45.8       29.1          3.7       31.1         29.0             5.8             11.7         2.2      37.0       0.7       138
 Middle                         65.3        1,134        49.3       39.4          8.4       40.1         27.9             7.7             10.8         2.5      36.0       2.7       740
 Fourth                         72.6        4,685        44.8       61.3          8.2       53.1         19.7             6.7             10.5         2.9      30.4       2.2     3,398
 Highest                        81.1        6,252        39.8       74.3        11.5        72.0         12.3             7.7               6.3        3.9      23.1       3.3     5,069

Kerala (15-49)                  75.8       12,360        42.5       66.0         9.9       61.9          16.5             7.3               8.3        3.4      27.0       2.8     9,365
               †
Kerala (15-44)                  77.0       10,148        42.4       66.1         9.9       64.1          16.4             7.8               8.1        3.6      25.8       2.6     7,820

Note: Total figure may not add to 100 percent due to multiple responses.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
* Percentage not shown; based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.
1
  Includes News papers/books/magazines/slogans/pamphlets and posters.
2
  Includes Doctor/ASHA/health workers.
3                                                      4
  Includes school/teacher, adult education programs. Includes religious/ political leaders, community meetings and exhibition/ Mela.
†
  Represents figures for currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                                                             118
TABLE 7.3 KNOWLEDGE OF MODE OF TRANSMISSION OF RTI/STI BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
Percentage of ever married women aged 15-49 years who have heard of RTI/STI and among them, who have knowledge of transmission of
RTI/STI, according to selected background characteristics, Kerala,2007-08
                                                                  knowledge of transmission of RTI/STI

                                                                                          Unsafe sex
                                                                                             with
                                                                                           persons       Unsafe               Number
                              Heard                             Unsafe      Unsafe sex    who have       sex with            of women
Background                     of        Unsafe     Unsafe       IUD           with         many           sex                heard of
characteristics              RTI/STI     delivery   abortion   insertion   homosexuals     partners      workers    Other    RTI/STI **

Age group
 15-19                         73.2         1.9        2.5         5.6        11.8             88.9        21.7       7.4        182
 20-24                         75.1         4.9        4.7         6.8        20.2             80.7        25.4       6.3      1,130
 25-29                         78.2         4.3        3.7         5.4        17.5             82.5        23.4       8.8      1,710
 30-34                         77.6         3.5        3.5         6.1        18.7             82.1        22.7       8.7      1,755
 35-39                         76.4         4.4        3.1         6.1        20.7             81.7        24.4       7.3      1,808
 40-44                         75.5         4.1        3.4         6.6        20.3             80.7        25.8       7.2      1,553
 45-49                         70.8         4.9        4.5         6.2        22.4             78.0        23.0       6.9      1,227

Residence
 Rural                         74.9         3.8        3.5         6.3        19.3             81.4        23.3       8.1      7,097
 Urban                         78.9         5.7        4.3         5.7        20.7             81.1        26.2       6.2      2,268

Age at consummation of
marriage
 Below 18 years                66.6         1.8        1.6         3.9        14.5             85.1        27.4       4.1      1,553
 18 years & above              77.9         4.7        4.1         6.6        20.7             80.6        23.4       8.4      7,812

Marital duration
 0-4                           78.0         5.0        4.8         7.2        20.8             81.2        23.8       7.5      1,735
 5-9                           78.3         4.2        3.5         5.0        18.8             81.0        22.7       9.8      1,760
 10-14                         77.3         3.6        3.1         5.7        17.5             82.9        24.0       7.8      1,777
 15+                           73.3         4.2        3.5         6.4        20.5             80.8        24.7       6.8      4,093

Education
              a
 Non-literate                  42.0         1.4        1.4         5.1        16.1             86.8        30.8       2.2        173
 Less than 5 yrs               57.4         3.2        1.7         5.5        15.8             81.3        23.1       3.8        507
 5-9 years                     71.4         3.1        2.6         4.9        17.7             81.3        22.6       5.8      3,997
 10 or more years              85.8         5.4        4.9         7.2        21.8             81.1        25.1       9.7      4,688

Husband's education
              a
 Non-literate                  49.2         1.9        1.9         5.7        14.3             87.5        27.4       3.7        191
 Less than 5 years             64.0         3.6        2.9         6.9        16.5             80.8        26.5       5.4        773
 5-9 years                     73.9         3.6        2.8         5.4        18.3             81.6        22.8       6.8      4,395
 10 or more years              83.2         5.1        4.9         6.8        21.9             80.8        24.7       9.2      4,006

Religion
 Hindu                         76.7         4.5        3.9         6.3        20.2             80.9        23.4      7.9       5,065
 Muslim                        71.0         3.0        2.5         5.5        16.0             83.8        25.6      5.4       2,689
 Christian                     82.0         5.2        4.8         6.8        23.8             78.6        23.2     10.5       1,607
 Others                          *           *          *           *           *                *           *        *            4

Castes/Tribes
 Scheduled Castes              68.3         3.9        3.0         7.0        22.4             82.0        24.3      6.2         808
 Scheduled Tribes              50.2         1.8        0.9         5.4        13.4             85.7        23.0      5.5         131
 Other Backward Classes        75.3         4.1        3.3         5.8        18.4             81.4        23.5      6.8       5,870
 Others                        82.2         4.8        4.8         6.7        21.8             80.6        24.8     10.1       2,532

Wealth index
 Lowest                       (46.5)       (0.0)      (0.0)       (6.7)       (6.7)           (86.7)       (26.7)    (6.7)        20
 Second                        56.1         4.5        4.5         7.2        16.8             80.7         26.3      5.2        138
 Middle                        65.3         3.2        2.8         7.3        17.1             82.8         22.6      6.3        740
 Fourth                        72.6         3.5        3.0         5.8        18.4             82.1         23.6      7.0      3,398
 Highest                       81.1         4.9        4.3         6.2        21.0             80.6         24.4      8.4      5,069

Kerala (15-49)                 75.8         4.2        3.7         6.2        19.7             81.3        24.0       7.7      9,365
               †
Kerala (15-44)                 77.0         4.2        3.6         6.0        19.4             81.7        24.0       7.9      7,820

Note: Total figure may not add to 100 percent due to multiple responses.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
* Percentage not shown; based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.
†
  Represents figures for currently married women aged 15-44 years.


                                                                     119
TABLE 7.4 SYMPTOMS OF RTI/STI BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
Percentage of ever married women aged 15-49 years who had reported abnormal vaginal discharge, other RTI/STI symptoms during three months prior to survey according to selected
background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                                                                                        1
                                                                                      Percentage reported specific symptom of RTI/STI
                                Women         Women
                                reported      reported                                    Pain in lower                 Painful
                               abnormal         other       Itching or    Boils/Ulcers/   abdomen not                    blister     Pain during      Spotting       Total
                                 vaginal      RTI/STI        irritation      Warts           related      Swelling in     like         sexual       after sexual   number of
                                                       1                                                                                        2              2
Background characteristics     discharge     symptoms       over vulva    around vulva      menses         the groin    lesions     intercourse     intercourse    women **

Age group
 15-19                             9.7           13.6           7.3             2.4             2.8          0.4         0.4                3.7          0.4             249
 20-24                            10.0           11.0           5.2             0.9             2.5          0.1         0.1                2.7          0.3           1,505
 25-29                            11.1           11.1           5.9             1.0             2.8          0.3         0.2                2.4          0.0           2,188
 30-34                            10.5           12.2           5.8             1.3             3.6          0.4         0.2                2.2          0.3           2,261
 35-39                            10.1           12.9           6.2             1.3             3.8          0.2         0.2                2.2          0.2           2,367
 40-44                             7.8           12.5           5.7             1.6             4.1          0.2         0.3                1.6          0.1           2,057
 45-49                             4.7           11.8           5.1             1.3             3.5          0.4         0.2                1.0          0.2           1,733

Residence
 Rural                             9.8           11.8           5.8             1.3             3.3          0.3         0.2                2.1          0.2           9,484
 Urban                             7.2           12.6           5.5             1.1             3.6          0.3         0.2                2.1          0.2           2,876

Age at consummation of
marriage
 Below 18 years                   10.9           14.2           6.4             1.7             4.3          0.5         0.3                2.4          0.1           2,333
 18 years & above                  8.8           11.5           5.6             1.1             3.2          0.2         0.2                2.0          0.2          10,027

Marital duration
 0-4                               9.0           10.3           5.4             0.9             2.3          0.1         0.1                2.3          0.3           2,225
 5-9                              10.5           11.2           5.5             0.9             3.0          0.3         0.2                2.6          0.1           2,247
 10-14                            10.4           12.7           6.1             1.4             3.7          0.3         0.2                2.4          0.2           2,300
 15+                               8.2           12.7           5.8             1.4             3.9          0.3         0.3                1.7          0.2           5,588

Education
              a
 Non-literate                     14.3           14.7           4.3             0.7             4.6          0.0         0.0                0.6          0.0             414
 Less than 5 yrs                  11.6           14.5           6.0             1.9             5.0          0.8         0.6                2.4          0.3             885
 5-9 years                        11.0           13.9           6.8             1.4             4.1          0.3         0.2                2.6          0.2           5,596
 10 or more years                  6.5            9.4           4.6             1.0             2.4          0.2         0.1                1.7          0.1           5,465

Husband's education
              a
 Non-literate                     12.1           12.1           5.6             1.6             3.1          0.5         0.3                0.4          0.0             389
 Less than 5 years                13.4           15.1           5.7             1.0             5.0          0.5         0.3                1.8          0.3           1,207
 5-9 years                        10.5           13.9           6.8             1.5             4.0          0.3         0.3                3.0          0.2           5,949
 10 or more years                  6.3            8.9           4.4             1.0             2.2          0.1         0.1                1.2          0.1           4,815

Religion
 Hindu                             8.9           11.3           5.5             1.2             2.9          0.2         0.2                1.9          0.2           6,601
 Muslim                           10.8           13.8           6.6             1.4             4.1          0.5         0.3                2.5          0.2           3,792
 Christian                         7.3           11.0           5.0             1.1             3.6          0.2         0.0                2.1          0.3           1,962
 Others                             *              *             *               *               *            *           *                  *            *                5
                                                                                                                                                                     Contd…


                                                                                      120
 TABLE 7.4 SYMPTOMS OF RTI/STI BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS — Continued
                                                                                                                                              1
                                                                                            Percentage reported specific symptom of RTI/STI
                                    Women          Women
                                    reported       reported                                     Pain in lower                 Painful
                                   abnormal          other        Itching or    Boils/Ulcers/   abdomen not                    blister    Pain during      Spotting       Total
                                     vaginal       RTI/STI         irritation      Warts           related      Swelling in     like        sexual       after sexual   number of
                                                            1                                                                                        2              2
 Background characteristics        discharge      symptoms        over vulva    around vulva      menses         the groin    lesions    intercourse     intercourse    women **

 Castes/Tribes
  Scheduled Castes                    12.0            13.9           8.1              1.3             2.9          0.3         0.3                2.9         0.1        1,184
  Scheduled Tribes                    13.9            11.9           5.0              1.2             4.3          0.4         0.0                2.1         0.0          261
  Other Backward Classes               9.6            12.7           5.9              1.3             3.7          0.3         0.2                2.2         0.2        7,802
  Others                               6.7             9.7           4.3              1.0             2.8          0.2         0.1                1.6         0.2        3,081

 Wealth index
  Lowest                              27.6            13.7           7.0              0.0             9.1          0.0         0.0                5.5         0.0           43
  Second                              15.5            15.0           7.3              1.6             6.1          1.2         0.4                2.1         0.0          246
  Middle                              15.9            14.3           6.4              1.3             4.0          0.3         0.2                2.7         0.3        1,134
  Fourth                              10.9            13.5           6.4              1.4             4.0          0.3         0.3                2.5         0.1        4,685
  Highest                              6.3            10.4           5.0              1.1             2.7          0.2         0.2                1.7         0.2        6,252

 Kerala (15-49)                        9.2            12.0           5.7              1.2             3.4          0.3         0.2                2.1         0.2       12,360
                †
 Kerala (15-44)                        9.9            12.2           5.9              1.2             3.4          0.3         0.2                2.3         0.2       10,148

  Note: Total figure may not add to 100 percent due to ‘do not know’ or ‘missing cases’.
  * Percentage not shown; based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
  ** Unweighted cases.
  a
    Literate but did not attend school, are also included.
  1
    Excluding women having abnormal vaginal discharge problem.
  2
    Only for currently married women.
†
  Represents figures for currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                                                            121
TABLE 7.5 DISCUSSED ABOUT RTI/STI PROBLEMS WITH HUSBAND AND SOUGHT TREATMENT BY BACKGROUND
CHARACTERISTICS
Percentage of ever married women aged 15-49 years discussed RTI /STI problem with husband/partner and sought treatment among who
                    1
reported any RTI/STI problem and source of treatment according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08.
                                   Women                                                           Source of treatment
                                  discussed                              Number of                                                Number of
                               RTI/STI problems     Women sought           women                                                 women who
                                                              1
                                with husband/       treatment for        having any                                                 sought
                                           1                                      1
Background characteristics         partner         RTI/STI problems       RTI/STI        Government       Private        Other   treatment**

Age group
15-19                            81.6                    36.9                 49           (38.9)         (61.1)         (0.0)       18
20-24                            78.8                    47.6                265            33.9           66.1           0.0       127
25-29                            81.0                    47.5                394            36.5           62.3           1.2       187
30-34                            79.9                    55.8                408            45.0           52.8           2.2       228
35-39                            82.2                    52.6                439            46.4           53.6           0.0       231
40-44                            76.7                    57.7                352            44.4           53.2           2.5       203
45-49                            70.2                    57.1                244            48.9           50.4           0.7       139

Residence
Rural                            78.9                    52.7              1,665            44.0           55.0           1.0       878
Urban                            78.8                    52.4                486            39.3           59.0           1.6       255

Age at consummation of
marriage
Below 18 years                   77.1                    58.8                470            34.6           63.9           1.4       277
18 years & above                 79.4                    50.9              1,681            45.6           53.3           1.1       856

Marital duration
0-4                              82.0                    43.3                357            32.9           66.3           0.7       155
5-9                              80.0                    50.2                399            38.7           60.8           0.5       200
10-14                            80.7                    55.5                420            46.2           52.5           1.3       233
15+                              76.4                    55.9                975            45.9           52.6           1.5       545

Education
             a
Non-literate                     69.5                    55.9                 98            58.3           39.8           1.9        55
Less than 5 yrs                  71.7                    60.8                180            56.9           40.4           2.7       109
5-9 years                        79.0                    52.4              1,142            44.4           54.5           1.0       600
10 or more years                 81.6                    50.5                731            34.1           65.1           0.8       369

Husband's education
             a
Non-literate                     62.3                    54.3                 79            77.0           20.5           2.4        43
Less than 5 years                73.2                    52.5                277            50.0           47.9           2.0       146
5-9 years                        81.1                    52.0              1,169            44.5           54.2           1.3       609
10 or more years                 79.2                    53.6                626            32.7           67.0           0.3       335

Religion
Hindu                            80.4                    52.6              1,094            48.0           51.1           0.9       575
Muslim                           76.3                    55.5                764            36.2           62.3           1.4       425
Christian                        79.6                    45.4                293            42.3           56.2           1.5       133
Others                            nc                       nc                  0              nc             nc            nc         0

Castes/Tribes
 Scheduled Castes                78.3                    48.4                241            63.6            36.4          0.0       117
 Scheduled Tribes                64.1                    35.8                 53           (57.9)          (36.8)        (5.3)       19
 Other Backward Classes          79.2                    55.4              1,430            40.1            58.6          1.3       793
 Others                          79.8                    48.2                420            40.5            58.5          1.0       202

 Wealth index
 Lowest                            *                       *                  14              *              *             *          6
 Second                          64.2                    47.2                 59            82.4           13.9           3.7        28
 Middle                          77.4                    48.3                261            64.4           34.0           1.6       126
 Fourth                          79.4                    52.7                932            49.4           49.0           1.6       492
 Highest                         79.9                    54.4                885            28.1           71.4           0.4       481

Kerala                           78.8                    52.6              2,151            42.9           55.9           1.2      1,133

Note: Total figure may not add to 100 percent due to ‘do not know’ or ‘missing cases’.
nc= Not calculated because there are no cases
* Percentage not shown; based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases. .
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.
1
  Any RTI/STI (Including abnormal vaginal discharge or other RTI/STI problem).


                                                                    122
TABLE 7.6 RTI/STI INDICATORS BY DISTRICTS
Percentage of ever married women aged 15-49 years who reported RTI/STI problem during three months prior to the survey and among them
percentage sought treatment for the problem, by district, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                                                                         Number of
                              Who heard      Who reported any       Who have any           Total        Who sought        women
                                about        abnormal vaginal      other symptoms        number of   treatment for any   having any
                                                                                1                                 2               2
Districts                      RTI/STI          discharge            of RTI/STI          women**          RTI/STI         RTI/STI

Kasaragod                         68.9              12.5                  8.4               976           62.7               164
Kannur                            71.4               5.1                  8.5             1,015           51.7               125
Wayanad                           80.1              15.5                 12.7               961           57.5               214
Kozhikode                         74.0               9.2                 19.8             1,051           60.5               254

Malappuram                        68.2              10.1                 14.1             1,127           55.9               212
Palakkad                          70.2               8.8                  7.9               852           49.8               117
Thrissur                          75.8               7.1                 18.4               829           60.3               181
Ernakulam                         88.2               5.1                 13.9               719           45.5               119

Idukki                            62.1               7.3                  7.6               771           55.6                97
Kottayam                          78.1               5.0                  7.8               791           50.8                79
Alappuzha                         89.4              12.1                 11.0               809           50.3               148
Pathanamthitta                    78.1              11.5                  8.4               773           30.8               128

Kollam                            80.7              12.7                 19.1               880           49.0               228
Thiruvananthapuram                76.4               6.1                  6.8               806           40.8                85

Kerala (15-49)                    75.8               9.2                 12.0            12,360           52.6             2,151
               †
Kerala (15-44)                    77.0               9.9                 12.2            10,148           52.0             2,080

Note: ** Unweighted cases.
1
  Excluding women having abnormal vaginal discharge.
2
  Any RTI/STI (Including abnormal vaginal discharge problem or other RTI/STI problem).
†
  Represents figures for currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                                  123
TABLE 7.7 KNOWLEDGE OF HIV/AIDS BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
Percentage of ever married women aged 15–49 years who have heard of HIV/AIDS and among them, who received information from specific sources according to selected background
characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                                          Sources of knowledge for HIV/AIDS
                                                                                                                                                                     Number of
                          Who have                                                                         School/         Leaders/              Relatives             women
Background                heard of     Total                                   Print        Health      adult education   community                   /               heard of
                                                                                     1              2               3              4
characteristics           HIV/AIDS    women**     Radio     T.V.    Cinema    media       personnel       programs        meetings     Husband    friends    Other   HIV/AIDS**

Age group
 15-19                       99.2         249      55.9     74.9       8.5      72.1         11.0            28.3            5.7         1.6       35.2      1.6         247
 20-24                       98.7       1,505      48.8     80.4      12.3      71.3         15.3            14.1            6.9         5.3       32.9      1.5       1,485
 25-29                       98.4       2,188      49.0     81.3      12.4      70.8         18.2             8.5            9.8         5.4       35.3      3.0       2,153
 30-34                       98.0       2,261      49.8     78.5      12.1      68.5         18.4             6.9           11.3         5.3       34.5      3.4       2,215
 35-39                       98.1       2,367      49.1     77.7      11.7      65.0         18.4             5.4           13.3         4.3       36.5      3.6       2,322
 40-44                       97.1       2,057      51.5     79.5      13.0      61.3         14.3             5.1           12.5         3.5       33.4      4.3       1,998
 45-49                       95.6       1,733      49.3     78.0      11.4      53.7         13.7             4.5           10.2         2.8       38.6      3.7       1,656

Residence
 Rural                       97.4       9,484      49.4     76.8      11.1      63.8         17.4             8.0           11.7         4.2       36.2      3.3       9,241
 Urban                       98.5       2,876      50.9     86.4      15.2      70.9         13.5             6.4            8.0         4.9       32.0      3.4       2,835

Age at consummation of
marriage
 Below 18 years              95.2       2,333      46.9     69.7       8.9      58.0         14.7             4.6            8.4         4.6       45.6      2.4       2,222
 18 years & above            98.3      10,027      50.4     81.2      12.8      67.1         16.9             8.3           11.4         4.4       32.9      3.5       9,854

Marital duration
 0-4                         99.0       2,225      49.4     82.8      12.6      72.9         14.1            16.3            7.9         5.3       31.0      2.4       2,204
 5-9                         98.2       2,247      50.3     81.4      13.0      69.8         19.9             7.4           10.0         5.2       33.8      3.0       2,206
 10-14                       98.3       2,300      49.6     78.7      11.8      68.9         18.8             6.8           12.1         4.6       34.1      3.9       2,261
 15+                         96.7       5,588      49.7     76.8      11.6      59.2         15.2             4.5           11.8         3.7       38.0      3.5       5,405

Education
              a
 Non-literate                77.0         414      51.3     46.0       3.1      17.2         15.1             3.5            6.0         2.5       57.5      4.9         319
 Less than 5 yrs             90.5         885      46.9     60.3       6.9      29.5         14.1             1.5            9.5         3.1       50.1      3.8         801
 5-9 years                   98.3       5,596      49.2     74.8       9.9      59.3         17.6             4.3           11.4         4.4       38.5      1.9       5,500
 10 or more years            99.8       5,465      50.6     88.2      15.6      79.8         15.8            12.1           10.7         4.7       28.5      4.5       5,456

Husband's education
              a
 Non-literate                80.7         389      51.9     47.0       7.5      27.6         18.1             2.8            8.0         1.6       51.0      3.5         314
 Less than 5 years           93.8       1,207      51.0     62.4       8.0      42.8         17.3             3.5           12.0         3.3       44.8      4.1       1,132
 5-9 years                   98.1       5,949      50.3     77.1      10.8      61.3         18.0             6.0           12.1         4.3       37.5      2.1       5,837
 10 or more years            99.5       4,815      48.6     87.6      14.9      78.3         14.4            10.9            9.2         5.0       29.2      4.5       4,793

Religion
 Hindu                       97.6       6,601      52.2     81.1      12.5      66.0         18.0             6.9           11.9         4.5       34.6      3.8       6,445
 Muslim                      96.9       3,792      47.3     72.5      10.0      63.9         13.1             6.7            6.3         4.8       41.7      1.8       3,673
 Christian                   99.5       1,962      46.3     84.9      14.6      66.6         18.2            11.7           16.1         3.4       25.1      4.3       1,953
 Other                         *            5        *        *         *         *            *               *              *           *          *        *            5
                                                                                                                                                                     Contd….



                                                                                    124
TABLE 7.7 KNOWLEDGE OF HIV/AIDS BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS — Continued

                                                                                                         Sources of knowledge for HIV/AIDS
                              Who have                                                                                  School/                                                  Number of
                              heard of                                                                                    adult       Leaders/                                     women
Background                    HIV/AIDS       Total                                            Print       Health       education     community              Relatives/            heard of
                                                                                                    1             2             3             4
characteristics                 AIDS        women**       Radio        T.V.         Cinema   media      personnel      programs      meetings     Husband    friends     Other   HIV/AIDS**

Castes/Tribes
 Scheduled Castes                96.7         1,184        49.0        72.2           9.5     53.6         21.8           6.1            14.9       3.9        35.8       3.8       1,145
 Scheduled Tribes                77.7           261        52.0        36.9           7.9     30.9         33.4           5.4             9.9       1.5        42.8       5.4         203
 Other Backward Classes          98.0         7,802        49.9        78.2          11.5     65.3         15.6           6.7             9.5       4.7        37.0       2.6       7,647
 Others                          99.0         3,081        49.3        86.8          14.6     72.3         15.8          10.7            12.8       4.0        30.0       4.7       3,051

Wealth index
 Lowest                          76.6            43        57.5        27.0           3.0     27.4         21.2           9.1             6.0       0.0        42.6       3.0          33
 Second                          84.5           246        50.5        39.8           6.4     28.7         24.0           3.4            15.8       3.8        41.9       2.4         208
 Middle                          93.6         1,134        55.1        49.4           7.8     43.2         25.5           6.5            14.6       3.6        42.4       3.1       1,062
 Fourth                          97.7         4,685        51.3        73.8          10.1     58.5         18.8           6.5            12.8       3.7        38.9       2.9       4,576
 Highest                         99.1         6,252        47.6        89.7          14.5     75.8         13.0           8.8             8.6       5.1        31.0       3.7       6,197

Kerala (15-49)                   97.7        12,360        49.7        79.1          12.1     65.4         16.5           7.6            10.8       4.4        35.2       3.3      12,076
               †
Kerala (15-44)                   98.1        10,148        49.9        79.9          12.3     68.0         16.9           8.3            11.0       4.8        34.2       3.1       9,959

Note: Total figure may not add to 100 percent due to multiple responses
* Percentage not shown; based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.
1
  Includes News papers/books/magazines//slogans/pamphlets and posters.
2
  Includes Doctor/ASHA/health workers.
3
  Includes school/teacher, adult education programs.
4
  Includes religious/ political leaders, community meetings and exhibition/ Mela.
†
  Represents figures for currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                                                                   125
TABLE 7.8 KNOWLEDGE ABOUT MODE OF TRANSMISSION OF HIV/AIDS BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
Percentage of ever married women aged 15-49 years having knowledge of mode of transmission of HIV/AIDS among who have heard about
HIV/AIDS according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08.
                                               Percentage of women who reported mode of transmission as
                                                                             Unprotected                                     Number of
                                              Unsafe sex      Unsafe          sex with                                         women
                              Unsafe sex     with person      sex with        HIV/AIDS     Infected    Transfusion           who heard
Background                       with        having many        sex            infected    mother to   of infected               of
characteristics              homosexuals       partners       workers           person       child        blood      Other   HIV/AIDS**

Age group
 15-19                            4.6             70.8          22.8           37.3           20.2        48.6       23.3          247
 20-24                           10.2             70.9          29.5           36.5           24.0        54.4       19.0        1,485
 25-29                            8.3             71.8          27.4           36.3           25.9        57.7       22.5        2,153
 30-34                            9.0             73.8          28.0           34.1           24.5        58.3       19.9        2,215
 35-39                           10.2             71.9          27.1           33.5           22.0        56.1       19.7        2,322
 40-44                           10.7             71.3          28.5           33.7           22.2        54.8       18.8        1,998
 45-49                           11.3             70.0          27.9           32.4           19.0        48.8       18.4        1,656

Residence
 Rural                            9.1             71.4          28.0           34.5           22.1        54.4       20.8        9,241
 Urban                           12.0             73.0          27.4           34.1           26.0        57.9       16.8        2,835

Age at consummation of
marriage
 Below 18 years                   4.9             71.6          28.0           35.0           17.3        39.7       15.3        2,222
 18 years & above                10.8             71.8          27.8           34.3           24.2        58.7       20.9        9,854

Marital duration
 0-4                             10.5             71.0          28.1           36.8           26.4        59.8       22.1        2,204
 5-9                              9.5             72.6          26.7           35.1           24.4        57.2       21.3        2,206
 10-14                            9.2             72.3          27.8           34.3           24.6        58.7       20.0        2,261
 15+                              9.8             71.4          28.3           33.2           20.3        51.0       18.4        5,405

Education
              a
 Non-literate                     3.8             73.1          24.4           32.5           11.4        22.7        8.8          319
 Less than 5 yrs                  6.0             68.6          26.8           30.0           11.4        29.1       10.9          801
 5-9 years                        8.4             71.4          26.4           31.8           17.1        45.9       17.0        5,500
 10 or more years                11.9             72.4          29.6           37.7           30.9        69.6       24.5        5,456

Husband's education
              a
 Non-literate                     5.0             71.1          25.0           32.8           15.4        29.2        8.6          314
 Less than 5 years                6.9             70.7          28.4           32.9           16.2        38.4       13.4        1,132
 5-9 years                        8.9             71.7          26.9           32.7           19.2        50.5       18.7        5,837
 10 or more years                11.8             72.1          29.1           36.9           29.5        66.3       23.5        4,793

Religion
 Hindu                           10.1             72.6          27.2           33.6           24.0        59.6       21.4        6,445
 Muslim                           7.3             71.3          28.9           36.0           18.8        41.4       14.3        3,673
 Christian                       13.3             69.9          28.0           34.1           27.2        66.3       25.1        1,953
 Others                            *                *             *              *              *           *          *             5

Castes/Tribes
 Scheduled Castes                 9.5             73.9          30.4           31.0           19.1        50.9       17.6        1,145
 Scheduled Tribes                 6.3             65.1          26.0           40.6           18.1        39.5       10.2          203
 Other Backward Classes           9.0             71.6          27.3           34.5           21.5        51.4       18.4        7,647
 Others                          12.0             71.6          28.4           34.9           28.2        67.1       25.1        3,051

Wealth index
 Lowest                           3.5             69.1          17.0           41.3           13.8        34.6       10.3           33
 Second                          11.5             68.2          32.4           31.4           18.5        41.5       12.6          208
 Middle                           5.9             73.6          26.3           31.1           17.7        46.4       17.0        1,062
 Fourth                           8.5             69.9          28.0           34.4           20.0        50.0       19.0        4,576
 Highest                         11.3             72.9          27.9           35.0           26.2        61.0       21.3        6,197

Kerala                            9.8             71.7          27.9           34.4           23.0        55.2       19.9       12,076

Note: Total figure may not add to 100 percent due to multiple responses. .
 * Percentage not shown; based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.


                                                                    126
TABLE 7.9 KNOWLEDGE OF HIV/AIDS PREVENTION METHODS BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
Among ever married women aged 15-49 years who heard about HIV/AIDS, percentage who reported HIV/AIDS can be prevented in
specific ways, according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                              Percentage who say that HIV/AIDS can be prevented by
                                             Using condom           Sex with                              Avoid          Number of
                                             correctly during      one partner/       Avoid risks       Pregnancy       women having
                                  Abstain     each sexual            avoid         getting infected    when having      knowledge of
                                                                              1                    2
Background characteristics       from sex      intercourse        homosexual       through bloods       HIV/AIDS         HIV/AIDS**

Age Group
15-19                               2.2             15.2               86.3              51.4                6.3               247
20-24                               7.6             21.5               87.9              57.6                8.7             1,485
25-29                               5.5             24.2               89.1              60.7                7.6             2,153
30-34                               5.1             22.8               89.9              60.4                7.6             2,215
35-39                               5.9             22.1               88.8              57.2                6.5             2,322
40-44                               6.3             20.9               88.7              55.4                6.4             1,998
45-49                               7.1             18.0               86.0              49.8                5.1             1,656

Residence
Rural                               5.5             20.5               88.7              56.7                6.5             9,241
Urban                               7.8             25.5               87.9              58.2                8.5             2,835

Age at consummation
of marriage
Below 18 years                      3.7             14.8               87.5              42.1                6.6             2,222
18 years & above                    6.5             23.1               88.7              60.4                7.0             9,854

Marital duration
0-4                                 7.0             22.1               88.3              62.7                8.2             2,204
5-9                                 6.0             25.0               89.3              59.4                7.3             2,206
10-14                               5.3             23.3               89.3              60.7                7.7             2,261
15+                                 5.9             19.4               87.9              52.2                6.0             5,405

Education
             a
Non-literate                        3.4              8.5               76.3              23.2                3.9               319
Less than 5 yrs                     4.7              8.1               80.9              28.7                3.9               801
5-9 years                           5.3             17.1               87.6              47.5                5.2             5,500
10 or more years                    7.0             28.5               91.2              72.8                9.2             5,456

Husband's education
             a
Non-literate                        3.5              7.3               77.1              30.4                4.6               314
Less than 5 years                   5.8             14.3               85.5              38.5                5.1             1,132
5-9 years                           5.4             19.2               88.2              52.4                5.9             5,837
10 or more years                    6.9             27.0               90.4              68.8                8.7             4,793

Religion
Hindu                               6.3             23.3               88.9              61.3                7.3             6,445
Muslim                              4.4             17.0               87.5              44.1                7.0             3,673
Christian                           8.1             24.9               89.0              67.2                6.0             1,953
Others                               *                *                  *                 *                  *                  5

Castes/Tribes
Scheduled Castes                    5.3             18.5               87.5              51.2                6.0             1,145
Scheduled Tribes                    5.2             13.4               77.3              38.4                3.3               203
Other Backward Classes              5.6             20.1               88.7              53.4                6.7             7,647
Others                              7.5             27.0               89.1              69.2                7.9             3,051

Wealth index
Lowest                              0.0             10.4               81.8              30.3                7.1                33
Second                              8.1             17.0               79.3              36.6                5.7               208
Middle                              4.2             14.6               86.2              47.2                5.6             1,062
Fourth                              5.3             18.4               88.3              51.9                6.0             4,576
Highest                             6.8             25.4               89.4              63.3                7.9             6,197

Kerala                              6.0             21.7               88.5              57.0                7.0           12,076

Note: Total figure may not add to 100 percent due to multiple responses.
* Percentage not shown; based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.
1                                                                                                                               2
  Includes sex with one partner, Limit number of sexual partner, Avoid sex with sex workers and avoids sex with homosexuals.
Includes avoid sex with who inject drugs, use tested blood, use only new/ sterilized needles, avoid IV drip and avoid razors/blades.


                                                                127
TABLE 7.10 MISCONCEPTION ABOUT TRANSMISSION OF HIV/AIDS BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
Percentage of ever married women aged 15-49 years having misconception about the transmission of HIV/AIDS among who
have heard of HIV/AIDS, according to selected background characteristics, Kerala ,2007-08

                               Percentage who have misconception about the transmission of HIV/AIDS by
                                                                             Stepping on     Get HIV/AIDS      Number of
                              Shaking                Sharing       Sharing   someone's      from mosquito,   women heard
Background characteristics     hand      Hugging     clothes        food      urine/stool   flea or bedbug   of HIV/AIDS**

Age group
15-19                           6.0         6.9         6.0          6.1        10.9            26.6               247
20-24                           4.1         5.5         5.7          6.0         9.0            24.5             1,485
25-29                           4.1         6.0         6.3          5.3        10.0            22.8             2,153
30-34                           4.3         6.7         6.8          6.7        11.4            25.5             2,215
35-39                           4.2         6.4         7.4          6.4        12.1            27.1             2,322
40-44                           4.2         6.5         7.5          6.8        12.7            26.4             1,998
45-49                           5.0         7.9         9.4          8.5        14.9            29.3             1,656

Residence
Rural                           4.5         6.8         7.2          6.7        11.9            26.2             9,241
Urban                           3.8         5.4         7.1          5.9        10.9            25.1             2,835

Age at consummation of
marriage
Below 18 years                  7.4        10.4        12.3         12.1        18.3            35.1             2,222
18 years & above                3.6         5.6         6.0          5.3        10.2            23.8             9,854

Marital duration
0-4                             3.5         4.6         4.5          4.1         7.8            21.3             2,204
5-9                             4.0         5.9         5.9          5.8         9.7            22.8             2,206
10-14                           4.1         6.3         7.3          6.4        11.5            26.1             2,261
15+                             4.9         7.6         8.7          7.9        14.1            28.9             5,405

Education
             a
Non-literate                   10.7        13.9        15.4         14.8        20.1            35.2               319
Less than 5 yrs                 8.1        13.8        13.5         13.3        21.7            37.0               801
5-9 years                       6.1         8.7         9.4          9.0        15.2            31.9             5,500
10 or more years                1.6         2.8         3.5          2.6         6.1            17.7             5,456

Husband's education
             a
Non-literate                    9.4        13.5        15.1         12.9        19.9            33.4               314
Less than 5 years               7.1        10.5        12.6         12.0        17.6            36.0             1,132
5-9 years                       5.1         7.6         7.9          7.4        13.3            28.8             5,837
10 or more years                2.4         3.8         4.5          3.8         7.8            19.5             4,793

Religion
Hindu                           3.0         5.1         5.3          4.7         9.7            23.1             6,445
Muslim                          7.4        10.0        11.3         11.2        16.7            32.8             3,673
Christian                       2.8         4.6         5.3          3.9         8.5            22.3             1,953
Others                           *           *           *            *           *               *                  5

Castes/Tribes
Scheduled Castes                4.7         7.7         7.7          6.6        13.3            27.1             1,145
Scheduled Tribes                5.9         7.9        10.4          8.9        15.8            27.6               203
Other Backward Classes          5.0         7.3         8.0          7.8        12.9            27.9             7,647
Others                          2.3         4.0         4.5          3.3         7.7            20.4             3,051

Wealth index
Lowest                         21.2        21.2        20.9         15.1        27.1            39.3                33
Second                          4.8         8.2         7.2          7.2        14.8            29.7               208
Middle                          5.4         8.4         8.9          8.5        15.4            30.4             1,062
Fourth                          5.0         7.4         7.9          7.4        12.5            28.1             4,576
Highest                         3.5         5.4         6.3          5.5        10.2            23.3             6,197

Kerala                          4.3         6.5         7.2          6.5        11.7            25.9            12,076
** Unweighted cases.
 * Percentage not shown; based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.




                                                           128
TABLE 7.11 KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE PLACE WHERE HIV/AIDS TEST CAN BE DONE BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
Percentage of ever married women aged 15-49 years having knowledge about place where HIV/AIDS test can be done according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                                      Places where people can go to get tested for HIV /AIDS
                               Who know                                                                                                                               Number of
                                                                                     Government                                                Private
                               the place       Total                                                                                                                  women who
                                   of         women                        CHC/PHC/        VCTC/ICTC/          Other                       VCTC/ICTC/    Other      know the place
                               HIV/AIDS      heard of        Hospital/       Sub-            RTI/STI        public/NGO         Hospital/     RTI/STI     Private     for HIV/AIDS
Background Characteristics        test      HIV/AIDS**      dispensary      Centre            Clinic          hospItal          Clinic        Clinic     centre          test**

Age group
 15-19                           42.8            247          44.3             1.9             1.0              1.9               47.1           1.0       2.8              106
 20-24                           54.4          1,485          43.8             3.0             2.4              0.6               43.8           1.2       5.2              808
 25-29                           55.1          2,153          45.9             2.0             2.1              1.7               42.7           1.2       4.4            1,187
 30-34                           52.6          2,215          52.0             1.9             1.7              2.0               37.9           1.5       3.0            1,166
 35-39                           48.5          2,322          54.9             2.7             2.2              2.1               32.5           2.3       3.2            1,126
 40-44                           46.6          1,998          57.5             2.5             1.8              1.5               30.1           3.0       3.5              931
 45-49                           43.5          1,656          59.7             2.8             1.6              1.7               29.1           1.9       3.3              721

Residence
 Rural                           48.1          9,241          53.5             2.4             1.9              1.7               35.3           1.6       3.6            4,442
 Urban                           56.3          2,835          47.6             2.4             2.1              1.6               39.8           2.4       4.1            1,603

Age at consummation of
marriage
 Below 18 years                  36.3          2,222          55.6             2.5             1.2              1.6               35.4           1.5       2.2              807
 18 years & above                53.1          9,854          51.3             2.4             2.1              1.7               36.7           1.9       4.0            5,238

Marital duration
 0-4                             57.4          2,204          43.5             2.3             1.8              1.0               44.4           1.5       5.5            1,267
 5-9                             54.8          2,206          47.6             2.5             2.5              1.6               40.8           1.4       3.6            1,209
 10-14                           51.9          2,261          51.8             2.0             2.0              2.3               37.1           1.8       2.9            1,174
 15+                             44.3          5,405          58.5             2.6             1.7              1.7               29.9           2.3       3.3            2,395

Education
              a
 Non-literate                    14.8            319          82.7             4.3             0.0              0.0               10.6           0.0       2.4               47
 Less than 5 yrs                 24.9            801          73.3             2.1             1.0              0.5               20.1           2.0       1.0              199
 5-9 years                       41.9          5,500          60.6             2.8             1.4              1.2               30.3           0.9       2.8            2,309
 10 or more years                64.0          5,456          44.5             2.2             2.4              2.0               41.9           2.5       4.5            3,490

Husband's education
              a
 Non-literate                    21.0            314          82.1             4.6             0.0              1.5               10.5           0.0       1.4               66
 Less than 5 years               33.2          1,132          67.2             1.9             1.6              1.6               24.3           1.3       2.1              376
 5-9 years                       46.3          5,837          57.7             2.7             1.6              1.7               31.7           1.1       3.5            2,702
 10 or more years                60.5          4,793          43.8             2.1             2.3              1.7               43.2           2.6       4.2            2,901

Religion
 Hindu                           52.8          6,445          54.3             2.4             2.3              2.0               33.3           2.0       3.5            3,408
 Muslim                          41.3          3,673          49.5             2.5             1.3              0.8               40.8           1.4       3.6            1,516
 Christian                       57.2          1,953          47.8             2.1             1.6              1.6               40.5           1.8       4.5            1,117
 Others                            *               5            *               *               *                *                  *             *         *                 4

                                                                                                                                                                           Contd…



                                                                                         129
TABLE 7.11 KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE PLACE WHERE HIV/AIDS TEST CAN BE DONE BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS — Continued
                                                                                  Places where people can go to get tested for HIV /AIDS
                                                                                                                                                                 Number of
                                                                                 Government                                                Private
                              Who know         Total                                                                                                             women who
                             the place of     women                    CHC/PHC/       VCTC/ICTC/         Other                        VCTC/ICTC/     Other     know the place
Background                    HIV/AIDS       heard of      Hospital/     Sub-           RTI/STI       public/NGO         Hospital/      RTI/STI      Private    for HIV/AIDS
Characteristics                  test       HIV/AIDS**    dispensary    Centre           Clinic         hospItal          Clinic         Clinic      centre         test**

Castes/Tribes
 Scheduled Castes             44.9           1,145           61.0          2.3             2.2             1.6              26.7             2.4      3.9             514
 Scheduled Tribes             28.1             203           71.9          0.0             1.7             0.0              24.6             0.0      1.8              57
 Other Backward Classes       48.4            7647           52.5          2.4             1.7             1.4              37.2             1.5      3.2           3,701
 Others                       57.6            3051           47.5          2.4             2.5             2.2              38.2             2.4      4.9           1,759

Wealth index
 Lowest                       15.3              33             *            *               *               *                 *               *        *                5
 Second                       38.0             208           75.7          3.9             1.3             2.6              15.2             1.2      0.0              79
 Middle                       37.9           1,062           70.5          1.2             1.0             1.3              23.1             1.5      1.5             403
 Fourth                       45.5           4,576           59.0          3.2             1.9             1.4              29.7             1.2      3.6           2,083
 Highest                      56.0           6,197           44.9          2.0             2.1             1.8              42.7             2.3      4.2           3,475

Kerala (15-49)                50.0          12,076           51.9          2.4             2.0             1.7              36.5             1.8      3.7           6,045
               †
Kerala (15-44)                51.8           9,959           50.3          2.3             2.0             1.6              38.0             1.8      3.9           5,157

Note: Total figure may not add to 100 percent due to ‘do not know’ or ‘missing cases’.
CHC= Community Health Centre; PHC= Primary Health Centre; VCTC/ICTC= voluntary/Integrated counseling and testing centre, NGO= Non Governmental Organization.
* Percentage not shown; based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.
†
  Represents figures for currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                                                     130
TABLE 7.12 UNDERGONE HIV/AIDS TEST BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
Percentage of ever married women aged 15-49 years undergone for HIV/AIDS test and time to be tested for
HIV/AIDS, according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                               Percentage who have been
                                                                      tested for HIV             Number of
                              Who have       Number of                             1 or more    women went
Background                   been tested    women heard       Less than 12       than 1 years   for HIV/AIDS
Characteristics                for HIV       HIV/AIDS**       months ago              ago           test**

Age group
 15-19                           19.5             247                81.5           18.5            48
 20-24                           29.1           1,485                43.5           56.5           433
 25-29                           28.3           2,153                35.5           64.5           609
 30-34                           16.3           2,215                19.2           80.8           359
 35-39                            8.2           2,322                18.8           81.2           190
 40-44                            4.8           1,998                23.6           76.4            97
 45-49                            3.1           1,656                15.3           84.7            52

Residence
 Rural                           14.2           9,241                32.9           67.1         1,307
 Urban                           16.9           2,835                31.0           69.0           481

Age at consummation of
marriage
 Below 18 years                  11.0           2,222                38.3           61.7           244
 18 years & above                15.7           9,854                31.4           68.6         1,544

Marital duration
 0-4                             30.2           2,204                48.3           51.7           666
 5-9                             25.9           2,206                26.2           73.8           573
 10-14                           13.1           2,261                17.7           82.3           296
 15+                              4.7           5,405                21.6           78.4           253

Education
              a
 Non-literate                     3.8             319                (41.7)        (58.3)           12
 Less than 5 yrs                  2.4             801                (47.4)        (52.6)           19
 5-9 years                       10.6           5,500                 35.5          64.5           583
 10 or more years                21.5           5,456                 30.5          69.5         1,174

Husband's education
              a
 Non-literate                     2.9             314                  *              *              9
 Less than 5 years                4.7           1,132                33.4           66.6            53
 5-9 years                       13.3           5,837                34.9           65.1           778
 10 or more years                19.8           4,793                30.2           69.8           948

Religion
 Hindu                           14.2           6,445                32.8           67.2           914
 Muslim                          14.9           3,673                35.2           64.8           547
 Christian                       16.6           1,953                26.1           73.9           325
 Others                            *                5                  *              *              2

Castes/Tribes
 Scheduled Castes                13.4           1,145                 38.2          61.8           154
 Scheduled Tribes                 6.9             203                (35.7)        (64.3)           14
 Other Backward Classes          14.7           7,647                 34.6          65.4         1,124
 Others                          16.1           3,051                 25.1          74.9           492

Wealth index
 Lowest                           9.2              33                   *             *              3
 Second                          11.0             208                (26.1)        (73.9)           23
 Middle                          10.1           1,062                 38.7          61.3           108
 Fourth                          13.0           4,576                 35.7          64.3           597
 Highest                         17.1           6,197                 30.1          69.9         1,057

Kerala (15-49)                   14.8          12,076                32.4           67.6         1,788
               †
Kerala (15-44)                   17.2           9,959                32.8           67.2         1,716

( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
* Percentage not shown; based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
 a
   Literate but did not attend school, are also included.
†
  Represents figures for currently married women aged 15-44 years.


                                                    131
TABLE 7.13 HIV/AIDS INDICATORS BY DISTRICTS
Percentage of ever married women aged 15-49 years who have heard of HIV/AIDS, know HIV/AIDS prevention, transmission, places where
people can go to get tested for HIV /AIDS and who have been tested for HIV/AIDS in the past 12 months, by districts, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                                                                    Who underwent
                                            Who know       Who know that                                            HIV/AIDS test
                                          that HIV/AIDS   HIV/AIDS can be       Who know the                          in the past
                            Who have          can be      transmitted from   places where people    Who ever been     12 months
                            heard of      prevented by      mother to her    can go to get tested     tested for     among ever
Districts                   HIV/AIDS      using condom         baby             for HIV /AIDS       HIV/AIDS (%)         tested

Kasaragod                      96.0          13.8              20.9                  33.3                  7.4          31.6
Kannur                         99.0          22.6              20.1                  48.4                 18.1          32.0
Wayanad                        94.0          22.3              39.2                  37.9                  6.7          50.8
Kozhikode                      99.0          33.8              17.3                  61.2                 21.6          27.1

Malappuram                     95.3           8.8               7.8                  41.0                 23.7          25.9
Palakkad                       95.1          20.8              25.3                  47.6                 14.5          40.1
Thrissur                       98.7          43.5              37.9                  61.8                 21.7          27.5
Ernakulam                      99.7          24.0              29.9                  58.3                 11.4          26.2

Idukki                         96.9          16.2              25.6                  43.9                 14.0          38.9
Kottayam                       99.1          27.2              16.8                  48.0                 16.1          33.7
Alappuzha                      99.6          18.9              22.3                  64.3                 14.9          32.5
Pathanamthitta                 99.7          17.7              10.0                  46.0                 14.2          26.5

Kollam                         99.4          12.3              11.9                  58.2                  7.0          50.5
Thiruvananthapuram             98.1          21.1              39.0                  55.1                 16.6          32.8

Kerala (15-49)                 97.7          21.7              23.0                  50.0                 14.8          32.4
               †
Kerala (15-44)                 98.1          22.6              23.8                  51.8                 17.2          32.8
†
    Represents figures for currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                                                       132
TABLE 7.14 EVER HAD INFERTILITY PROBLEM BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
Percentage of ever married women aged 15-49 years who ever had infertility problem according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                                         Percentage of women among who have ever             Number of
                                                                                                           infertility:                        women
                                Who                                                                 After                                      having
                              ever had                                                               live       After induced/                primary/
Background                    infertility    Primary      Secondary        Total     In the first birth/still    spontaneous      Other      secondary
                                                                                 1                                                       2
Characteristics               problem       infertility    infertility   women**     conception     birth            abortion  incidents     infertility**

Age group
 15-19                         5.2              5.2             0.0          248      (100.0)       (0.0)           (0.0)          (0.0)         13
 20-24                         8.8              7.8             1.0        1,505        88.8         2.2             9.0            0.0         132
 25-29                        10.7              8.9             1.9        2,188        82.6         9.8             6.8            0.4         234
 30-34                        12.2              9.9             2.2        2,261        81.6         9.4             8.4            0.3         275
 35-39                        11.2              9.0             2.2        2,367        80.7         9.1             9.4            0.0         264
 40-44                        10.1              8.7             1.4        2,057        86.0         6.3             6.7            0.0         208
 45-49                         9.9              7.9             2.0        1,733        79.7        13.9             6.4            0.0         172

Residence
 Rural                        10.2              8.5             1.7        9,483        83.0          8.3            8.0            0.0         968
 Urban                        11.5              9.5             2.0        2,876        82.8          9.7            6.9            0.6         330

Age at consummation of
marriage
 Below 18 years                9.2              7.3             1.9        2,333        79.5        12.1             7.0            0.4         215
 18 years & above             10.8              9.0             1.8       10,026        83.6         8.0             7.9            0.1       1,083

Marital duration
 0-4                           9.4              8.5             0.9        2,224        90.4         1.9             7.2            0.5         208
 5-9                          12.4             10.6             1.7        2,247        85.9         5.7             8.3            0.0         278
 10-14                        13.1             10.0             3.0        2,300        76.7        12.7             9.6            0.0         300
 15+                           9.2              7.5             1.7        5,588        81.9        10.7             6.6            0.2         512

Education
              a
 Non-literate                 12.1             10.9             1.2          414        90.1          6.0            4.0            0.0          50
 Less than 5 yrs              10.3              8.3             2.0          885        80.5          8.6            8.7            0.0          91
 5-9 years                    10.5              8.7             1.8        5,596        83.2          9.8            6.3            0.3         589
 10 or more years             10.4              8.6             1.8        5,464        82.5          7.8            9.5            0.0         568

Husband's education
              a
 Non-literate                 11.6             10.0             1.6          389        86.6          4.5            8.9            0.0          45
 Less than 5 years            10.0              8.5             1.5        1,207        85.3          8.1            5.0            0.0         121
 5-9 years                    10.5              8.7             1.8        5,949        82.9          9.1            7.8            0.0         627
 10 or more years             10.5              8.6             1.9        4,814        82.2          8.7            8.3            0.4         505

Religion
 Hindu                        10.8              9.1             1.7        6,601        84.3         7.4            7.7             0.1         714
 Muslim                        9.8              8.1             1.7        3,791        82.4        10.9            5.9             0.2         372
 Christian                    10.8              8.6             2.2        1,962        79.2         9.0           11.3             0.0         212
 Others                          *               *               *             5          nc          nc             nc              nc           0

Castes/Tribes
 Scheduled Castes             12.7             11.1             1.6        1,184        87.4          6.6           6.0             0.0         150
 Scheduled Tribes              9.6              8.8             0.8          261        92.0          0.0           8.0             0.0          25
 Other Backward Classes       10.5              8.7             1.8        7,801        83.0          9.8           6.3             0.2         816
 Others                        9.9              7.9             2.0        3,081        79.9          7.7          12.5             0.0         305

Wealth index
 Lowest                       18.5             16.2             2.3           43          *            *              *              *            8
 Second                       13.3             12.5             0.8          246        94.0          6.0            0.0            0.0          33
 Middle                       10.3              8.7             1.6        1,134        84.7          6.8            7.7            0.0         117
 Fourth                       10.2              8.6             1.7        4,685        83.6          8.3            7.5            0.0         479
 Highest                      10.6              8.6             2.0        6,251        81.6          9.6            8.3            0.3         661

Kerala (15-49)                10.5              8.7             1.8       12,359        83.0          8.7            7.8            0.1       1,298
               †
Kerala (15-44)                10.8              8.9             1.9       10,148        83.2          7.9            8.2            0.2       1,090

Note: Total figure may not add to 100 percent due to ‘do not know’ or ‘missing cases’.
nc= Not calculated because there are no cases
* Percentage not shown; based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
 a
   Literate but did not attend school, are also included.
1
   Excluded women got married but Gauna not performed. Includes problems after pelvic surgery and other incidents.
†
   Represents figures for currently married women aged 15-44 years.



                                                                             133
TABLE 7.15 CHILDLESSNESS AND INFERTILITY BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
Percentage of currently married women aged 20-49 and 40-49 years having no living children, and who have been married for
at least five years, according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                               20-49 aged women                                     40-49 aged women
                                 Percentage                             Number of        Percentage                   Number of
                                                              1                                                     1
Background Characteristics        childless         Infertility         women**           childless      Infertility  women**

Residence
 Rural                              2.5                2.3               7,266              2.0          1.9           2,549
 Urban                              4.3                3.5               2,219              4.0          3.3             826

Age at consummation of
marriage
 Below 18 years                     1.7                1.4               1,971              0.8          0.6             657
 18 years & above                   3.3                2.9               7,514              2.9          2.7           2,718

Marital duration
 5-9                                5.6                4.5               2,189            27.0          24.2              37
 10-14                              3.4                3.1               2,205            11.6          11.6             145
 15+                                1.7                1.5               5,091             1.8           1.6           3,193

Education
              a
 Non-literate                       5.1                4.8                 335              4.6          4.1             195
 Less than 5 yrs                    3.2                2.9                 718              2.6          2.4             451
 5-9 years                          3.0                2.6               4,550              2.3          2.1           1,606
 10 or more years                   2.7                2.3               3,882              2.3          2.1           1,123

Husband's education
              a
 Non-literate                       5.3                4.9                 248              5.8          5.0             122
 Less than 5 years                  2.3                2.0               1,068              1.6          1.4             575
 5-9 years                          3.1                2.7               4,729              2.4          2.2           1,583
 10 or more years                   2.8                2.4               3,440              2.7          2.5           1,095

Religion
 Hindu                              3.4                2.9               5,045              2.6          2.3           1,908
 Muslim                             2.6                2.3               2,854              2.7          2.5             762
 Christian                          2.3                2.0               1,582              2.1          1.9             703
 Others                              *                  *                    4               *            *                2

Castes/Tribes
 Scheduled Castes                   4.4                3.7                 863              3.6          2.6             303
 Scheduled Tribes                   4.2                3.6                 193              0.0          0.0              48
 Other Backward Classes             3.0                2.6               5,947              2.6          2.4           1,948
 Others                             2.3                2.0               2,458              2.1          2.1           1,068

Wealth index
 Lowest                             7.0                7.0                  28               *            *                8
 Second                             4.3                4.3                 185              5.6          5.6              53
 Middle                             2.7                2.6                 871              4.1          4.1             268
 Fourth                             3.0                2.6               3,537              2.4          2.0           1,209
 Highest                            2.9                2.4               4,864              2.2          2.0           1,837

Kerala                              3.0                2.6               9,485              2.5          2.3           3,375
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.
1
  Women with no living children and reported problem in conceiving (involuntary infertility).




                                                                  134
TABLE 7.16 TREATMENT FOR INFERTILITY BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS
Percentage of currently married women aged 15-49 years who sought treatment for primary/secondary infertility problem, according to
selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                             For primary Infertility                             For secondary Infertility
                                Percentage     Percentage of       Number of        Percentage      Percentage of       Number of
                                 of women      women taken        women having       of women       women taken        women having
                                   sought        allopathic           primary          sought         allopathic        secondary
Background Characteristics       treatment       treatment          infertility**    treatment        treatment          infertility**

Age group
 15-19                             (53.8)          (53.8)                 13             nc                nc                  0
 20-24                              84.5            82.0                 117           (60.0)            (60.0)               15
 25-29                              88.7            87.2                 193            75.7              75.7                41
 30-34                              88.8            86.2                 224            86.2              86.2                51
 35-39                              90.3            86.6                 213            82.6              80.7                51
 40-44                              83.9            83.3                 179            75.5              75.5                29
 45-49                              83.8            82.4                 137            80.0              80.0                35

Residence
 Rural                             85.2             83.3                 803            75.9              75.3               165
 Urban                             91.3             88.4                 273            89.3              89.3                57

Age at consummation of
marriage
 Below 18 years                    87.7             86.6                 171            77.0              77.0                44
 18 years & above                  86.6             84.3                 905            79.9              79.3               178

Marital duration
 0-4                               79.8             77.2                 188           (70.0)            (70.0)               20
 5-9                               92.1             91.3                 239            79.6              79.6                39
 10-14                             87.0             81.8                 230            80.1              78.7                70
 15+                               86.7             85.7                 419            80.5              80.5                93

Education
              a
 Non-literate                      80.2             80.2                  45              *                 *                  5
 Less than 5 yrs                   81.1             79.7                  73           (77.8)            (77.8)               18
 5-9 years                         84.7             82.5                 489            74.8              74.8               100
 10 or more years                  90.4             88.1                 469            86.0              85.1                99

Husband's education
              a
 Non-literate                      61.7             59.2                  39              *                 *                  6
 Less than 5 years                 79.6             77.7                 103           (77.8)            (77.8)               18
 5-9 years                         87.3             84.8                 519            76.8              76.8               108
 10 or more years                  90.1             88.5                 415            82.3              81.2                90

Religion
 Hindu                             84.9             82.6                 602            78.8              78.8               112
 Muslim                            86.3             84.7                 306            75.5              74.0                66
 Christian                         94.2             91.8                 168            86.4              86.4                44
 Others                             nc                nc                   0             nc                nc                  0

Castes/Tribes
 Scheduled Castes                   83.2            80.1                 131           (68.4)            (68.4)               19
 Scheduled Tribes                  (73.9)          (73.9)                 23              *                 *                  2
 Other Backward Classes             87.7            85.5                 676            77.0              76.3               140
 Others                             87.0            85.4                 244            88.8              88.8                61

Wealth index
 Poorest                             *                *                    7              *                 *                  1
 Second                            77.3             77.3                  31              *                 *                  2
 Middle                            80.8             79.8                  99           (83.3)            (83.3)               18
 Fourth                            82.6             79.8                 400            69.7              69.7                79
 Highest                           91.7             89.7                 539            86.1              85.3               122

Kerala                             86.7             84.6                1,076           79.3              78.9               222

nc= Not calculated because there are no cases.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
* Percentage not shown; based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.



                                                                  135
TABLE 7.17 INFERTILITY PROBLEM AND SOUGHT TREATMENT BY DISTRICTS
Percentage of ever married women aged 15-49 years who had ever menstruation
problem during last three months prior to survey, ever had infertility problem and among
women who had infertility problem, sought treatment for infertility, by districts, Kerala,
2007-08
                               Who have             Who have            Who sought
                              menstruation          infertility        treatment for
                                                               1
Districts                      problem              problem               infertility

Kasaragod                           17.7               12.1                87.4
Kannur                              21.2               14.6                86.8
Wayanad                             31.2                8.7                79.3
Kozhikode                           20.4                9.3                85.4

Malappuram                          25.6               10.0                83.8
Palakkad                            17.7                8.7                81.1
Thrissur                            23.2                9.8                93.4
Ernakulam                           31.0               11.6                88.5

Idukki                              26.7                7.9                76.6
Kottayam                            19.7                8.8                85.1
Alappuzha                           32.8               12.3                89.6
Pathanamthitta                      30.8               10.4                78.5

Kollam                              26.1               12.7                84.3
Thiruvananthapuram                  19.5                7.9                90.9

Kerala (15-49)                      24.2               10.5                85.5
               †
Kerala (15-44)                      23.6               10.8                86.2

Note: Women excluding pregnant, in amenorrhea, in menopause, had hysterectomy
and never menstruated women.
1
  Included both primary and secondary infertility.
†
  Represents figures for currently married women aged 15-44 years.




                                           136
CHARACTERISTICS OF UNMARRIED WOMEN
TABLE 8.1 BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS OF UNMARRIED WOMEN
Percent distribution of unmarried women aged 15-24 years, according to
selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                              Residence
Background characteristics                     Total       Rural    Urban

Age group
 15-19                                          66.8        67.3      65.0
 20-24                                          33.2        32.7      35.0

Education
              a
 Non-literate                                    0.2         0.3       0.0
 Less than five years                            0.2         0.3       0.0
 5-9 years                                      23.4        24.9      18.3
 10 or more years                               76.2        74.6      81.7

Religion
 Hindu                                          56.9        56.4      58.6
 Muslim                                         27.9        27.3      30.1
 Christian                                      15.1        16.2      11.3
 Others                                          0.0         0.1       0.0

Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                               11.9        12.5      10.1
 Scheduled tribes                                2.2         2.6       0.7
 Other backward classes                         61.8        59.1      70.5
 Others                                         24.2        25.8      18.7

Wealth index
 Lowest                                          0.1         0.1       0.2
 Second                                          1.9         2.2       0.6
 Middle                                          9.9        11.6       3.9
 Fourth                                         43.0        46.5      31.2
 Highest                                        45.1        39.5      64.1

 Kerala**                                     2,554        1,970      584

** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.




                                      139
TABLE 8.2 AT WHAT AGE AND STANDARD FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION SHOULD BE INTRODUCED
Percentage of unmarried women aged 15-24 years aware of family life education, perceived family life education is important and percent distribution of women stating ideal age and
standard at which family life education should be introduced, according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                                     At what age family life education             From which standard family life
                                Percentage of women                                       should be introduced
                                                                                                                b
                                                                                                                                   education should be introduced
                                                                                                                                                                  b       Number of
                                                                                                                                                                          women who
                                              Perceived                                                                                                                    perceived
                               Aware of       family life   Number                                                                                                         family life
Background                     family life   education is     of             Below                           18 or               Below               10 or                education is
characteristics                education      important     women**           12          12-14    15 - 17   above       Total     8        8-9      more       Total     important**

Age group
 15-19                            83.9           91.7         1,706            8.0        44.7      39.8       7.5       100.0   13.9      38.9       47.2      100.0        1,565
 20-24                            82.8           92.2           848           10.1        42.6      37.7       9.6       100.0   16.6      34.4       48.9      100.0          783

Residence
 Rural                            82.9           92.1         1,970            9.1        43.7      39.1       8.1       100.0   15.5      37.0       47.5      100.0        1,815
 Urban                            85.5           91.1           584            7.3        44.9      39.2       8.7       100.0   12.4      38.8       48.7      100.0          533

Education
              a
 Non-literate                       *              *              5             *          *          *         *           *      *         *          *          *             1
 Less than five years               *              *              6             *          *          *         *           *      *         *          *          *             4
 5-9 years                        69.9           83.1           595           10.3        44.5      36.9       8.3       100.0   17.9      38.0       44.0      100.0          495
 10 or more years                 88.0           94.8         1,948            8.3        43.9      39.7       8.1       100.0   14.0      37.3       48.7      100.0        1,848

Religion
 Hindu                            84.0           92.9         1,456            8.3        46.7      36.8       8.2       100.0   15.3      39.3       45.4      100.0        1,353
 Muslim                           77.7           88.3           716            8.0        35.7      46.6       9.7       100.0   12.0      31.6       56.4      100.0          633
 Christian                        92.1           94.6           381           11.4        48.5      34.4       5.8       100.0   17.9      40.6       41.5      100.0          361
 Others                             *              *              1             *           *         *         *           *      *         *          *          *             1
               #
Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                 79.4           91.6           306            8.0        45.3      38.0       8.8       100.0   15.8      38.0       46.2      100.0          281
 Scheduled tribes                 64.3           75.0            56           12.0        44.7      33.9       9.4       100.0   23.7      37.8       38.5      100.0           42
 Other backward classes           82.7           91.5         1,571            8.3        41.5      40.7       9.5       100.0   13.6      35.9       50.4      100.0        1,439
 Others                           89.3           94.3           617            9.8        49.7      36.0       4.4       100.0   16.8      40.8       42.4      100.0          582

Wealth index
 Lowest                              *             *              3           33.0        67.0        *         *           *    33.0      67.0         *          *             3
 Second                           66.2           76.8            48           10.8        43.3      32.4      13.4       100.0   21.9      29.6       48.5      100.0           37
 Middle                           76.3           88.1           251            8.5        45.6      38.5       7.4       100.0   16.0      39.5       44.5      100.0          221
 Fourth                           81.0           90.8         1,093            9.1        42.1      40.5       8.2       100.0   15.7      34.9       49.4      100.0          994
 Highest                          88.1           94.3         1,159            8.2        45.3      38.2       8.2       100.0   13.5      39.4       47.1      100.0        1,093

    Kerala                        83.5           91.9         2,554            8.7        44.0      39.1       8.2       100.0   14.8      37.4       47.8      100.0        2,348
#
  Total figure may not add to sample total (N), due to ‘don’t know’ or ‘missing cases’.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.
b
  Among women who perceived the family life education is important.

                                                                                             140
TABLE 8.3 SOURCES OF FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION
Percentage of unmarried women aged 15-24 years who perceived family life education to be important and sources of family life education, according to selected
background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08

                                                                                           Sources of family life education                                Number
                                 Perceived                                                                                                             of women who
                                 family life                             Brother/                              Health care    Youth club/                 perceived
                                 education     Number                     sister/                               provider/      mandal/      Teacher/      family life
                                   to be         of                      sister in   Husband/     Friends/    sex education      NGO         school/   education to be
Background characteristics       important     women**       Parents        law       partner      peers         experts        worker       college     important**

Age group
 15-19                              91.7         1,706         67.9        10.1          0.1        10.4           17.5           1.3         70.6          1,565
 20-24                              92.2           848         70.7        13.1          0.0        12.3           19.3           1.8         68.6            783

Residence
 Rural                              92.1         1,970         68.8        10.9          0.1        10.0           18.7           1.3         68.6          1,815
 Urban                              91.1           584         69.0        11.9          0.0        14.7           15.8           2.2         74.5            533

Education
              a
 Non-literate                         *              5           *           *            *           *              *             *            *               1
 Less than five years                 *              6           *           *            *           *              *             *            *               4
 5-9 years                          83.1           595         68.0        12.4          0.0         9.0           16.4           1.2         64.2            495
 10 or more years                   94.8         1,948         69.1        10.7          0.1        11.6           18.6           1.6         71.5          1,848

Religion
 Hindu                              92.9         1,456         70.3        10.8          0.1        11.4           18.3           1.7         70.8          1,353
 Muslim                             88.3           716         62.5        12.3          0.2        12.6           17.7           0.6         68.8            633
 Christian                          94.6           381         74.4        10.3          0.0         7.2           17.7           2.2         68.8            361
 Others                               *              1           *           *            *           *              *             *            *               1
               #
Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                   91.6           306         66.0        14.1          0.0        14.0           19.4           2.2         67.1            281
 Scheduled tribes                   75.0            56         64.5        19.3          0.0         4.8           26.2           2.4         68.8             42
 Other backward classes             91.5         1,571         67.7        10.9          0.1        11.6           17.5           1.6         69.6          1,439
 Others                             94.3           617         73.6         9.7          0.0         8.9           17.9           0.9         72.0            582

Wealth index
 Lowest                               *              3           *           *            *           *              *             *            *               3
 Second                             76.8            48         62.6        10.8          0.0         7.4           14.1           2.7         65.2             37
 Middle                             88.1           251         65.4        12.5          0.0         9.5           19.7           2.7         65.8            221
 Fourth                             90.8         1,093         67.5        11.2          0.2        10.2           18.7           1.5         69.3            994
 Highest                            94.3         1,159         70.9        10.8          0.0        12.3           17.3           1.2         71.6          1,093

    Kerala                          91.9         2,554         68.8        11.1          0.1        11.1           18.1           1.5         69.9          2,348
#
  Total figure may not add to N, sample total due to ‘do not know’ or ‘missing cases’.
* Percentage not shown, bases on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.


                                                                                     141
TABLE 8.4 EVER RECEIVED FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION BY SOURCES
Percentage of unmarried women aged 15-24 years who ever received family life education by sources, according to selected
background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                     Source of family life education                 Number of
                                                                                                                        women
                                Ever                                                                                     ever
                              received     Number        NGO             Govt.                                         received
Background                   family life     of       programme/      programme/         School/   Youth              family life
characteristics              education     women**       camp            camp            college    club     Other   education**

Age group
 15-19                          75.5        1,706           1.5           13.0            92.1         5.2    4.4       1289
 20-24                          62.9          848           5.4           11.2            88.8         7.7    6.5        535

Residence
 Rural                          70.8        1,970           2.5           13.2            90.1         6.4    4.9       1396
 Urban                          73.3          584           3.3            9.8            94.3         4.5    5.3        428

Education
              a
 Non-literate                     *             5
 Less than five years             *             6            *              *               *           *      *           1
 5-9 years                      55.7          595           0.9           19.0            83.0         5.9    7.4        331
 10 or more years               76.5        1,948           3.1           11.0            93.0         5.9    4.4       1492

Religion
 Hindu                          72.2        1,456           2.1           14.6            90.9         6.2    4.1       1050
 Muslim                         62.0          716           1.6            9.5            91.1         4.4    5.4        446
 Christian                      85.5          381           6.1            9.7            91.7         7.1    7.3        327
 Others                           *             1            *              *               *           *      *           1
               #
Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes               72.9          306           2.7           17.3            88.4         7.5    5.6        223
 Scheduled tribes               51.9           56           7.1           38.2            72.3         0.0    0.0         29
 Other backward classes         68.0        1,571           1.7           11.2            91.4         5.6    4.5       1070
 Others                         81.1          617           4.6           11.3            92.7         6.2    6.2        500

Wealth index
 Lowest                           *             3            *              *                *        *        *           2
 Second                         44.3           48          (0.0)         (23.8)           (71.4)   (14.3)    (4.8)        21
 Middle                         68.4          251           1.2           19.4             90.7      7.0      7.1        172
 Fourth                         68.7        1,093           2.4           15.5             87.2      6.9      5.8        753
 Highest                        75.7        1,159           3.2            8.2             95.0      4.7      3.9        876

    Kerala                      71.4        2,554           2.7           12.4            91.1         5.9    5.0       1824
#
  Total figure may not add to N, sample total due to ‘do not know’ or ‘missing cases’.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
* Percentage not shown, bases on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.




                                                              142
TABLE 8.5 KNOWLEDGE OF LEGAL AGE AT MARRIAGE AND REPORTED IDEAL AGE AT MARRIAGE FOR BOYS AND GIRLS
Percentage of unmarried women aged 15-24 years who have knowledge about legal minimum age at marriage in India for boys and
girls and reported ideal age at marriage for boys and girls according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                 Knowledge of
                               minimum legal age             Reported ideal age at          Reported ideal age at
                                  at marriage                  marriage for boys              marriage for girls
                                                                                                                       Number
                                                            Less     21 and                Less    18 and                of
Background characteristics       Boys       Girls         than 21    above       Total   than 18   above       Total   women**

Age group
 15-19                            87.1       94.6           12.3       87.7     100.0      1.8      98.2       100.0    1,706
 20-24                            86.5       93.8           11.2       88.8     100.0      1.6      98.4       100.0      848

Residence
 Rural                            87.3       94.5           12.5       87.5     100.0      1.6      98.4       100.0    1,970
 Urban                            85.8       94.0            9.9       90.1     100.0      2.0      98.0       100.0      584

Education
              a
 Non-literate                       *          *              *          *         *        *         *           *         5
 Less than five years               *          *              *          *         *        *         *           *         6
 5-9 years                        73.6       85.9           17.5       82.5     100.0      3.0      97.0       100.0      595
 10 or more years                 91.4       97.2           10.5       89.5     100.0      1.4      98.6       100.0    1,948

Religion
 Hindu                            88.5       95.3           11.5       88.5     100.0      1.4      98.6       100.0    1,456
 Muslim                           79.4       91.1           14.0       86.0     100.0      2.9      97.1       100.0      716
 Christian                        95.1       96.6           10.1       89.9     100.0      0.6      99.4       100.0      381
 Others                             *          *              *          *         *        *         *           *         1
               #
Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                 87.3       93.3           12.9       87.1     100.0      0.3      99.7       100.0      306
 Scheduled tribes                 64.4       78.5           19.6       80.4     100.0      2.3      97.7       100.0       56
 Other backward classes           85.7       94.2           11.3       88.7     100.0      2.2      97.8       100.0    1,571
 Others                           92.3       96.8           12.5       87.5     100.0      1.2      98.8       100.0      617

Wealth index
 Lowest                             *          *              *          *         *        *         *           *         3
 Second                           71.8       79.1           26.3       73.7     100.0      2.7      97.3       100.0       48
 Middle                           82.1       92.0            9.3       90.7     100.0      1.3      98.7       100.0      251
 Fourth                           85.3       93.6           13.8       86.2     100.0      1.6      98.4       100.0    1,093
 Highest                          90.2       96.3           10.2       89.8     100.0      1.9      98.1       100.0    1,159

    Kerala                        86.9       94.4           11.9       88.1     100.0      1.7      98.3       100.0    2,554
#
  Total figure may not add to N, sample total due to ‘do not know’ or ‘missing cases’.
* Percentage not shown, bases on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.




                                                                    143
TABLE 8.6 CURRENT STATUS OF MENSTRUATION AND EXPERIENCED MENSTRUATION RELATED PROBLEMS DURING LAST THREE MONTHS AND REPORTED PROBLEMS
Percentage of unmarried women aged 15-24 years who are currently menstruating and reported menstruation related problems during the last three months preceding the survey, according
to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                        Having                                            During last three months having menstruation related problems
                                     menstruation                                                                                                                            Number of
                                        related                                                                                                                             women with
                                       problems       Number                                 Frequent                                              Inter-    Blood clots/   menstruation
                                       during last      of           No        Painful        or short    Irregular   Prolonged      Scanty      menstrual    excessive        related
Background characteristics           three months     women**      periods     periods        periods      periods     bleeding     bleeding     bleeding      bleeding      problems**

Age group
 15-19                                    30.3          1,706         1.3        84.0            3.9        20.1          2.2          1.4           1.2         3.0            513
 20-24                                    28.7            848         1.3        85.0            3.2        18.7          0.8          2.5           0.4         1.7            243

Residence
 Rural                                    31.3          1,970         1.0        85.3            3.5        18.5          1.5          1.5           0.7         2.4            615
 Urban                                    24.9            584         3.0        80.5            4.1        24.6          3.0          2.9           2.2         3.3            141

Education
              a
 Non-literate                               *               5          *           *              *           *            *            *             *           *               1
 Less than five years                       *               6         nc          nc             nc          nc           nc           nc            nc          nc              nc
 5-9 years                                32.5            595         1.9        83.5            4.2        18.1          2.8          2.8           0.5         2.3            191
 10 or more years                         29.1          1,948         1.2        84.6            3.5        20.2          1.4          1.4           1.1         2.7            564

Religion
 Hindu                                    29.0          1,456         1.0        81.8            3.8        22.0          1.2          1.8           1.2         3.2            419
 Muslim                                   29.8            716         1.3        85.9            4.7        18.0          2.4          1.5           1.0         1.4            212
 Christian                                33.1            381         2.6        90.1            1.6        14.9          2.6          1.8           0.0         2.6            125
 Others                                     *               1         nc          nc             nc          nc           nc           nc            nc          nc              nc
               #
Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                         29.2            306         1.2         87.3           1.1         17.3         0.0           2.3          0.0          4.6            88
 Scheduled tribes                         30.7             56        (0.0)       (70.6)         (5.9)       (35.3)       (0.0)         (0.0)        (0.0)        (0.0)           17
 Other backward classes                   31.0          1,571         1.9         82.5           3.8         21.1         2.1           1.7          1.3          2.5           486
 Others                                   27.0            617         0.0         89.6           4.3         15.1         1.8           1.8          0.6          2.0           165

Wealth index
 Lowest                                     *               3          *            *             *            *           *             *            *            *              2
 Second                                   29.4             48        (0.0)       (78.6)         (7.1)        (7.1)      (14.3)         (0.0)        (7.1)        (0.0)           14
 Middle                                   31.4            251         1.2         73.5           3.6        27.8          1.3           3.9          0.0          1.3            79
 Fourth                                   33.4          1,093         1.3         86.4           4.4        18.9          2.3           2.8          0.6          2.8           363
 Highest                                  25.9          1,159         1.5         84.9           2.7        19.2          0.6           0.0          1.4          2.8           298

    Kerala                                29.8          2,554         1.3        84.4            3.7        19.7          1.8          1.7           0.9         2.6            756
#
  Total figure may not add to N, sample total due to ‘do not know’ or ‘missing cases’.
nc = Not calculated because there are no cases.
( ) Based on 10-24 unweighted cases.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.




                                                                                               144
TABLE 8.7 PRACTICES DURING MENSTRUAL PERIOD
Percentage of unmarried women aged 15-24 years who are currently menstruating by
practices during menstrual period, according to selected background characteristics, Kerala,
2007-08
                                     Practices during menstrual period
                                                                                  Number of
                                            Locally       Use                       women
                                 Used      prepared     sanitary      Used         currently
Background characteristics       cloth      napkins     napkins       other      menstruating

Age group
 15-19                           73.4          3.4         56.3          0.1         1,706
 20-24                           65.7          3.9         56.5          0.8           848

Residence
 Rural                           73.9          3.1         54.4          0.3         1,970
 Urban                           60.7          4.9         63.3          0.6           584

Education
              a
 Non-literate                      *            *            *            *              5
 Less than five years              *            *            *            *              6
 5-9 years                       85.2          1.2         34.2          0.0           595
 10 or more years                66.3          4.3         63.4          0.4         1,948

Religion
 Hindu                           71.4         3.1          56.9          0.4         1,456
 Muslim                          78.9         4.0          46.2          0.1           716
 Christian                       53.8         4.4          73.5          0.3           381
 Others                            *           *             *            *              1
               #
Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                78.6         2.7          46.9          0.0           306
 Scheduled tribes                94.5         0.0          19.3          0.0            56
 Other backward classes          74.4         3.7          52.8          0.4         1,571
 Others                          55.6         3.9          73.6          0.3           617

Wealth index
 Lowest                            *           *             *            *              3
 Second                         100.0         0.0          15.1          0.0            48
 Middle                          88.4         1.1          35.7          0.0           251
 Fourth                          82.3         2.2          48.2          0.3         1,093
 Highest                         54.8         5.5          70.6          0.4         1,159

    Kerala                       70.9         3.6          56.4          0.3         2,554
#
  Total figure may not add to N, sample total due to ‘do not know’ or ‘missing cases’.
* Percentage not shown, bases on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate women with no year of schooling are also included.




                                            145
TABLE 8.8 KNOWLEDGE OF CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS
Percentage of unmarried women aged 15-24 years who know any contraceptive method by specific methods, according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                         Any                                                                                                                                    Number
Background                    Any       modern        Male           Female                        Emergency                   Condom/   Female   Rhythm                          of
characteristics              method     method     sterilization   sterilization   IUD    Pill    contraception   Injectable    Nirodh   condom   method   Withdrawal   Other   Women**

Age group
 15-19                         95.0       94.9         43.3            85.2        45.5   78.6         48.9          45.9        74.4     35.3     29.2       13.0        0.4    1,706
 20-24                         96.9       96.9         59.4            91.1        68.2   89.2         62.1          55.7        85.6     49.8     45.8       26.8        0.6      848

Residence
 Rural                         95.8       95.7         49.1            88.1        53.3   82.1         53.3          50.5        78.4     40.1     35.2       18.4        0.3    1,970
 Urban                         95.2       95.0         47.2            83.8        52.2   82.0         53.5          44.8        77.2     40.1     33.0       15.1        0.9      584

Education
              a
 Non-literate                    *          *            *               *           *      *            *             *           *        *        *          *          *         5
 Less than five years            *          *            *               *           *      *            *             *           *        *        *          *          *         6
 5-9 years                     90.7       90.7         35.4            81.6        40.3   68.7         36.1          40.8        60.1     23.5     19.8        7.0        0.5      595
 10 or more years              97.3       97.2         52.8            89.0        57.1   86.6         58.8          51.8        84.0     45.4     39.4       20.9        0.4    1,948

Religion
 Hindu                         95.5       95.5         51.5            87.4        55.0   83.4         54.7          48.4        80.3     41.6     35.1       16.6        0.5    1,456
 Muslim                        95.1       94.8         36.1            86.0        44.3   76.1         44.5          47.0        70.0     28.2     26.5       13.4        0.3      716
 Christian                     96.9       96.9         61.4            88.4        62.1   88.2         64.5          56.0        84.7     56.5     48.4       29.2        0.5      381
 Others                          *          *            *               *           *      *            *             *           *        *        *          *          *         1
               #
Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes              92.5       92.5         43.5            83.7        49.4   78.1         49.9          44.3        72.0     36.6     30.2       13.8        0.3      306
 Scheduled tribes              84.1       84.1         48.5            82.3        44.9   64.8         44.9          41.4        59.3     25.3     21.7       12.7        0.0       56
 Other backward classes        96.3       96.2         45.1            87.5        50.8   81.5         50.6          48.0        76.8     37.2     31.5       15.5        0.4    1,571
 Others                        96.5       96.5         60.5            88.3        61.3   87.6         63.0          55.4        86.3     50.8     46.2       25.4        0.5      617

Wealth index
 Lowest                          *          *            *               *           *      *            *             *           *        *        *          *          *         3
 Second                        87.4       87.4         35.6            84.0        37.8   63.0         25.1          37.9        49.5     23.0     27.2       10.6        2.2       48
 Middle                        91.1       91.1         42.0            79.4        49.0   73.1         41.1          44.2        68.5     33.0     28.3       11.8        0.4      251
 Fourth                        96.0       95.9         46.6            87.2        52.0   81.1         49.6          46.7        75.7     35.7     32.5       15.5        0.3    1,093
 Highest                       96.8       96.7         52.8            89.1        55.8   86.1         60.8          53.2        83.8     46.7     38.7       21.2        0.5    1,159

    Kerala                     95.6       95.6         48.7            87.1        53.1   82.1         53.3          49.2        78.1     40.1     34.7       17.6        0.4    2,554
#
  Total figure may not add to N, sample total due to ‘do not know’ or ‘missing cases’.
* Percentage not shown, bases on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate women with no year of schooling are also included.




                                                                                                 146
TABLE 8.9 SOURCES FROM WHERE TO GET PILL AND CONDOM
Percentage of unmarried women aged 15-24 years who reported source from where
to get pill and condom, according to selected background characteristics, Kerala,
2007-08
                                    Sources from where to get pills and
                                                condoms
                                                                             Number
                                   Government       Private                    of
Background characteristics           facility       facility      Other      women**

Age group
 15-19                                 26.0           69.0          0.3        1,706
 20-24                                 30.3           78.0          0.4          848

Residence
 Rural                                 28.0           72.0          0.3        1,970
 Urban                                 25.9           71.9          0.7          584

Education
              a
 Non-literate                            *              *            *             5
 Less than five years                    *              *            *             6
 5-9 years                             25.6           59.0          0.8          595
 10 or more years                      28.1           76.4          0.2        1,948

Religion
 Hindu                                 27.5           72.4          0.4        1,456
 Muslim                                25.2           69.0          0.3          716
 Christian                             31.3           75.8          0.4          381
 Others                                  *              *            *             1
               #
Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                      29.6           62.0          1.1          306
 Scheduled tribes                      17.8           53.9          0.0           56
 Other backward classes                27.5           72.1          0.4        1,571
 Others                                27.0           78.6          0.0          617

Wealth index
 Lowest                                  *              *            *             3
 Second                                30.2           45.5          3.0           48
 Middle                                31.4           62.1          0.0          251
 Fourth                                27.5           68.8          0.3        1,093
 Highest                               26.5           78.5          0.4        1,159

    Kerala                             27.5           72.0          0.4        2,554
#
  Total figure may not add to N, sample total due to ‘do not know’ or ‘missing cases’.
* Percentage not shown, bases on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate women with no year of schooling are also included.




                                        147
TABLE 8.10 DISCUSSION ABOUT FAMILY PLANNING METHOD BY SOURCE OF INFORMATION
Percentage of unmarried women aged 15-24 years who discussed family planning methods with any one and sources of information, according to selected background
characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                                  Sources of information on family planning                       Number of
                                      Ever                                                                                                          women
                                   discussed                                                           Health care     Youth club/              ever discussed
                                 about family                              Brother/                      provider/       mandal/   Teacher/       about family
                                 planning with Number of                    Sister/      Friends/     sex education        NGO      school/      planning with
Background characteristics          any one    women**      Parents      Sister in law     peers          experts         worker    college        any one**

Age group
 15-19                                 14.2            1,706            12.9              8.8    84.1    4.5           1.5          10.0             243
 20-24                                 20.9              848             5.3             17.6    86.8    9.7           3.4           3.8             177

Residence
 Rural                                 15.9            1,970            10.9             13.6    85.2    6.9           1.6           6.8             317
 Urban                                 18.2              584             6.1              9.3    85.4    6.1           4.4           9.1             103

Education
              a
 Non-literate                            *                 5             nc               nc      nc     nc            nc            nc               nc
 Less than five years                    *                 6             nc               nc      nc     nc            nc            nc               nc
 5-9 years                             10.7              595             9.8             16.0    82.5    4.8           2.0           4.9              63
 10 or more years                      18.3            1,948             9.7             11.8    85.8    7.0           2.3           7.8             357

Religion
 Hindu                                 16.4            1,456             8.0             12.1    87.8    6.4           1.7           6.3             238
 Muslim                                14.8              716            10.4             12.8    85.2    4.7           0.0          11.2             107
 Christian                             19.8              381            13.8             13.3    77.6   10.4           7.3           5.4              75
 Others                                  *                 1             nc               nc      nc     nc            nc            nc               nc
               #
Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                      13.8              306             9.9             16.7    80.5    9.8           4.7           4.9              42
 Scheduled tribes                       9.1               56              *                *       *      *             *             *                5
 Other backward classes                16.7            1,571             8.6             13.3    87.5    4.4           1.8           7.7             264
 Others                                17.6              617            12.9              8.7    81.9   11.5           2.7           8.0             108

Wealth index
 Lowest                                  *                 3             nc               nc      nc     nc            nc            nc               nc
 Second                                 4.2               48            50.0              0.0   100.0    0.0           0.0           0.0               2
 Middle                                11.3              251             7.3             10.5    85.4    3.5           3.2           7.4              28
 Fourth                                15.4            1,093             9.7             13.6    85.0    6.5           3.4           7.4             169
 Highest                               19.1            1,159             9.7             12.0    85.4    7.3           1.3           7.5             221

    Kerala                             16.4            2,554             9.7             12.5    85.3    6.7           2.3           7.4             420
#
  Total figure may not add to N, sample total due to ‘do not know’ or ‘missing cases’.
nc = Not calculated because there are no cases.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate women with no year of schooling are also included.



                                                                                         148
Table 8.11 KNOWLEDGE OF RTI AND STI BY SOURCES
Percentage of unmarried women aged 15-24 years who are aware of RTI/STI and source of information , according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                                                             Sources of information                                                Number
                                                                                                                                                                                      of
                                                                                                                                             Adult      Religious/                  women
                              Ever                                                                                                        Education   political leader/            who ever
                              heard     Number                                                                                           programme/     community                   heard
Background                      of        of                                         Print        Health                    Relatives/      school      meetings/                     of
characteristics              RTI/STI    women**       Radio      T.V.     Cinema     media       personnel        Partner    friends       teacher    exhibition/mela     Others   RTI/STI**

Age group
 15-19                         75.1        1,706       33.5      55.6        8.2         60.2          7.5          0.0        17.5         64.4            4.2            3.2      1,285
 20-24                         78.2          848       39.4      61.6        9.4         70.0         11.7          0.2        20.9         42.3            7.1            3.6        663

Residence
 Rural                         75.7        1,970       35.2      56.1       8.0          63.1          9.0          0.1        17.9         59.1            5.5            3.3      1,493
 Urban                         77.6          584       36.5      62.7      10.7          65.2          8.8          0.0        21.3         49.4            4.2            3.5        455

Education
              a
 Non-literate                    *             5         *         *          *            *            *            *           *            *              *              *           1
 Less than five years            *             6         *         *          *            *            *            *           *            *              *              *           1
 5-9 years                     64.4          595       40.2      50.0        5.3         53.3          8.5          0.0        23.1         47.7            5.0            1.6        383
 10 or more years              80.0        1,948       34.3      59.5        9.4         66.2          9.0          0.1        17.6         59.2            5.2            3.8      1,563

Religion
 Hindu                         75.3        1,456       38.1      59.6        8.9         63.7          9.1          0.1        18.5         54.1            5.6            2.9      1,099
 Muslim                        74.8          716       37.8      54.2        8.0         62.7          8.3          0.0        23.8         54.3            3.4            2.8        536
 Christian                     81.6          381       22.6      56.8        8.5         64.6          8.9          0.0        10.7         70.4            6.9            5.6        312
 Others                          *             1         *         *          *            *            *            *           *            *              *              *           1
               #
Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes              68.9          306       42.0      59.8        8.1         55.8         11.1          0.0        18.7         53.1            8.6            2.2        212
 Scheduled tribes              59.2           56       50.8      51.4        9.2         42.8         27.1          0.0        30.0         42.9            9.1            3.1         33
 Other backward classes        76.3        1,571       37.3      55.4        8.9         62.7          8.2          0.0        20.1         53.9            4.5            3.2      1,201
 Others                        80.5          617       27.2      62.6        8.2         70.0          8.1          0.2        14.2         66.3            5.1            3.9        498

Wealth index
 Lowest                          *             3         *         *          *            *            *            *           *            *              *              *           1
 Second                        66.0           48       38.2      31.7        9.6         44.5          3.2          0.0        22.4         31.8           14.6            3.3         32
 Middle                        70.9          251       47.1      46.4        6.8         59.1         11.0          0.0        18.1         54.8            6.9            3.5        178
 Fourth                        75.1        1,093       38.9      56.2        8.4         60.4         11.0          0.0        21.5         56.3            5.8            3.2        822
 Highest                       78.7        1,159       30.0      62.1        9.1         68.0          6.8          0.1        16.1         58.7            3.9            3.4        915

    Kerala                     76.1        2,554       35.5      57.7        8.6         63.6          8.9          0.1        18.7         56.9            5.2            3.3      1,948
#
  Total figure may not add to N, sample total due to ‘do not know’ or ‘missing cases’.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.




                                                                                                149
TABLE 8.12 KNOWLEDGE OF RTI/STI TRANSMISSION
Percentage of unmarried women aged 15-24 years who know about transmission of RTI/STI, according to selected background
characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                                     Unsafe
                                                                                    sex with
                                                                                     persons    Unsafe
                                                        Unsafe        Unsafe        who have    sex with           Number
                               Unsafe      Unsafe        IUD          sex with        many        sex                of
Background characteristics     delivery    abortion    insertion    homosexual      partners     worker    Other   women**

Age group
 15-19                             3.4        3.1         5.0           22.0             82.0     25.1     10.7     1,285
 20-24                             4.5        4.8         7.0           24.4             80.0     28.4     11.8       663

Residence
 Rural                             3.2        3.2         5.3           21.7             82.0     26.2     11.0     1,493
 Urban                             5.7        5.5         7.1           26.5             79.0     26.2     11.3       455

Education
              a
 Non-literate                       *          *           *              *                *        *        *          1
 Less than five years               *          *           *              *                *        *        *          1
 5-9 years                         2.6        2.9         4.1           21.9             83.1     25.1      9.4       383
 10 or more years                  4.0        3.9         6.0           23.0             80.9     26.5     11.4     1,563

Religion
 Hindu                             4.0        3.4         5.6           23.7             79.9     24.4     11.5     1,099
 Muslim                            2.1        2.7         4.4           17.6             87.1     28.3      8.3       536
 Christian                         5.7        6.4         8.1           28.1             76.7     29.4     14.0       312
 Others                             *          *           *              *                *        *        *          1
               #
Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                  3.2        1.6         4.1           28.9             82.9     27.5     12.8       212
 Scheduled tribes                  3.7        3.7         3.6            3.1             89.4     24.8      3.6        33
 Other backward classes            3.1        3.3         5.6           20.3             82.5     24.9      9.9     1,201
 Others                            5.6        5.7         6.8           27.4             77.2     28.8     13.7       498

Wealth index
 Lowest                             *          *           *              *                *        *        *         1
 Second                            4.0        4.0         8.1           19.7             80.4     24.1      4.2       32
 Middle                            3.2        3.1         6.2           25.9             84.4     30.4      9.4      178
 Fourth                            3.6        3.2         5.0           18.1             83.3     23.1     11.7      822
 Highest                           4.0        4.3         6.1           26.4             79.0     28.3     11.0      915

    Kerala                         3.8        3.7         5.7           22.8             81.3     26.2     11.1     1,948
#
  Total figure may not add to N, sample total due to ‘do not know’ or ‘missing cases’.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.




                                                                150
Table 8.13 KNOWLEDGE OF HIV/AIDS BY SOURCES
Percentage of unmarried women aged 15-24 years who are aware of HIV/AIDS, according to selected background characteristics,
Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                               Source of information                        Number of
                                                                                                                              women
                               Ever       Number                                                                  Adult      who ever
Background                   heard of       of                                           Print      Health      education    heard of
characteristics              HIV/AIDS     women**      Radio    Television    Cinema     media     personnel   programme    HIV/AIDS**

Age group
 15-19                          99.3        1,706       44.3        77.7        12.7      68.7          9.9       13.0        1,694
 20-24                          98.8          848       50.2        81.7        11.3      74.3         13.1       11.4          838

Residence
 Rural                          99.0        1,970       46.7        76.9        11.4      69.8         12.0       13.5        1,950
 Urban                          99.7          584       45.0        85.9        15.3      73.0          7.6        9.2          582

Education
              a
 Non-literate                     *             5         *           *           *         *            *          *             5
 Less than five years             *             6         *           *           *         *            *          *             6
 5-9 years                      97.0          595       47.4        67.3         8.3      59.4          9.4        8.3          577
 10 or more years               99.8        1,948       46.0        82.7        13.5      74.2         11.4       13.8        1,944

Religion
 Hindu                          99.2        1,456       50.5        80.7        12.7      72.6         11.7       12.8        1,444
 Muslim                         98.6          716       44.1        73.5         9.6      67.3          8.3       10.6          706
 Christian                     100.0          381       34.7        82.9        15.8      68.7         12.5       14.9          381
 Others                           *             1         *           *           *         *            *          *             1
               #
Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes               99.0          306       52.0        75.4         9.7      63.0         11.7       11.0          303
 Scheduled tribes               87.4           56       60.6        53.0         6.2      52.8         26.9       16.9           49
 Other backward classes         99.3        1,571       47.0        77.1        12.1      69.8          9.4       12.4        1,560
 Others                         99.9          617       40.5        87.7        14.5      77.3         13.0       13.3          616

Wealth index
 Lowest                           *             3         *           *           *         *            *          *             2
 Second                         91.5           48       42.4        33.4         9.3      47.6         11.6        4.6           44
 Middle                         97.6          251       56.0        59.5        10.3      59.8         11.2       14.5          245
 Fourth                         99.4        1,093       50.5        76.1        10.8      69.3         12.6       12.6        1,086
 Highest                        99.7        1,159       40.3        87.8        14.2      74.9          9.3       12.3        1,155

    Kerala                      99.1        2,554       46.3        79.0        12.3      70.5         11.0       12.5        2,532
#
  Total figure may not add to N, sample total due to ‘do not know’ or ‘missing cases’.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.




                                                                    151
TABLE 8.14 KNOWLEDGE OF HIV /AIDS TRANSMISSION
Percentage of unmarried women aged 15-24 years who know about transmission of HIV/AIDS, according to selected background
characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                              Unsafe
                                             sex with      Unsafe     Unprotected                                          Number of
                                              persons       sex        sex with                                              women
                                Unsafe       who have       with       HIV/AIDS          Infected                           who ever
Background                     Sex with        many         sex         infected          mother     Transfusion            heard of
characteristics               homosexual     partners      worker        person           to child     of blood    Other   HIV/AIDS**

Age group
 15-19                            10.4           68.9        29.4         37.2             38.2         66.6       27.0      1,694
 20-24                            11.8           65.5        30.8         41.1             33.7         69.2       24.1        838

Residence
 Rural                             9.1           67.1        29.6         38.7             35.7         66.8       28.3      1,950
 Urban                            16.8           70.2        30.6         37.8             40.3         69.8       18.2        582

Education
              a
 Non-literate                       *              *           *            *                *            *          *           5
 Less than five years               *              *           *            *                *            *          *           6
 5-9 years                        10.8           66.5        26.8         34.7             25.4         52.2       19.2        577
 10 or more years                 10.9           68.2        30.8         39.5             40.0         71.9       28.0      1,944

Religion
 Hindu                            11.3           66.2        29.0         37.9             36.5         71.6       27.5      1,444
 Muslim                            8.5           71.9        31.4         38.2             34.8         56.5       18.1        706
 Christian                        13.2           66.3        30.4         41.0             40.9         71.6       34.6        381
 Others                             *              *           *            *                *            *          *           1
               #
Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                 13.4           66.4        32.6         37.7             31.8         66.7       24.2        303
 Scheduled tribes                  8.8           60.2        22.2         37.7             37.7         60.1       11.1         49
 Other backward classes            9.3           68.0        28.6         38.9             35.8         64.2       23.8      1,560
 Others                           13.7           68.7        31.9         37.9             41.4         76.4       33.7        616

Wealth index
 Lowest                             *              *           *            *                *            *          *           2
 Second                            9.9           72.7        18.2         30.0             23.1         58.3       15.0         44
 Middle                           11.2           64.9        33.9         39.7             32.9         55.2       21.2        245
 Fourth                            8.1           67.5        27.1         37.8             32.6         64.7       28.0      1,086
 Highest                          13.4           68.6        31.8         39.1             41.9         73.0       25.6      1,155

    Kerala                        10.8           67.8        29.8         38.5             36.7         67.5       26.0      2,532
#
  Total figure may not add to N, sample total due to ‘do not know’ or ‘missing cases’.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.




                                                                 152
TABLE 8.15 MISCONCEPTION ABOUT HIV/AIDS
Percentage of unmarried women aged 15-24 years who have misconception about                  HIV/AIDS, according to selected
background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                                         Stepping on
                                                                                          urine/stool   Mosquito/
                                                                                         of some one     flea or    Number
Background                    Shaking                            Sharing     Sharing       who has      bedbugs       of
characteristics                hands     Hugging     Kissing      cloths      food           AIDS         bites     women**

Age group
 15-19                           2.1         4.8        7.8           4.8       3.6           9.8         23.7       1,694
 20-24                           2.4         4.3        8.2           4.4       3.6           7.2         20.7         838

Residence
 Rural                           2.1         4.5        7.4           4.7       3.7           9.0         23.5       1,950
 Urban                           2.7         5.2        9.8           4.6       3.5           8.8         20.2         582

Education
              a
 Non-literate                     *           *         *              *         *            *             *            5
 Less than five years             *           *         *              *         *            *             *            6
 5-9 years                       5.2         9.6      12.2           10.7       8.4         16.5          31.1         577
 10 or more years                1.3         3.1       6.6            2.8       2.2          6.6          20.1       1,944

Religion
 Hindu                           1.9         3.9       7.2            3.7       2.7          8.2          22.7       1,444
 Muslim                          3.8         7.1      10.7            7.6       6.6         12.1          26.1         706
 Christian                       0.5         2.9       5.5            3.1       1.6          5.8          16.5         381
 Others                           *           *         *              *         *            *             *            1
               #
Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                3.4         6.4       9.2            6.5       4.2         13.3          26.8         303
 Scheduled tribes                4.1         6.1      10.2            4.1       4.1         14.4          28.9          49
 Other backward classes          2.8         5.3       8.6            5.4       4.5          9.2          23.0       1,560
 Others                          0.2         1.9       5.4            1.9       1.1          5.7          19.5         616

Wealth index
 Lowest                           *           *          *             *         *            *             *            2
 Second                          9.2         6.9        6.9          11.5       4.6         13.8          34.2          44
 Middle                          1.6         3.7        7.5           5.2       2.8         11.2          24.3         245
 Fourth                          2.7         5.9        8.7           5.1       4.3         10.3          25.5       1,086
 Highest                         1.6         3.5        7.3           3.9       3.1          6.8          19.1       1,155

    Kerala                       2.2         4.6        7.9           4.7       3.6           8.9         22.7       2,532
#
  Total figure may not add to N, sample total due to ‘do not know’ or ‘missing cases’.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.




                                                               153
Table 8.16 KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HOW TO AVOID OR REDUCE THE CHANCES OF INFECTING HIV/AIDS
Percentage of unmarried women aged 15-24 years who know how to avoid or reduce the chances of getting of HIV/AIDS,
according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                         Using condom         Limit no. of    Avoid sex      Avoid             Number of
                                            correctly           sexual          with       pregnancy             women
                              Abstain     during each        partners and      person        when               who ever
Background                     from          sexual         avoid sex with    who inject     having             heard of
characteristics                 sex       intercourse        sex workers       drugs       HIV/ AIDS   Other   HIV/AIDS**

Age group
 15-19                          6.6            22.2              83.1            76.3        12.9       0.4      1,694
 20-24                          6.6            26.7              84.3            76.8        11.4       0.4        838

Residence
 Rural                          5.7            22.7              84.8            76.8        11.4       0.4      1,950
 Urban                          9.6            27.4              79.2            75.3        16.0       0.2        582

Education
              a
 Non-literate                    *               *                 *               *           *         *           5
 Less than five years            *               *                 *               *           *         *           6
 5-9 years                      5.1            17.1              76.0            60.0         8.7       1.0        577
 10 or more years               7.0            25.6              85.9            81.7        13.5       0.2      1,944

Religion
 Hindu                          7.2            23.3              85.0            80.0        12.2       0.2      1,444
 Muslim                         5.0            23.0              81.3            65.1        13.5       0.8        706
 Christian                      7.0            26.6              81.9            83.9        11.2       0.3        381
 Others                          *               *                 *               *           *         *           1
               #
Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes               6.2            21.1              83.1            77.3        12.1       0.0        303
 Scheduled tribes               7.1            14.1              67.4            67.5        15.9       2.4         49
 Other backward classes         6.5            23.4              83.1            73.3        12.2       0.5      1,560
 Others                         6.8            26.5              85.7            84.6        12.9       0.2        616

Wealth index
 Lowest                          *               *                 *               *           *         *           2
 Second                         7.7            12.7              73.4            61.1        12.6       0.0         44
 Middle                         6.4            16.6              85.4            68.8        10.9       1.3        245
 Fourth                         6.0            20.9              83.2            74.3        10.3       0.3      1,086
 Highest                        7.1            28.3              83.7            80.7        14.7       0.3      1,155

    Kerala                      6.6            23.7              83.5            76.5        12.4       0.4      2,532
#
  Total figure may not add to N, sample total due to ‘do not know’ or ‘missing cases’.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.




                                                              154
Table 8.17 KNOWLEDGE WHERE TO GET TESTED FOR HIV/AIDS AND SOURCES
Percentage of unmarried women aged 15-24 years who are aware where to get tested for HIV/AIDS and place for testing HIV/AIDS, according to selected background
characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                                                      Health Facility                                         Number
                                                                                                                                                             of women
                                                                                     Government                                       Private
                                  Know place                                                                                                                 who Knew
                                    where to                                                                                                                place where
                                                                            CHC/          RTI/STI      Other
                                      get         Number                                                                                         Other         to get
                                                                          PHC/Sub-         clinic    public/NGO                     RTI/STI
                                   Tested for       of                                                                                           private     Tested for
Background characteristics        HIV/AIDS**      women**     Hospital      Centre       VCT/ICTC    hospitals          Hospital   VCT/ICTC     hospitals   HIV/AIDS **

Age group
 15-19                                47.9          1,694        88.9          4.8             9.4       5.3              36.4        3.2          0.1          813
 20-24                                55.9            838        89.9          5.7             7.3       5.5              41.4        5.5          1.3          468

Residence
 Rural                                48.7          1,950        89.2          4.5             8.7       5.5              37.7        4.2          0.5          952
 Urban                                56.7            582        89.2          7.0             8.5       5.0              39.8        3.7          0.6          329

Education
              a
 Non-literate                           *               5          *            *               *         *                 *          *            *             1
 Less than five years                   *               6         nc           nc              nc        nc                nc         nc           nc            nc
 5-9 years                            34.2            577        89.9          1.9             3.3       3.5              35.9        0.4          0.0          198
 10 or more years                     55.6          1,944        89.1          5.7             9.6       5.7              38.7        4.7          0.7        1,082

Religion
 Hindu                                52.6          1,444        88.8          5.5             8.8       4.8              37.9        3.5          0.5          760
 Muslim                               42.6            706        89.4          4.9             7.7       5.0              36.1        3.9          0.0          302
 Christian                            57.3            381        90.4          4.2             9.5       8.0              41.8        6.5          1.4          218
 Others                                 *               1          *            *               *         *                 *          *            *             1
               #
Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes                     46.0            303        88.7          2.7           9.3         3.3              30.0        3.6          0.7         141
 Scheduled tribes                     33.0             49       (93.8)        (0.0)        (12.5)       (6.3)            (37.5)     (12.5)        (0.0)         16
 Other backward classes               50.2          1,560        90.6          4.6           7.0         5.2              36.8        2.9          0.3         782
 Others                               55.2            616        86.0          7.7          12.0         6.3              44.5        6.5          1.2         340

Wealth index
 Lowest                                 *               2          *            *             *           *                 *          *            *             1
 Second                               31.5             44       (78.6)        (7.1)         (0.0)       (7.1)            (21.4)      (7.1)        (0.0)          14
 Middle                               43.7            245        89.4          6.2           9.5         5.7              33.5        6.5          0.9          107
 Fourth                               49.2          1,086        89.4          4.2           7.4         5.2              36.8        2.7          0.7          535
 Highest                              54.0          1,155        89.2          5.7           9.8         5.5              40.7        4.9          0.3          624

    Kerala                            50.6          2,532        89.2          5.1             8.7       5.4              38.2        4.1          0.6        1,281
#
  Total figure may not add to N, sample total due to ‘do not know’ or ‘missing cases’.
nc = Not calculated because there are no cases.
( ) Based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.


                                                                                         155
TABLE 8.18 KNOWLEDGE OF SOME SELECTED STATEMENTS
Percentage of unmarried women aged 15-24 years by awareness on reproductive issues, according to selected background characteristics, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                                           Selected statements to test the level of awareness
                                                                                                                                            A woman is most likely
                              It is possible to know                                                                  A women can get        to get pregnant if she
                               the sex of the baby           Pregnancy can                 When a woman has          pregnant on the very   has sexual intercourse
                                before the baby is          occur after kissing          intercourse for the first     first time she has   half way between her
                               born by medical test            or hugging                 time she has to bleed       sexual intercourse       menstrual periods
                                                                                                                                                                      Number
Background                                   Don’t                      Don’t                            Don’t                    Don’t                     Don’t       of
characteristics                 True         know            True       know               True          know         True        know        True          know      women**

Age group
 15-19                          86.0           4.8            3.1        10.4               19.1          59.2        29.4         50.7        30.6          57.4      1,706
 20-24                          85.1           4.5            2.1         5.4               26.7          48.7        33.3         45.0        37.3          49.4        848

Residence
 Rural                          85.3           4.7            2.8         8.8               21.7          55.6        30.5         49.1        31.8          56.1      1,970
 Urban                          87.2           4.5            2.8         8.6               21.5          56.1        31.5         47.8        36.4          50.1        584

Education
              a
 Non-literate                     *             *               *          *                  *             *           *            *           *             *           5
 Less than five years             *             *               *          *                  *             *           *            *           *             *           6
 5-9 years                      79.7           9.9             4.3       16.7               21.6          62.5        26.5         58.4        21.8          66.3        595
 10 or more years               87.7           2.9             2.3        6.3               21.6          53.6        32.0         45.8        36.3          51.1      1,948

Religion
 Hindu                          85.5           5.3            2.7         8.3               21.5          57.0        31.0         48.9        33.7          54.2      1,456
 Muslim                         84.4           4.9            2.5        10.3               23.1          55.0        29.3         49.2        27.0          59.8        716
 Christian                      88.8           2.1            3.4         7.4               19.2          51.8        32.3         47.4        40.5          47.2        381
 Others                           *             *              *           *                  *             *           *            *           *             *           1
               #
Castes/tribes
 Scheduled castes               81.3          7.4             5.3         8.8               25.5          54.6        29.7         49.5        30.5          55.8        306
 Scheduled tribes               65.9         18.0             5.3        19.7               30.1          57.3        19.6         57.1        23.3          67.7         56
 Other backward classes         86.1          4.5             2.3         9.2               21.8          56.1        31.4         48.0        31.9          55.2      1,571
 Others                         88.5          2.8             2.6         6.6               18.7          54.9        30.4         49.7        37.5          51.5        617

Wealth index
 Lowest                           *            *               *           *                  *             *           *            *           *             *           3
 Second                         71.3         22.3             2.1        22.5               27.4          55.7        28.4         58.9        29.0          64.6         48
 Middle                         81.4          9.7             4.0        13.3               22.2          59.0        27.1         51.7        27.3          63.3        251
 Fourth                         84.7          5.1             3.5         8.5               22.6          56.1        31.2         49.6        31.8          55.7      1,093
 Highest                        88.2          2.6             1.8         7.3               20.2          54.6        31.2         47.0        35.3          51.4      1,159

    Kerala                      85.7           4.7            2.8         8.7               21.6          55.7        30.7         48.8        32.8          54.7      2,554
#
  Total figure may not add to N, sample total due to ‘do not know’ or ‘missing cases’.
* Percentage not shown, based on less than 10 unweighted cases.
** Unweighted cases.
a
  Literate but did not attend school, are also included.

                                                                                            156
Table 8.19 AWARENESS OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH ISSUES
Percentage of unmarried women aged 15-24 years who perceived family life education to be important, having
menstruation related problems, are aware of specific contraceptive methods and who have ever discussed
about family planning with any one by district, Kerala, 2007-08
                                         Having                                           Ever
                                       menstruation                                    discussed
                         Perceived       related                                         about
                         family life    problems        Knowledge       Knowledge        family
                         education      during last          of              of         planning   Number
                           to be          three        contraceptive    emergency       with any     of
District                 important       months             pills      contraception       one     women**

Kasaragod                   86.6           22.1             73.0           43.5          11.2        237
Kannur                      94.6           23.2             86.9           48.8          21.4        168
Wayanad                     92.7           35.5             81.5           58.3          26.5        204
Kozhikode                   89.9           34.9             83.9           38.5          22.6        218

Malappuram                  92.1           34.2             82.0           40.6           9.6        242
Palakkad                    88.6           22.4             82.8           41.4          17.2        185
Thrissur                    91.2           29.4             76.0           53.2          12.2        175
Ernakulam                   91.7           26.4             89.0           71.7          17.2        145

Idukki                      94.4           34.2             71.4           60.2          13.0        161
Kottayam                    97.1           25.9             87.4           49.1          16.0        180
Alappuzha                   96.4           38.8             94.0           75.9          30.7        168
Pathanamthitta              93.5           42.9             85.7           72.6          14.2        168
Kollam                      93.2           13.4             76.4           52.0          17.6        151
Thiruvananthapuram          92.8           27.5             85.7           61.7           7.8        152

Kerala                      91.9           29.8             82.1           53.3          16.4      2,554

** Unweighted cases.




                                                      157
HEALTH FACILITIES - AVAILABILITY AND QUALITY
            TABLE 9.1: AVERAGE POPULATION COVERED BY HEALTH FACILITY BY DISTRICTS,
            KERALA, 2007-08
                                                  Average population covered by
            District                        Sub-Centre              PHC                  CHC

            Kasaragod                          5,737               29,992             2,07,116
            Kannur                             7,304               25,754             1,19,540
            Wayanad                            4,222               28,239               85,945
            Kozhikode                          6,343               31,509             1,09,922

            Malappuram                         6,614               34,885             1,72,741
            Palakkad                           5,620               30,025               94,086
            Thrissur                           7,248               30,610             1,23,710
            Ernakulam                          6,146               27,326             1,07,043

            Idukki                             4,258               25,249             1,34,890
            Kottayam                           6,974               29,719             1,07,869
            Alappuzha                          5,872               26,508               55,657
            Pathanamthitta                     5,192               24,326             1,08,537
            Kollam                             6,838               37,004             1,15,810
            Thiruvananthapuram                 6,957               32,720             1,29,568

            Kerala                             5,994               29,683             1,18,654
             PHC= Primary Health Centre; CHC= Community Health Centre.




TABLE 9.2: PERCENTAGE OF VILLAGES HAVING SUB-CENTRES WITHIN VILLAGES & ANM AVAILABLE
AT SUB-CENTRE AND STAYING IN SUB-CENTRE QUARTER BY DISTRICTS, KERALA, 2007-08


                          Villages having                       ANM/FHW           ANM residing       Total
                            Sub-Centre                          Available at      in Sub-Centre    number of
                                                                                             1
District                   within village     No. of villages   Sub-Centre           quarter      Sub-Centres

Kasaragod                        100.0              40              100.0              48.6           40
Kannur                           100.0              25               96.0              63.2           25
Wayanad                          100.0              48              100.0              46.5           45
Kozhikode                        100.0              31              100.0              55.6           30

Malappuram                       100.0              45              100.0              77.4           45
Palakkad                          97.7              43              100.0              75.0           42
Thrissur                         100.0              36              100.0              73.9           36
Ernakulam                        100.0              26              100.0              42.9           26

Idukki                           100.0              47               97.9              46.9           47
Kottayam                         100.0              42               97.6              37.5           42
Alappuzha                        100.0              35               97.1              33.3           35
Pathanamthitta                   100.0              45               91.1              18.2           45
Kollam                            97.6              41              100.0              29.4           41
Thiruvananthapuram               100.0              33               84.9              36.4           33

Kerala                            99.6             537               97.6              53.3          532

ANM= Auxiliary Nurse Midwife; FHW=Female Health Worker.
1
  Based on availability of quarter at Sub-Centre.




                                                       161
TABLE 9.3: STATUS OF INFRASTRUCTURE AT SUB-CENTRE FUNCTIONING IN GOVERNMENT
BUILDING BY DISTRICTS, KERALA, 2007-08
                                                 Number of Sub-Centres having
                                                                                                           Total number
                                 Regular                                                                      of Sub-
District                        Electricity         Water             Toilet             Labor room          Centres

Kasaragod                           32                 22              32                      0                 35
Kannur                              19                 16              19                      0                 20
Wayanad                             28                 33              39                      0                 43
Kozhikode                           18                 17              22                      1                 22

Malappuram                          40                 41              35                      0                 45
Palakkad                            32                 28              35                      1                 40
Thrissur                            26                 23              24                      0                 30
Ernakulam                           17                 16              18                      0                 22

Idukki                              23                 19              33                      0                 38
Kottayam                            24                 25              27                      0                 30
Alappuzha                           12                 18              15                      0                 21
Pathanamthitta                      15                 17              18                      0                 23
Kollam                              20                 23              13                      0                 24
Thiruvananthapuram                  12                 11              11                      0                 16

Kerala (%)                    318(77.8)           309(75.6)        341(83.4)                2(0.5)         409(100.0)




           TABLE 9.4: NUMBER OF SUB-CENTRES ADEQUATELY EQUIPPED AND HAVING
           ESSENTIAL DRUGS BY DISTRICTS, KERALA, 2007-08
                                                                                     2
                                         Adequately equipped
                                                               1   Essential drugs            Total number of
           District                         (at least 60%)          (at least 60%)             Sub-Centres

           Kasaragod                              33                        39                        40
           Kannur                                 13                        24                        25
           Wayanad                                45                        45                        45
           Kozhikode                              13                        30                        30

           Malappuram                             37                        44                        45
           Palakkad                               37                        38                        42
           Thrissur                               24                        35                        36
           Ernakulam                              22                        26                        26

           Idukki                                 38                        44                        47
           Kottayam                               37                        41                        42
           Alappuzha                              23                        32                        35
           Pathanamthitta                         45                        45                        45
           Kollam                                 28                        39                        41
           Thiruvananthapuram                     18                        31                        33

           Kerala (%)                         413(77.6)              513(96.4)                532(100.0)

           1: equipments include: Instrument sterilizer, Auto disposal syringes, Hub cutter, B. P. instrument,
           Stethoscope, Weighing Machine (infant/adult), hemoglobinometer, Foetoscope, SIMS speculam,
           IUD insertion kit, Vaccine carrier.
           2: Drugs includes, Drug kit-A/B, IFA tablets, Vitamine A solution, ORS packet.




                                                            162
      TABLE 9.5: NUMBER OF SUB-CENTRES HAVING DIFFERENT ACTIVITIES BY DISTRICTS,
      KERALA, 2007-08
                                                                                        Total number
                                  Citizen’s Charter        VHSC         Untied Fund        of Sub-
      District                        displayed          Facilitated*    Received         Centres

      Kasaragod                            23                     35         28              40
      Kannur                                9                     24         23              25
      Wayanad                              42                     42         45              45
      Kozhikode                            21                     17         26              30

      Malappuram                           25                     42         38              45
      Palakkad                             35                     35         37              42
      Thrissur                             26                     30         32              36
      Ernakulam                            12                     26         20              26

      Idukki                               22                     47         33              47
      Kottayam                             30                     42         41              42
      Alappuzha                            15                     33         26              35
      Pathanamthitta                       30                     45         45              45
      Kollam                               16                     41         33              41
      Thiruvananthapuram                   10                     31         32              33

      Kerala (%)                     316(59.4)           490(94.2)       459(86.3)      532(100.0)

      VHSC= Village Health and Sanitation Committee.
      *Based on availability of VHSC.




TABLE 9.6: AVAILABLE HUMAN RESOURCES AT PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRES BY DISTRICTS, KERALA,
2007-08
                                               Human resources Status of PHC
                                                    Lady Medical                             Total number
District                       Medical officer          Officer            Pharmacist          of PHCs

Kasaragod                           17                        4                   22              22
Kannur                               7                        0                   15              15
Wayanad                             19                        1                   20              21
Kozhikode                           20                        0                   22              22

Malappuram                          30                        1                   35              35
Palakkad                            31                        1                   35              35
Thrissur                            19                        0                   19              22
Ernakulam                           19                        0                   19              20

Idukki                              28                        0                   32              33
Kottayam                            18                       11                   25              25
Alappuzha                           25                        1                   27              27
Pathanamthitta                      22                        0                   31              31
Kollam                              26                        0                   26              26
Thiruvananthapuram                  26                        3                   27              27

Kerala (%)                     307(85.0)                22(6.1)             355(98.3)        361(100.0)

MO=Medical Officer.




                                                       163
           TABLE 9.7: AVAILABLE INFRASTRUCTURES AT PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRES BY DISTRICTS, KERALA, 2007-08
                                                                         Number of PHCs having
                                        Residential
                                          Quarter             Functioning                                                     Having
                                        available for          24 hours           At least 4       Regular power            functional          Total number
           Districts                        MO                  basis               beds              supply                  vehicle             of PHCs

           Kasaragod                           2                   1                    5                  22                    2                   22
           Kannur                              2                   0                    3                  15                    0                   15
           Wayanad                            11                   6                   10                  19                    7                   21
           Kozhikode                           2                   2                    1                  22                    4                   22

           Malappuram                         15                   2                   12                  33                    6                   35
           Palakkad                           16                   1                   13                  35                    9                   35
           Thrissur                            4                   2                    5                  21                    0                   22
           Ernakulam                           6                   5                    6                  19                    2                   20

           Idukki                             20                   6                   16                  31                   10                   33
           Kottayam                            0                   2                    5                  25                    2                   25
           Alappuzha                           3                   5                    7                  26                    7                   27
           Pathanamthitta                      1                   2                    9                  30                    4                   31
           Kollam                              3                   2                    5                  25                    2                   26
           Thiruvananthapuram                  5                   1                    2                  27                    2                   27

           Kerala (%)                     90(24.9)            37(10.3)           99(27.4)             350(96.9)             57(15.8)            361(100.0)

           MO=Medical Officer.




TABLE 9.8 SPECIFIC HEALTH FACILITIES AVAILABLE AT PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRES BY DISTRICTS, KERALA, 2007-08
                                                                         Number of PHCs having

                                                                      Cold chain             Essential           Referral            Conducted
                                                                               1                   2
                           New born care           Functional      equipments (at            drugs (at          services for         at least 10     Total number of
District                    equipments                OT             least 60 %)            least 60%)           delivery*           deliveries*          PHCs

Kasaragod                           0                   0                   22                   17                   0                   0                    22
Kannur                              0                   0                   15                   11                   0                   0                    15
Wayanad                             0                   0                   19                   12                   2                   0                    21
Kozhikode                           0                   0                   22                   15                   0                   0                    22

Malappuram                          0                   1                   35                   29                   0                   0                    35
Palakkad                            1                   1                   35                   21                   0                   0                    35
Thrissur                            0                   0                   22                   17                   0                   0                    22
Ernakulam                           1                   0                   20                   15                   2                   0                    20

Idukki                              0                   3                   32                   30                   1                   0                    33
Kottayam                            0                   0                   25                   23                   0                   0                    25
Alappuzha                           1                   0                   25                   17                   1                   0                    27
Pathanamthitta                      0                   0                   29                   27                   0                   0                    31
Kollam                              1                   0                   25                   14                   1                   0                    26
Thiruvananthapuram                  0                   0                   25                   19                   1                   0                    27

Kerala (%)                       4(1.1)              5(1.4)            351(97.2)            267(74.0)             8(21.6)              0(0.0)          361(100.0)

* Services based on last one month and PHCs functioning on 24 hour basis. OT- Operation Theatre
1
  Ice lined refrigerator (large/small), Deep freezer (large/ small), Cold Box, Vaccine carrier.
2
  Essential Drugs includes, Antiallergics, Anti hypertensive, Anti Diabetics, Anti anginal, Anti tubercular, Anti leprosy, Anti Filariasis, Anti
bactirials, Anti Helminthic, Anti protozoal, Antidots, Solution correcting water and electrolyte imbalance, Essentials obstetric care drugs.


                                                                                 164
   TABLE 9.9: NUMBER OF PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRES HAVING DIFFERENT ACTIVITIES BY DISTRICTS,
   KERALA, 2007-08
                                                    Number of PHCs
                                  Citizen’s                                                  Total
                                   Charter         RKS         Received      Utilized      number of
   District                       displayed     constituted   untied fund   untied fund     PHCs

   Kasaragod                             10             22           21         19             22
   Kannur                                 6             15           15          8             15
   Wayanad                               17             21           21         21             21
   Kozhikode                             19             21           21         21             22

   Malappuram                            28             35           35         33             35
   Palakkad                              31             29           35         30             35
   Thrissur                              21             22           20         19             22
   Ernakulam                             14             19           15         13             20

   Idukki                                28             33           32         32             33
   Kottayam                              20             22           25         24             25
   Alappuzha                             14             13           24         14             27
   Pathanamthitta                        18             28           31         29             31
   Kollam                                14             22           25         24             26
   Thiruvananthapuram                    13             24           25         25             27

   Kerala (%)                     253(70.1)     326(90.3)     345(95.6)     312(86.4)     361(100.0)

   RKS = Rogi Kalyan Samiti.




TABLE 9.10: HUMAN RESOURCES AVAILABLE AT COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTRES BY DISTRICTS,
KERALA, 2007-08
                                                Number of CHCs having:
                                Obstetric/                                      Health     Total number of
District                       Gynecologist   Pediatrician    Anesthetist      Manager          CHCs

Kasaragod                            3              3                0               0               9
Kannur                               2              3                0               0              14
Wayanad                              2              4                2               0               7
Kozhikode                            2              1                0               0              18

Malappuram                           6              2                0               0              19
Palakkad                             1              2                0               0              18
Thrissur                             0              0                0               0              24
Ernakulam                            1              3                0               0              21

Idukki                               3              0                1               0               9
Kottayam                             3              2                0               1              17
Alappuzha                            3              4                1               0              14
Pathanamthitta                       0              1                0               0              11
Kollam                               3              4                0               0              18
Thiruvananthapuram                   2              5                1               0              18

Kerala (%)                      31(14.3)       34(15.7)         5(2.3)         1(0.5)       217(100.0)




                                                        165
TABLE 9.11: SPECIFIC HEALTH CARE FACILITIES AVAILABLE AT COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTRES BY DISTRICTS,
KERALA, 2007-08
                                                                        Number of CHCs having:
                              Functional          Designated          New born        LBW babies         Blood storage     Total number
District                         OT                as FRU           care services
                                                                                  1
                                                                                       managed
                                                                                               2
                                                                                                            facility
                                                                                                                    1        of CHCs

Kasaragod                           3                  1                   0                   1               0                   9
Kannur                              2                  2                   1                   1               0                  14
Wayanad                             3                  3                   0                   1               0                   7
Kozhikode                           6                  4                   2                   1               1                  18

Malappuram                          8                  4                   3                   1               0                  19
Palakkad                           12                  1                   1                   2               0                  18
Thrissur                            3                  3                   0                   0               0                  24
Ernakulam                           2                  4                   1                   2               0                  21

Idukki                              5                  2                   1                   1               0                   9
Kottayam                            6                  2                   1                   0               0                  17
Alappuzha                           1                  3                   0                   0               0                  14
Pathanamthitta                      0                  1                   0                   0               0                  11
Kollam                              4                  0                   0                   0               0                  18
Thiruvananthapuram                  2                  9                   1                   1               0                  18

Kerala (%)                    57(26.3)            39(18.0)            11(28.2)             11(5.1)           1(2.6)         217(100.0)

 LBW=low birth weight. ; OT= Operation Theatre; FRU= First Referral Unit.
1
  Based on 24 hours and CHCs designated as First Referral Unit.
2
  Based on last one month services.




    TABLE 9.12: : NUMBER OF COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTRES HAVING DIFFERENT ACTIVITIES BY DISTRICTS,
    KERALA, 2007-08
                                                             Number of CHCs having:                                          Total
                              Citizen’s charter                                  RKS Monitor         Utilized untied       number
    District                      displayed           RKS constituted             regularly*               fund            of CHCs

    Kasaragod                            8                      9                      9                   8                  9
    Kannur                              11                     14                     14                  13                 14
    Wayanad                              5                      7                      7                   6                  7
    Kozhikode                           14                     17                     17                  17                 18

    Malappuram                          16                     19                     19                  15                 19
    Palakkad                            16                     15                     15                  16                 18
    Thrissur                            20                     22                     21                  24                 24
    Ernakulam                           19                     20                     19                  15                 21

    Idukki                               7                      9                      9                   8                  9
    Kottayam                            16                     16                     16                  12                 17
    Alappuzha                           11                     13                     13                   9                 14
    Pathanamthitta                       6                     10                      9                   5                 11
    Kollam                              10                     18                     18                  17                 18
    Thiruvananthapuram                  17                     18                     18                  18                 18

    Kerala (%)                   176(81.1)              207(95.4)                204(98.6)            183(84.3)          217(100.0)

    RKS= Rogi Kalyan Samiti.
    *RKS monitored regularly is from number of RKS constituted.



                                                                     166
                   APPENDIX

 
                                  
                        
                        
                        
                        
                        
                        
                                     
     SAMPLING ERROR FOR SELECTED INDICATORS 
                                    ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS



Sampling errors, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                            Number of Cases                                 95% Conf. Interval
                                            Sampling                                Relative
                              Estimate        Error                                  Error                  R-1.96     R+1.96
            District             (R)           (SE)      Unweighted Weighted          (%)                    SE         SE
                          Contraceptive Prevalance Rate (Currently Married Women aged 15-49)
Kasaragod                          0.478           0.036             899            900          7.504      0.408       0.549
Kannur                             0.532           0.022             968            969          4.102      0.489       0.575
Wayanad                            0.713           0.019             900            900          2.646      0.676       0.750
Kozhikode                          0.585           0.021           1,010          1,008          3.561      0.544       0.626
Malappuram                         0.567           0.019           1,056          1,065          3.318      0.530       0.604
Palakkad                           0.559           0.021             792            795          3.820      0.517       0.601
Thrissur                           0.645           0.023             794            795          3.495      0.601       0.689
Ernakulam                          0.678           0.022             680            681          3.213      0.635       0.721
Idukki                             0.785           0.014             736            737          1.808      0.757       0.813
Kottayam                           0.745           0.020             761            759          2.710      0.705       0.785
Alappuzha                          0.747           0.023             771            771          3.116      0.701       0.792
Pathanamthitta                     0.668           0.019             736            736          2.883      0.630       0.706
Kollam                             0.738           0.017             816            819          2.268      0.705       0.771
Thiruvananthapuram                 0.747           0.017             753            753          2.259      0.714       0.780
                          Unmet Need for family planning (Currently Married Women aged 15-49)
Kasaragod                          0.237           0.016              899           900            6.767    0.205       0.268
Kannur                             0.223           0.015              968           969            6.897    0.193       0.253
Wayanad                            0.126           0.013              900           900          10.515     0.100       0.152
Kozhikode                          0.167           0.015           1,010          1,008            8.807    0.138       0.195
Malappuram                         0.191           0.014            1,056          1,065            7.319   0.164       0.219
Palakkad                           0.242           0.020              792             795           8.339   0.203       0.282
Thrissur                           0.185           0.015              794             795           8.208   0.156       0.215
Ernakulam                          0.135           0.015              680             681          11.038   0.106       0.164
Idukki                             0.075           0.010              736             737          13.108   0.056       0.095
Kottayam                           0.101           0.015              761             759          14.418   0.073       0.130
Alappuzha                          0.100           0.017              771             771          16.897   0.067       0.133
Pathanamthitta                     0.139           0.014              736             736          10.236   0.111       0.167
Kollam                             0.098           0.013              816             819          12.768   0.073       0.123
Thiruvananthapuram                 0.108           0.014              753             753          13.231   0.080       0.136
                                    Institutional Delivery (last live/still birth of past 3 years)
Kasaragod                          0.987           0.008             293             285           0.787    0.972       1.002
Kannur                             1.000           0.000             281             281           0.000      -           -
Wayanad                            0.953           0.014             286             288           1.484    0.926       0.981
Kozhikode                          1.000           0.000             272             277           0.000      -           -
Malappuram                         1.000           0.000             340             342           0.000      -           -
Palakkad                           0.993           0.005             253             258           0.519    0.983       1.003
Thrissur                           1.000           0.000             199             198           0.000      -           -
Ernakulam                          1.000           0.000             185             186           0.000      -           -
Idukki                             0.995           0.005             203             204           0.537    0.984       1.005
Kottayam                           1.000           0.000             213             213           0.000      -           -
Alappuzha                          1.000           0.000             200             202           0.000      -           -
Pathanamthitta                     1.000           0.000             171             170           0.000      -           -
Kollam                             1.000           0.000             215             214           0.000      -           -
Thiruvananthapuram                 0.989           0.011             191             199           1.151    0.966       1.011
                                                                                                                       Contd….




                                                                169
Sampling errors, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                              Number of Cases                         95% Conf. Interval
                                             Sampling                                      Relative
                               Estimate        Error                                         Error    R-1.96     R+1.96
         District                 (R)           (SE)      Unweighted Weighted                 (%)      SE         SE
                           Received Any Antenatal Check up (last live/still birth of past 3 years)
Kasaragod                       0.993          0.007           293            285            0.665    0.980       1.006
Kannur                          1.000          0.000           281            281            0.000      -           -
Wayanad                         0.988          0.007           286            288            0.690    0.975       1.001
Kozhikode                       1.000          0.000           272            277            0.000      -           -
Malappuram                      0.997          0.003           340            342            0.308    0.991       1.003
Palakkad                        1.000          0.000           253            258            0.000      -           -
Thrissur                        1.000          0.000           199            198            0.000      -           -
Ernakulam                       1.000          0.000           185            186            0.000      -           -
Idukki                          1.000          0.000           203            204            0.000      -           -
Kottayam                        1.000          0.000           213            213            0.000      -           -
Alappuzha                       1.000          0.000           200            202            0.000      -           -
Pathanamthitta                  1.000          0.000           171            170            0.000      -           -
Kollam                          1.000          0.000           215            214            0.000      -           -
Thiruvananthapuram              0.995          0.005           191            199            0.543    0.984       1.005
                            Received 3+ Antenatal Check up (last live/still birth of past 3 years)
Kasaragod                       0.993          0.007           293            285            0.665    0.980       1.006
Kannur                          1.000          0.000           281            281            0.000      -           -
Wayanad                         0.981          0.008           286            288            0.823    0.965       0.997
Kozhikode                       0.996          0.004           272            277            0.368    0.989       1.004
Malappuram                      0.994          0.004           340            342            0.449    0.985       1.002
Palakkad                        1.000          0.000           253            258            0.000      -           -
Thrissur                        0.992          0.008           199            198            0.844    0.975       1.008
Ernakulam                       0.989          0.008           185            186            0.796    0.973       1.004
Idukki                          1.000          0.000           203            204            0.000      -           -
Kottayam                        0.996          0.004           213            213            0.435    0.987       1.004
Alappuzha                       1.000          0.000           200            202            0.000      -           -
Pathanamthitta                  1.000          0.000           171            170            0.000      -           -
Kollam                          1.000          0.000           215            214            0.000      -           -
Thiruvananthapuram              0.995          0.005           191            199            0.543    0.984       1.005
                                         Birth order 2+ (birth in last three years)
Kasaragod                       0.267          0.040           263            258           14.963    0.189       0.346
Kannur                          0.147          0.034           226            226           22.808    0.081       0.213
Wayanad                         0.344          0.039           253            254           11.238    0.268       0.421
Kozhikode                       0.353          0.035           240            246           10.023    0.284       0.423
Malappuram                      0.350          0.035           301            301           10.017    0.281       0.419
Palakkad                        0.476          0.042           231            233             8.880   0.393      0.560
Thrissur                        0.287          0.045           173            171           15.857    0.197       0.376
Ernakulam                       0.131          0.044           158            158           33.774    0.044      0.218
Idukki                          0.218          0.045           182            185           20.463    0.130       0.305
Kottayam                        0.195          0.051           189            192           26.331    0.094       0.297
Alappuzha                       0.156          0.043           176            178           27.368    0.072      0.239
Pathanamthitta                  0.096          0.041           131            131           42.807    0.015      0.176
Kollam                          0.201          0.044           184            184           21.936    0.114       0.288
Thiruvananthapuram              0.292          0.039           153            159           13.501    0.215       0.370
                                                                                                                 Contd….




                                                            170
Sampling errors, Kerala, 2007-08
                                                            Number of Cases                           95% Conf. Interval
                                          Sampling                                     Relative
                             Estimate        Error                                       Error        R-1.96      R+1.96
          District              (R)           (SE)      Unweighted Weighted               (%)          SE           SE
                   Received BCG Vaccination (last and last but one living children aged 12-23 months)
Kasaragod                      1.000         0.000           83             79          0.000           -            -
Kannur                         0.973         0.019           80             82           1.940        0.936        1.010
Wayanad                        0.978         0.015           90             92          1.574         0.948        1.008
Kozhikode                      0.988         0.012           71             80          1.221         0.964        1.012
Malappuram                     0.981         0.013           96             97           1.333        0.956        1.007
Palakkad                       1.000         0.000           53             55          0.000           -            -
Thrissur                       1.000         0.000           55             52          0.000           -            -
Ernakulam                      1.000         0.000           56             52          0.000           -            -
Idukki                         1.000         0.000           61             62          0.000           -            -
Kottayam                       1.000         0.000           73             75          0.000           -            -
Alappuzha                      1.000         0.000           49             51          0.000           -            -
Pathanamthitta                 1.000         0.000           42             43          0.000           -            -
Kollam                         0.983         0.017           58             58          1.696         0.950        1.016
Thiruvananthapuram             1.000         0.000           54             57          0.000           -            -
                   Received Measles Vaccine (last and last but one living children aged 12-23 months)
Kasaragod                      0.921         0.028           83             79          3.085         0.865        0.977
Kannur                         0.884         0.043           80             82           4.885        0.799        0.969
Wayanad                        0.823         0.040           90             92          4.881         0.744        0.902
Kozhikode                      0.756         0.058           71             80          7.640         0.642        0.869
Malappuram                     0.755         0.046           96             97           6.035        0.665        0.844
Palakkad                       0.819         0.053           53             55          6.501         0.715        0.924
Thrissur                       0.922         0.034           55             52          3.736         0.854        0.990
Ernakulam                      0.941         0.030           56             52          3.181         0.882        0.999
Idukki                         0.967         0.024           61             62           2.436        0.921        1.013
Kottayam                       0.945         0.026           73             75           2.720        0.895        0.996
Alappuzha                      0.959         0.027           49             51          2.778         0.907        1.011
Pathanamthitta                 0.976         0.024           42             43          2.480         0.929        1.024
Kollam                         0.925         0.036           58             58          3.869         0.855        0.995
Thiruvananthapuram             0.969         0.021           54             57           2.204        0.927        1.011




                                                          171

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:0
posted:6/8/2013
language:English
pages:183
About