The Arabian Peninsula - TeacherWeb by jianglifang

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									        7th Grade
      Social Studies
Jeff Davis Middle School
     Bellringer Question
              
 What is an oasis?
 Why would an oasis be important to people who live
  in the desert?
Arabian Peninsula
       
     Physical Geography
              
 Iran, Iraq, and the countries of the Arabian Peninsula
  are part of a region known as the Middle East.
 This region lies at the intersection of Africa, Asia,
  and Europe.
 Most of this region is dry and rugged.
 It has one of the largest deserts in the world and has
  huge area covered with bare rock with very valuable
  oil resources.
        Physical Features
               
 Major physical features of the Arabian Peninsula,
  Iraq, and Iran are desert plains in the east and
  mountains.
 Plateaus and mountains cover most of Iran.
 The land climbs sharply in the west to the Zagos
  Mountains with the Elbruz and the Kopet-Dag in the
  north.
 The region has a dry climate and little vegetation.
 Most of the world is dependent on oil, a resource
  that is exported from this region.
Physical Features
       
                   The Elburz
                   Mountains in
                   Iran are the
                   highest land in
                   the region.




Elburz Mountains
   Physical Features
          



Iran’s Great Salt Desert, Dasht-e-Kavir is about 500
miles long and 200 miles wide (that’s almost the size of
Colorado). Its name comes from the fact that more
water evaporates there than is replaced by rain, leaving
salt deposits on the land.
          Landforms of the Arabian
                 Peninsula
Rivers                       
The Tigris and Euphrates rivers
flow across a low, flat plain in
Iraq and join together before
they reach the Persian Gulf.
They are known as exotic rivers,
or rivers that begin in humid
regions and then flow through
dry areas. The rivers create a
narrow, fertile area, which in
ancient times was called
Mesopotamia or land between
rivers.
                Landforms
 Plains
                   
 Cover the east
 Desert plains are covered with sand in the south and
  volcanic rock in the north.
               Landforms
                  
 Plateaus and Mountains
 Near the Red Sea the landscape becomes plateaus
  and mountains.
 Highest point on the peninsula is in the mountains of
  Yemen.
 Plateaus and mountains cover most of Iran—the
  Zagros Mountains in the west, and the Elburz
  Mountains and the Kopet-Dag to the north.
                  Main Idea 2:
    The region has a dry climate and little vegetation   .
                            
 Climate
 Mostly desert climate
 Summer afternoon temperatures climb to over 100°F.
 Winter nighttime temperatures dip to below freezing.
 The Rub’ al-Khali, the world’s largest sand desert, covers
  much of southern Saudi Arabia.
 Sand dunes can rise to 800 feet high and stretch 200 miles.
 Higher areas generally have semiarid steppe climates.
  Rub' al Khali or Empty
  Quarter
                                   


                                       The terrain is covered
                                       with sand dunes with
                                       heights up to 250 metres
                                       (820 ft), interspersed
                                       with gravel and
                                       gypsum plains. The
                                       sand is a reddish-
                                       orange color due to the
Sand dunes in the Rub' al Khali.       presence of feldspar.
                Vegetation
                   
 Trees are common in mountain regions and in
  scattered desert oases. An oasis is a wet, fertile area
  in a desert that forms where underground water
  bubbles to the surface.
 Shrubs and grasses that grow on the region’s dry
  plains have roots that either grow deep or spread out
  far to capture as much water as possible.
 Some places in the region are too dry or too salty to
  support any vegetation.
 Water- Important Resource
                         
 Water is one of the region’s two most valuable
  resources, but is very scarce
 Some springs provide water.
 Water can come from wells dug into dry streambeds
  called wadis.
 Modern wells can reach groundwater, but it is often
  fossil water. Fossil water is water that is not being
  replaced by rainfall.
                        Oil
                        
 Oil is plentiful.
 Most of the oil fields are near the shores of the
  Persian Gulf.
 Oil cannot be replaced once it is taken from Earth.
 Oil exports bring great wealth to the countries that
  have oil fields.
 Most countries of the region are not rich in other
  resources.
 Iran is an exception with its mineral deposits.
Oil

      No matter how plentiful
      oil might be in the
      Persian Gulf area, we
      must remember that
      once taken out of the
      Earth, it can’t be
      replaced. Too much
      drilling for oil now can
      cause problems in the
      future because these
      countries are not rich in
      other resources.
                Summary
                   
 How do you think resources in the region influence
  where people live?
 What might happen to the oil-rich countries if there
  oil was used up or if the people found a new energy
  source to replace the oil?
                Bellringer
                    
 Where are most of the region’s oil field located?
 What are three ways people in this region can get
  water?
 Which country in this region might have the easiest
  time developing a new economy if oil sources get
  low?
      Bellringer Answers
               
 1. Shores of the Persian Gulf
 2. Springs, wadis and wells that pump fossil water
 3. possible answer– Iran, because of its many mineral
  deposits, which are a valuable resource.
  The Arabian Peninsula
           
 If you lived there,
 You are a financial advisor to the ruler of Oman.
  Your country has been making quite a bit of money
  from oil exports. However, you worry that your
  economy is too dependent on oil. You think Oman’s
  leaders should consider expanding the economy.
  Oman is a small country, but it has beautiful
  beaches, historic palaces, mosques, and colorful
  markets. How would you suggest expanding the
  economy?
          Make Foldable
               
 Make a foldable for each country of the Arabian
  Peninsula.
 Countries: Saudi Arabia; Kuwait; Bahrain; Oatar;
 United Arab Emirates; Oman; & Yemen
 Divide each country’s page into : People(ethnic
  groups) & Customs; Government & Economy;
  Religion
Background
    
       Oman and all the countries of
       the Arabian Peninsula have
       valuable oil resources. In
       addition to oil, these countries
       share two basic characteristics
       : Islamic religion and a
       monarchy as a form of
       government. The largest
       country , and now, with the
       most influence in the region is
       Saudi Arabia.
Map Zone- Saudi Arabia’s Oil
           Field
                        
 Go to the One stop planner for the map of Saudi
  Arabia’s Oil Field.
                     Saudi Arabia
                       
 Islamic culture and an economy greatly based on oil
  influence life in Saudi Arabia.
 Saudi Arabia is by far the largest country of the Arabian
  Peninsula.
 Nearly all Saudis are Arabs and speak Arabic.
 Their culture is strongly influenced by Islam, a religion
  founded in Saudi Arabia by Muhammad.
 This religion is based on submitting to God and on
  messages Muslims believe God gave to Muhammad.
 Most of these messages are written in the Qur`an, or the
  holy book of Islam.
 Saudi Arabia & Islam
             
Nearly all Saudis follow one of two branches of Islam.
• Shia Muslims- believe that true interpretation of
  Islamic teaching can only come from certain
  religious and poilitcal leaders.
• Sunni Muslims- that believe in the ability of the
  majority of the community to interpret Islamic
  teachings. This makes up about 85% of the Muslims.


 Saudi Women- are limited in their activities.
 They are rarely seen in public without their husbands and
 must wear a black cloak and veil if out in public. They are
 not permitted to drive cars , but can own and run business.
Kurds
 
The Kurds are people of Indo-European
origin who live mainly in the mountains and
uplands where Turkey, Iraq, and Iran meet,
in an area known as "Kurdistan" for
hundreds of years. ( see map) They have
their own language, related to Persian but
divided into two main dialect areas. No firm
statistics exist for the Kurdish population but
a cautious estimate, based on their believed
population proportion in each state in 1987 is
currently. Although the kurdish people are
overwhelmingly Sunni Muslim, they
embrace Jews, Christians, Yazidis and other
sects.
Saudi Arabia & Islam
         
      A long robe worn by Muslim men. The
      top is usually tailored like a shirt, but it is
      ankle-length and loose. The thobe is
      usually white but may be found in other
      colors especially in winter. The term may
      also be used to describe any type of loose
      dress worn by men or women.
 Saudi Arabia & Government
                        
 Monarchy
 Saud family rulers since 1932
 Most government officials are relatives of the king.
  The king may ask members of his family or religious
  scholars for advice.
 No elected legislature
 Local officials elected
 Only men allowed to vote
                      Saudi Arabia
                     & the Economy
                             
 Economy based on oil (world’s leading exporter of oil)
 Influential member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting
  Countries, or OPEC
 OPEC is an international organization whose members work to
  influence the price of oil on world markets by controlling the
  supply.
 The country has a sizable middle class and the country
  provides free health care and education to its citizens.
 It must import most of its food because of the need for fresh
  water.
 The country also uses desalination plants to remove salt from
  seawater, but this is a costly and expensive procedure.
 Another challenge for Saudi Arabia is the high unemployment.
  There is a high population growth rate and
      Saudi Arabia & the
          Economy
             
 Another challenge for Saudi Arabia is the high
  unemployment. There is a high population growth
  rate and jobs can’t keep up. Almost 40% of Saudi
  Arabia’s population is younger than 15 years old.
 Another reason for the unemployment is that the
  young Sadis choose to study religion instead of
  going to technical school
                Other Arabian
              Peninsula Countries
                             
Kuwait
 Oil was discovered here in the 1930.
 Very rich. Its economy is based on the oil.
  Islamic Religion
 Government is dominated by a royal family, but did elect a
  legislature in 1992. Only men of a certain family were
  allowed to vote. (About 15% of the population)
 Women have recently been given suffrage.
 Was invaded by Iraq in 1990 to try to control the oil, starting
  the Persian Gulf War.
 The United States and others defeated Iraq but much
  destruction was done to the oil fields in Kuwait.

Other Arabian Peninsula
Countries
                              
 The United Arab Emirates- Consist of 7 tiny, modern
  kingdoms. Their economy relies on the profits of oil and natural
  gas. Because of its small size, it depends on lots of foreign
  workers. It has more foreign workers that it has true citizens.
 Oman and Yemen-
 Oman covers the SE part of the peninsula and has an economy
  also based on oil, but lacks the great wealth of places like
  Kuwait. The government is attempting to develop new
  industries.
 Yemen- is located in the SW part of the peninsula. It has an
  elected government, but has suffered from corruption. Oil was
  not discovered here until the 1980’s. Oil and coffee generate
  much of its economy, but it is the poorest of all the countries.
                Summary
                   
 Ticket Out the Door. ( Copy questions and save
  answers until tomorrow.)
 True or False
 1. A country cannot have both a monarchy and
  elected officials.

 2. The Arabian Peninsula is made up of seven
  kingdoms.

								
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