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					TRANSPORTATION
   1700-1900
ROADS: BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

   Roads, for longer than people could remember, were
    nothing more than dirt tracks that turned to mud in
    the winter and baked rock hard in the summer.
   By law, every parish had to look after the 'roads' that
    ran through their area.
   Men were required to work for 6 days every year to
    maintain and repair the roads.
   Very few villagers travelled, therefore they were not
    particularly interested in doing this task especially as
    it seemed to offer them no benefits.
ROADS
ROADS: CHANGES MADE

 From 1760 – 1774, Parliament passed over
  500 laws related to building more and better
  roads.
 Thomas Telford improved roads with an inch
  thick layer of small stones laid on a foundation
  of heavy stones bound together.
 Telford’s road was stronger and harder than dirt
  roads.
ROADS: CHANGES MADE

 Scottish engineer John Macadam developed a
  less expensive method using small pieces of
  hard stones to form layers that condensed and
  became even stronger after exposure to traffic.
 Later, a final layer of asphalt or tar made
  Macadam’s road stronger and smoother.
MACADAMIZED ROADS
   Strong, hard roads invented by Thomas Telford and John
    McAdam

   Improvement over dirt and gravel roads

   Macadamized roads have a smooth, hard surface that
    supports heavy loads without requiring a thick roadbed

   Modern roads are macadamized roads, with tar added
    to limit the creation of dust
ROADS: CHANGES MADE
   In 1663, Parliament passed what was known as the
    Turnpike Act.
   This was originally only used in three counties to see if
    it worked.
   Charged people for using roads in certain counties
   The money raised was spent on properly maintaining
    these roads.
   The success of this scheme meant that the 1663 Act
    was the first of hundreds throughout the country.
ROADS
ROADS: CHANGES MADE
 Private companies called Turnpike Trusts were
  established in 1706.
 The money raised by charging people to use the
  roads was split between profits for the share
  holders and the cost of maintaining the roads
  in the control of the trust.
 Toll gates were established through which
  people and carriages had to pass before
  continuing with their journey.
ROAD
ROADS: EFFECTS
   Many people objected to paying a toll.
   Some would even jump over the toll gate to avoid paying.
   In some parts of the country, the toll gates were so unpopular,
    that they were destroyed.
   Parliament passed a law that meant anyone who was caught
    destroying a turnpike could be executed.
   By 1830, 25, 000 miles of highways ran through England
    connecting the industrial areas.
    RIOTS
   The Rebecca riots took place in the rural parts of west Wales, including Pembrokeshire,
   Cardiganshire, and Carmarthenshire, in 1839-43.
   They were a series of protests made by tenant farmers against the payment of tolls (fees)
    charged to use the roads.
   Turnpike Trusts or groups of businessmen owned most of the main roads.
   These men fixed the charges and decided how many tollgates (turnpikes) could be built.
   During the riots, men disguised as women attacked the tollgates.
   They called themselves “Rebecca and her daughters”.
   This is most likely to be after a passage in the Bible where Rebecca talks of the need to
    “possess the gates of those who hate them” (Genesis XXIV, verse 60).
   People at that time knew the Bible well.
   Tolls were a big expense for small farmers, who used the roads to take their crops and
   animals to market, and also to collect lime (a chalky mineral).
   Lime was used to improve the quality of the soil so farmers could grow better crops. It
    could cost as much as five shillings (25p) in tolls to move a cart of lime eight miles
    inland.
   The people of west Wales did not want to pay to use their roads.
RIOTS
 The first incident occurred in Pembrokeshire in
  May 1839 when a new tollgate at Efailwen was
  destroyed.
 This gate was an obvious target, situated on the
  road used by those carrying lime back from the
  coast.
 The Whitland Turnpike Trust rebuilt the gate,only
  for it to be destroyed again in June.
 A second new tollgate was attacked at Llanboidy.
 Trouble died down when it was agreed by the
  authorities that the gates would be not be rebuilt.
RIOTS
   The disturbances started again in 1842 when the
    Whitland Trust built a new gate at The Mermaid, on the
    lime road at St Clears in Carmarthenshire.
   This was destroyed in November, as were the tollgates
    at Pwll-trap and Trevaughan.
   The gates were rebuilt, but all gates in St Clears were
    destroyed by 12 December.
   The government refused to send soldiers and so the
    magistrates called in the marines from Pembroke Dock
    and the Castlemartin Yeomanry Cavalry.
   The rioting continued.
RIOTS

 The main trigger for the Rebecca riots came
  from farmers having to pay high tolls to use the
  roads, but there were other reasons for their
  discontent.
 Wales had seen a population increase since
  the start of the 19th century.
 This increased competition for land and jobs,
  and added to unemployment and poverty.
COACHES
COACHES: BEFORE

 Coach development could only benefit from the
  improvement in roads.
 Before turnpike trusts, coaches had been un-
  sprung and any journey in them was very
  uncomfortable as there was no suspension.
 It was basically a wooden carriage, aided by
  four wooden wheels, was used to move people
  or produce.
COACHES
COACHES: AFTER
   By 1800, coaches were suspended on a C-spring.
   This was a large C-shaped piece of metal from which
    hung a carriage. This was a form of suspension.
   By the 1830's these springs had been improved with the
    elliptic spring.
   These were shaped like a rugby ball and each wheel had
    one.
   The coach itself was effectively laying on these springs
    which went up and down as the ride required.
   They greatly improved the quality of a journey.
COACHES
CANALS
   Canals were man-made rivers which were deep enough to cope
    with barges which were capable of moving nearly forty tons of
    weight.
   Canals had to be perfectly flat or else the water would simply
    run away.
   The canals also had to be waterproofed
   Before the Industrial Revolution, existing canals tended to be
    so crowded by trading ships that extreme time delays were
    involved.
CANALS: CHANGES MADE
 James Brindley built a canal in 1761 that
  connected the city of Manchester to coal mines 9
  miles away.
 The success of Brindley’s canal ushered in an era
  of canal building.
 Between 1790 and 1794, the British Parliament
  passed 89 laws concerning the building of new
  canals.
 By 1830, 3,000 miles of canals connected
  different areas of Great Britain.
GRAND JUNCTION CANAL
CANALS CONT.
MODERN DAY CANALS
THE BARTON AQUEDUCT
VICTORIAN RAILWAYS
STEAM ENGINES
   Early water power involved mills built over fast-
    moving streams and rivers

   Early water power had problems

     Not enough rivers to provide the power needed to meet
      growing demand
     Rivers and streams might be far removed from raw
      materials, workers, and markets
     Rivers are prone to flooding and drying
STEAM ENGINES

   Humans tried harnessing steam power for
    millennia
       Hero of Alexandria, Egypt – created a steam-driven
        device in the 1st century B.C.E.
   Thomas Newcomen, England (1704)
       Created a steam engine to pump water from mines
   James Watt, Scotland (1769)
       Improved Newcomen’s engine to power machinery
STEAM ENGINES

 By 1800, steam engines were replacing water
  wheels as sources of power for factories
 Factories relocated near raw materials,
  workers, and ports
 Cities grew around the factories built near
  central England’s coal and iron mines
     Manchester,   Liverpool
VICTORIAN RAILWAYS: AN OVERVIEW
   Between 1820 and 1850 some six thousand miles of
    railways were opened in Britain
   This was the result of two extraordinary bursts of
    concentrated investment followed by construction
   By 1850 the basic English railway network was already
    more or less in existence
   It reached into some of the remotest areas of the
    countryside and the centers of the greatest cities
   Speed of movement went from single miles an hour to
    hundreds of mile an hour
   Introduced the notion of a nation-wide, complex and
    exact interlocking routine symbolized by the railway
    timetable
VICTORIAN RAILWAY STATION
RAILROADS
   1830 – Stephenson’s “Rocket” train traveled the
    40 miles between Liverpool and Manchester in 1
    ½ hours
   1830-1870 – railroad tracks went from 49 miles
    to over 15,000 miles
   Steel rails replaced iron rails
   1869 – Westinghouse’s air brake made train
    travel safer
   Greater train traveling comfort – heavier train
    cars, improved road beds, and sleeping cars
VICTORIAN RAILWAYS: TECHNOLOGY
   The First Locomotives!!
   The first self-propelling steam engine or steam
    locomotive made its outing on 13 February 1804 at the
    Pen-y-Darren ironworks
   The machine was designed by Richard Trevithick
   The engine was able to pull a load of 15 tons at a speed
    of about 5 mph.
   However, adhesion was a problem (iron wheels on iron
    rails = slipping).
   In 1811 Blekinstop designed an engine for the
    Middleton Colliery, using cogged wheels engaging in
    racks on the railway.
THE ROCKET
VICTORIAN RAILWAYS: TECHNOLOGY
   The problem of adhesion was finally solved by William
    Hedley with a design which applied power to the rails
    through two sets of Driving wheels.
   The locomotive was called Puffing Billy
   The first public railway was the Stockton and Darlington
    Railway, whose first run took place on Tuesday,
    September 27, 1825
   The directors of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway
    invited designers to submit their locomotives to a test
    for a 500 pounds prize
   The Rocket and two other machines competed --
    Sanspareil and Novelty.
   The Rocket won for its all round competence.
PUFFING BILLY
VICTORIAN RAILWAYS: TECHNOLOGY
   One of the most marked characteristics in the working
    of the Rocket was the swaying jerky action of the engine,
    attributable to the mounting of the cylinders high up on
    the side of the smokebox
   Later engines of the 'Rocket' type had the cylinders
    mounted more nearly horizontal, but still outside the
    frames
   On the Planet Stephenson cylinders were enclosed
    within the smokebox.
   The engine also incorporated the first use of 'sandwich'
    frames, which were formed of ash or oak, strengthened
    by iron plates inside and out.
   These gave flexibility and a great strength, and were a
    distinctive feature
THE PLANET
VICTORIAN RAILWAYS: TECHNOLOGY
   Edward Bury was a man
    strongly endowed with the
    commercial instinct.
   Bury was the Locomotive
    Superintendent of the
    London and Birmingham
    Railway and contractor for
    the supply of locomotives
    at one.
   His engines were light,
    ingeniously constructed,
    and very cheap; and he
    saw to it that they were not
    overworked.
EDWARD BURY’S PASSENGER ENGINE
VICTORIAN RAILWAYS: TECHNOLOGY
 The distinguishing feature of Bury’s engines was
  the use of bar frames, which gave them a light,
  spidery appearance.
 They had circular fireboxes, with a steam dome
  and safety valve on the top.
 If one engine were not enough to do the job he put
  on two, three, and sometimes even four on one
  train!
 Like many engines of those early days the Bury's
  rode badly, partly because of the very short
  wheelbase, and the lightness of the tenders.
VICTORIAN RAILWAYS: TECHNOLOGY
   The Great Western Railway stood in isolation
    from the rest of the country, through its
    adoption of the broad gauge, 7 ft., in contrast
    to the standard gauge of 4 ft. 8 in. used on
    most other railways in Great Britain.
   Brunell was the architect of the broad gauge
   The North Star came to the Great Western
    almost by accident.
   It was built by Robert Stephenson and Co. for
    service in America on the New Orleans
    Railway.
   It was actually shipped, but through business
    difficulties delivery was not taken, and it was
    returned to England.
   On its arrival back it was adapted to run on
    the 7 ft. gauge and sold to the Great Western.
THE NORTH STAR
RAILROAD INVENTORS
   In 1790 Jessop founded the Butterley
    Iron Works and began to manufacture
    fish-bellied cast-iron rails which
    marked an important advance in
    railway technology
   By the late 1790s Jessop was               Butterley Iron Works
    recognised as one of Britain's leading
    engineers. He was involved in the
    production of the Grand Junction
    Canal, the Surrey Iron Railway, the
    Bristol Docks and the West India
    Docks on the Thames in London
                                             Grand Junction Canal
RAILROAD INVENTORS
 1813 : The "Puffing Billy" was built
  by William Hedley to pull coal
  wagons at the Wylam Colliery in
  Northumberland. It was so reliable
  that it was used for fifty years.
 1814: Produced a locomotive that
  had two vertical cylinders outside
  the boiler
 1828: He developed a steam
  povered machine that improved the      Wylam Dilly
  system of pumping water out of the
  mine while he was renting the
  South Moor Colliery
RAILROADS
   1825: The Stockton to Darlington
    rail line was opened. Two
    locomotives were used and they
    could pull 21 coal wagons 25
    miles at 8 miles per hour. This
    was unheard of at the time and
    soon the line was in profit.
    Passengers were soon carried but
    steam trains did not operate on
    the line for passengers until
    1833. In many senses, 1825 is
    seen as the start of the Age of the
    Railways
THE OPENING OF THE STOCKTON TO
DARLINGTON RAILWAY
RAILROAD INVENTORS
 George Bidder became the first person
  to design and build a railway swing
  bridge.
 Matthew Murray helped John
  Blenkinsop build the Salamanca
  locomotive, with its cog-toothed driving
  wheels, first appeared in public on
  June 24, 1812.
 In 1829 Isambard Kingdom Brunel
  designed a suspension bridge to cross
  the River Avon at Clifton.
RAILROAD INVENTORS
   In 1828 the boiler of the Locomotion exploded, killing the
    driver. She was rebuilt but did not perform well. The main
    problem was its inability to produce enough steam for a
    twenty-mile run.
   In 1833 Hackworth decided to leave to form his own
    Soho locomotive building company at Shildon
   The Grand Junction Railway, opened on July 20, 1837. It
    was over 82 miles long and linked Birmingham with the
    Liverpool & Manchester line
   In 1838 George and John Rennie
    established a company in London
    and during the next four years built
    16 locomotives.
                          Samson built by Timothy
                     Hackworth at Sheldon in 1838
THE BLUCHER LOCOMOTIVE
   In 1813, George Stephenson became aware
    that William Hedley and Timothy Hackworth
    were designing a locomotive for the Wylam coal
    mine.
   So at the age of twenty, George Stephenson
    began the construction of his first locomotive.
   It should be noted that at this time in history,
    every part of the engine had to be made by
    hand, and hammered into shape just like a
    horseshoe.
   John Thorswall, a coal mine blacksmith, was
    George Stephenson's main assistant.
   After 10 months' labor, Stephenson's
    locomotive "Blucher" was completed and
    tested on the Cillingwood Railway on July 25,
    1814.
THE BLUCHER LOCOMOTIVE
 The track was an uphill trek of 450
  fifty feet.
 George Stephenson's engine hauled
  eight loaded coal wagons weighing 30
  tons, at about four miles an hour.
 This was the first steam engine
  powered locomotive to run on a
  railroad and it was the most
  successful working steam engine that
  had ever been constructed up to this
  period, this encouraged the inventor
  to make further experiments.
LOCOMOTION LOCOMOTIVE
   In 1824 Edward Pease joined with Michael
    Longdridge, George & Robert Stephenson to
    form a company to make the locomotives, The
    Robert Stephenson & Company
   Stephenson recruited Timothy Hackworth, one of
    the engineers who had helped William Hedley to
    produce Puffing Billy, to work for the company.
   The first railway locomotive was finished in
    September 1825.
   Initially called Active, it was later given the name
    Locomotion.
   The boiler of the Locomotion had a single fire
    tube and two vertical cylinders let into the barrel
    and the four wheels were coupled by rods rather
    than a chain.
LOCOMOTION LOCOMOTIVE
   Large crowds saw George Stephenson at the
    controls of the Locomotion as it pulled 36
    wagons filled with sacks of coal & flour.
   The initial journey of just under 9 miles took two
    hours but during the final descent into the
    Stockton terminus, speeds of 15 mph were
    reached.
   These increased speed surprised one man and
    he fell from one of the wagons and was badly
    injured.
          BRITISH                AMERICAN
    Guards van             Caboose
    Carriage               Coach
    Bogie                  Truck
    Goods wagon            Freight car
    Engine driver          Engineer
    Point                  Switch
    Sleeper                Railroad tie
    Baltic locomotive      Hudson locomotive



DIFFERENT TERMS USED BY THE RAILWAYS
NAVVIES
NAVVIES

 Navvies were the men who actually built
  railways
 They lived by the rail line that they were
  building in so-called shanty towns.
 Huts could accommodate 20 men and they
  paid one and a half pennies for a bed for the
  night.
 Those who slept on the floor paid a lot less.
NAVVIES
NAVVIES
   Those working in tunnels that were being built were
    especially vulnerable to collapses and explosions
    All work was done in a hurry and safety procedures were
    minimal.
   Getting the job done was far more important than
    employee safety especially as there were plenty of
    navvies
   British navvies had a good reputation.
   Many went on to work in Europe where their hard work
    was rewarded - British navvies frequently got paid twice
    as much as anybody else working on the rail lines simply
    because they worked twice as hard as anybody else.
NAVVIES
NAVVIES
   By the standards of the time, navvies were well paid.
    They could earn 25 pence a day which compared well
    to those who worked in factories.
   The drinking of the navvies was well known and many
    towns feared the arrival of the navvies to their region.
   Navvies worked hard and they drank hard.
   Many navvies chose to live for the day
   Death while working was high
RAILWAYS AND
URBAN SPRAWL

    Railways allowed for
     greater urban sprawl
    Possibility of
     commuting opened
     up cities and
     suburbs (which
     spread along railway               Building the London Underground
     lines)                                   www.pbs.org/.../structure/londonund
        London 1863
        New York (1869)
        Boston (1897)
        Paris (1900)
        Berlin (1902)
        New York
         (underground 1904)


         Paris Metro and Urban Sprawl
The Impact of the Railroad
“The Great Land
   Serpent”
                                  Seaside towns             Newspapers could
 People were able to travel
                                  developed; the railways   be sent from
 greater distances for leisure
                                  made cheap day trips      London all over the
 & to work
                                  possible                  country.


  Turnpike Trusts,                                          People became
  canals & stage                                            more interested in
  coach companies                                           politics & this led to
  could not compete                                         the growth of
  & went bankrupt.               Social &
                                                            political parties
                                 Economic
                                 Impact of the
                                 Railways                    Railway
Townspeople were able
                                                             engineering
to receive meat, fish,
                                                             towns grew up,
milk and vegetables
                                                             E.g. Crewe &
brought in whilst they
                            Industry grew, because the       Doncaster.
were still fresh by the
railways.                   railways needed coal & iron;
                            railways in turn allowed         The Post was
                            factories to transport their     speeded up
                            goods to markets.
      Fish & Chips
                                                               First Class Mail
RAILWAYS: ECONOMIC EFFECTS

 Created new jobs in: tourism, resorts, hotels, and
  dealing with the railways.
 Spread consumer products.

 Decline in transportation costs.

 Increased long distance trade.

 In 1830, there were 70 miles of railways in Britain.

 In 1840, there were 4, 500 miles.

 In 1870, there were 15,000 miles
RAILWAYS: ECONOMIC EFFECTS
 George Hudson, “the Railway King”, controlled
  30% of the railways in Britain.
 Faster and cheaper transportation meant that
  materials could be imported and exported more
  quickly and in greater amounts.
 Faster trade meant faster profits, which in turn
  meant more money available to reinvest in
  railways or other ventures.
 Fueled the other developments of the Industrial
  Revolution in iron, steel, coal, and other
  manufactured goods.
  ECONOMIC CHANGES

                                          Railways
                                          cut the cost
                                          of
                                          transportin
                                          g goods




How many horses would be needed to transport 40 tons by
road?
HOW DID RAILWAYS CREATE MORE JOBS?
 Goods can now be                  Railways make the
 sold for less.                    moving of goods
                                   cheaper.

                     This is called
   More people       the Cycle of More people with jobs
   can afford to
                     Prosperity means …
   buy these
   goods

    More goods are                Businessmen employ
    sold & so more                more workers.
    need to be
    produced.
RAILWAYS: CULTURAL EFFECTS
   Increased leisure time.
   Led to the development of shore towns for vacations.
   Breakdown of regional barriers.
   Increased cultural exchange.
   Less isolation.
   Growth of suburbs
   Fostering nationalism.
   Start of commuters to work.
   Shift in residential patterns.
   Slum clearance.
CULTURAL CHANGES




                     Which famous
What is this woman   books did Charles
doing?               Dickens write?
ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES




Impact on the landscape?
SOCIAL EFFECTS OF VICTORIAN RAILWAYS
SOCIAL CHANGES




                 GMT?
RAILWAYS: SOCIAL EFFECTS

 Growth of middle class
 Increased military mobility
SOCIAL EFFECTS OF VICTORIAN RAILWAYS
 All railway lines had their characteristics and
  idiosyncrasies
 The Great Western, even up to nationalization, was
  always rather superior in its attitude
 The Great Eastern excelled in its dining-car
  arrangements
 The London & South Western called itself the
  Royal Road
 the London & North Western considered it was the
  Premier Line, an opinion not shared by all its
  customers, but it was good on punctuality
SOCIAL EFFECTS OF VICTORIAN RAILWAYS
   The South Eastern had a reputation for never running
    anything on time
   And had trains of so many different shapes and sizes of
    rolling stock that they looked rather like the battlements of a
    castle.
   The tough Highland Railway had to be tough in view of the
    weather conditions it sometimes faced.
   But their late running was always the fault of the connections
    with the lines from the south
   There was a well known occasion, August 7th, 1888, when
    the Inverness train left Perth with 37 carriages belonging to
    ten different companies
   The North Eastern branch lines were known for the paucity
    of their passenger trains
SOCIAL EFFECTS OF VICTORIAN RAILWAYS
 The social pattern for moving around in bulk in the
  nineteenth century was altered by railways
  probably more than by anything else
 The few coppers required for a five-mile journey
  was a lot to the poorer class who only earned ten
  shillings a week
 Country people tended to stay where they were
  and if they had to go anywhere at all they would
  walk there and back
 The working classes do not appear to have been
  photographed very much on trains, except for a
  few well-known and frequently published pictures
RAILWAY CLASSES
 First Class
 Second Class

 Third Class
FIRST CLASS TRAVEL
 The first-class carriages of the Liverpool &
  Manchester Railway was like travelling inside of a
  stage coach.
 They were not very comfortable because the early
  carriages did not have buffers or springs.
 One major advantage of first-class carriages was
  that they had provision for carrying luggage on the
  roofs.
 Over the years the quality of first-class travel on
  the Liverpool & Manchester Railway dramatically
  improved.
FIRST CLASS TRAVEL
   Nathaniel Worsdell was commissioned to design and
    make an improved carriage.
   His carriages had three enclosed compartments, each
    accommodating three passengers abreast.
   These carriages had armrests, upholstery and elegant
    decorations.
   The wooden bodies were mounted on 4-wheel iron
    frames.
   They were painted yellow and black in the same style
    as stage coaches.
FIRST CLASS TRAVEL




A. J. C. Bourne produced this lithograph of
           first-class travel in 1839
SECOND CLASS TRAVEL
 The amenities for second-class passengers lay
  midway between those of the 'firsts' and the
  'thirds'.
 The carriages were open at the sides, but had a
  canopy over the top to keep out some of the
  weather.
 The 'seconds' were much more cramped, and
  although having cushioned seats were straight-
  backed, and gave little room for the knees.
SECOND CLASS TRAVEL

 The second-class carriages of the Liverpool &
  Manchester Railway had wooden benches and
  were open at the sides.
 Seated four abreast, these passengers had no
  protection from the weather or the pollution
  created by the locomotive.
 Second-class carriages were painted a uniform
  blue.
SECOND CLASS TRAVEL




A. J. C. Bourne produced this lithograph of
          second-class travel in 1839
THIRD CLASS TRAVEL
 In the earliest days of railways there was little
  encouragement for third-class passengers to
  travel
 Accommodation was provided in open trucks

 One had to brave the smoke and exhaust
  fumes from the locomotives
 As the travelling habit began to grow the cry
  arose for better third-class carriages
THIRD CLASS TRAVEL
 The 1844 Railway Act improved the quality of
  third-class travel. The act stipulated that all
  third-class passengers should be carried in
  covered accommodation.
 Railway companies also began providing
  lighting in third-class carriages. Whereas, there
  were several oil lamps in the first class
  carriages, third-class carriages only had one.
THIRD CLASS EXPERIENCE
   Francis Coghlan wrote a report on third-class
    carriages for the London & Birmingham Railway in
    1838.
    I advise passengers to get as far from the engine
    as possible as the vibration is very much
    diminished. Always sit (if you can get a seat) with
    your back towards the engine, against the boarded
    part of the wagon; by this plan you will avoid being
    chilled by the current of cold air which passes
    through these open wagons and also save you from
    being blinded by the small cinders which escape
    from the funnel.
THIRD CLASS EXPERIENCE
   Louis Hayes, Reminiscences of Manchester (1840)
    In these third-class carriages there was a general feeling
    of bare boards and cheerlessness as you entered them
    and if you were travelling in the winter time they gave
    you a kind of cold shiver. The seats were cushionless
    and the longer you sat on them the harder they seemed.
   Samuel Laing wrote a report on third-class railway travel
    in 1842.
    The sides and ends of the carriages are only two feet
    high. A moderate shock is enough to throw the
    passengers out of the carriage.
THIRD CLASS TRAVEL




A. J. C. Bourne produced this lithograph of
           third-class travel in 1839
SUPPORTERS OF THE RAILWAYS
   Shareholders and engineers like George Hudson, George
    Stephenson, and Thomas Grey encouraged businessmen
    to begin new lines.
   Assoc. of the Institution of British Architects, George
    Godwin, encouraged the Victorian people to embrace
    positive changes and new rail lines.
   Godwin stated rails reduced cost of transporting goods,
    saved time traveling, enhance the military force, and new
    luxuries would be available to middle classes.
   Those who opposed rails said these changes would
    desecrate countryside, but Godwin said building
    development would “architectually embellish the country.”
GEORGE STEPHENSON – ENGINEER

 He won a contest for engineers where he designed
  the best over all locomotive for a new line of rails.
 A train ride from London to Shrewsbury was 12
  hours 40 minutes (1835) opposed to 3.5 days by
  coach (1753).
 He held many ambitious ideas that weren’t always
  embraced, therefore he didn’t express his ideas as
  much in fear of being labeled insane.
THOMAS GREY
 Grey wanted locomotive rails to be a national
  project in Britain and controlled by a national
  board, not capitalists. In 1823 he petitioned
  the Board of Agriculture and Select Committee
  of the House of Commons.
 His visions weren’t taken seriously and no
  action was taken to accomplish them. Had they
  been, railways may have been more efficient
  earlier.
OPPONENTS OF THE RAILWAYS
 1865- Charles was in a train accident, and the
  written article in Punch retold horrific accounts of
  railroad accidents providing graphic descriptions
  and was the first to use the term “vandalism” in
  connection with railways.
 Landowners also extremely disapproved
  particularly among the wealthier classes.
 Worried railways would “contaminate” the
  landscape that inspired artists and poets and had
  nurtured the vision of a ‘green and pleasant land’
  as a national ideal
OPPONENTS OF THE RAILWAYS

 Railways demolished city tenements without
  making provisions for those they evicted
 Farmers were concerned about their crops and
  produce
     “Afarmer in Northampton refused his assent to the
     proposed London and Birmingham Railway on the
     ground that the smoke would injure the fleeces of
     his sheep.” – Jackson’s 1916 History of
     Transportation in Britain
RAILWAY MAP OF ENGLAND: PROPHECY
OPPONENTS OF THE RAILWAYS
 In 1868 Herbert Spencer published an essay on
  “Railway Morals and Railway Policy”
 He examined what he called the politics of the
  railways
 He revealed the discrepancy between public
  perception of railway finance activity and the
  actual illegitimate and untenable practices
 Court arguments were centered around the
  problems of blackened sheep fleeces, ruined fox-
  runs, and dispossessed tenants throughout the
  decade of the 1840s
OPPONENTS TO THE RAILWAYS
 Many of those who worked on canals,
  highways, or roadside inns felt threatened by
  the new locomotives
 Railway speculation became a big problem
     Railways   offered means for investment of capital
      and also offered adequate security and profit to
      ensure healthy growth
     Fabulous wealth suddenly seemed within the reach
      of a lot of people and success stories were
      numerous
OPPONENTS OF THE RAILWAYS
 In 1855 and 1862 two Limited Liability Acts were
  passed
 A popular song of the time summed up the
  hysteria:
       Old me and young, the famish’d and the full,
        The rich and the poor, widow, and wife, and maid,
        Master and certain – all, with one intent,
        Rushed upon the paper scrip; their eager eyes,
        Flashing a fierce unconquerable greed -
        Their hot palms itching – all their being fill’d
        With one desire.
THE LITERATI
 Members of Victorian literati were among those
  most vocally against the railways
 Matthew Arnold
     Criticize the false God of “railroads and coal”
     Wrote Culture and Anarchy

   Carlyle
     Wrote Hudson’s Statue
     Criticized the country’s obsession with wealth,
      accumulation, and material values over moral and
      aesthetic concerns
THE LITERATI
   Punch
     Satirical journal of the 19th century
     Cartoonists were quick to caricature the businessmen
      caught up in the railway mania
     “With regard to railway accidents it is ‘the pace that
      kills.’ This is particularly the case when companies go
      at it too fast in the pursuit of profit.”
     By the 1860s the Punch was waging war against
      railway vandalism
     One article recommended that St. Paul’s Cathedral as a
      potential station saying “What else will it be fit for when
      every railway runs right into London?”
THE LITERATI
   WORDSWORTH
     Regarded   nature as an animated force, as
      inspiration, and as an integral part of his identity
     Believed in the smaller scale of life that had been a
      part of the Romantic ideal of English country life
     Nature should be appreciated for its own sake and
      not as a resource to be exploited for a vastly
      increasing and irreverent humanity.
     “Is there no nook of English ground secure from
      rash assault?”
THE LITERATI
   Wordsworth and the Kendal and Windemere Railways
       In 1844 The K&W Railways threatened Wordsworth’s
        precious Lakes District
       Wordsworth responded with a literary campaign by writing
        poems and letters that were published in the Morning Post
       He tried gaining the support of the public and specifically
        addressed the members of the Board of Trade and the
        House of Commons
       In his first letter he stated that there was not need for a rail
        in close proximity to the Lakes District
       There were no manufacturers, quarries, or substantial
        agriculture base to warrant the intrusion
THE LITERATI
   Wordsworth and K&W Railways cont’d.
       Wordsworth explains that the working class does not have
        the capacity to appreciate the “beauty” and “character of
        seclusion and retirement” that the Lakes District had to
        offer.
       Bringing many travelers into the district would destroy the
        beauty that they had come to enjoy.
       His first letter was not received well
       He was accused of interfering with the innocent enjoyments
        of the poor
       He responded in his second letter by saying that the influx of
        strangers the railway promised could potentially estrange
        the local poor and wreak moral havoc upon the Lake District
THE LITERATI
   Wordsworth and K&W Railway cont’d.
     Wordsworth   used the example of a pass built near
      Lake of Grasmere
     He inserted a poem that explored the beauty of the
      particular pass in the Alps
     Wordsworth then explained how, 30 years later, he
      had gone to see the pass and it was ruined by the
      intrusion of a road
     Wordsworth used many literary references to sway
      those poetics and admirers of literature to his side
EXCERPT FROM WORDSWORTH’S
OUTRAGE DONE TO NATURE
Meanwhile, at social Industry’s command,
How quick, how vast an increase. From the germ
Of some poor hamlet, rapidly produced,
Here a huge town, continuous and compact,
Hiding the face of earth for leagues-and there,
Where a habitation stood before,
Abodes of men irregularly massed
Like trees in forests,-spread through spacious tracts,
O’er which the smoke of unremitting fires
Hangs permanent, and plentiful as wreaths
Of vapour glittering in the mourning sun.
And, wheresoe’er the traveler turns his steps,
He see the barren wilderness erased,
Or disappearing;…
THE LITERATI

   Ruskin
     Particularly against the railway’s ‘vandalism’ of
      personal homes and national treasures
     “A fool always wants to shorten space and time, a wise
      man wants to lengthen both.”
     On a trip to Venice, Ruskin was horrified to find that the
      railway had arrived
     He mourned the railway’s encroachment on the Rhine

     Worked with Wordsworth to keep the Lakes District free
      of railway ‘contamination’
OPPOSITION PHASE ONE

 The public strongly disliked Parliament
  approving a large number of lines (1825-1844)
  and the merging of rails in 1845.
 Why construction was opposed
     Locals accepted the new changes, but didn’t want
      these rails on their property
     Neighborhoods petitioned Parliament to move rails
      within 12 miles
OPPOSITION PHASE TWO 1850’S-1880’S
 Fear of monopolies grew and people were against
  “railway vandalism” (railways pushing through
  previously off-limit areas and spawning on historic
  sites)
 Towns invited trains to revitalize their towns, but
  many didn’t want the companies building within
  the city limits.
 Key trunk lines connecting industrial resources
  with national markets were built despite
  opposition from local residents.
STEAMBOATS
   Robert Fulton invented the steamboat in 1807
   The Clermont operated the first regular steamboat
    route, running between Albany and New York City
   1819 – the Savannah used a steam engine as
    auxiliary power for the first time when it sailed
    across the Atlantic Ocean
   1836 – John Ericsson invented a screw propeller
    to replace paddle wheels
   1838 – the Great Western first ship to sail across
    the Atlantic on steam power alone, completing the
    trip in 15 days

				
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