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          Lesson 5
Speech on Hitler's Invasion of
        the U.S.S.R

      Winston Spencer Churchill
                     simile

• I see also the dull, drilled, docile, brutish
  masses of the Hun soldiery plodding on
  like a swarm of crawling locusts.
                  Metaphor

• They will be rounded up in hordes.
• I see the Russian soldiers standing on the
  threshold of their native land ,guarding the
  fields which their fathers have tilled from time
  immemorial.(P79)
• Means of existence is wrung from the soil...
                        Metaphor
“Behind all this glare, behind all this storm, I see that small group
  of villainous men who plan, organise, and launch this cataract
  of horrors upon mankind…”(p80)
• We shall fight him by land, we shall fight him by sea, we shall
  fight him in the air, until, with God’s help, we have rid the
  earth of his shadow and liberated its peoples from his yoke.
• …, that process of destroying his enemies one by one by
  which he has so long thrived and prospered, and that then the
  scene will be clear for the final act, without which all …(p81)
                    Metaphor
•   Churchill ,he reverted to this theme, and I asked
    whether for him, the arch anti-communist ,this was
    not bowing down in the House of Rimmon. (p78)
•   But all this fades away before the spectacle which
    is now unfolding. (p79)
•   I see the German bombers and fighters in the sky
    ,street smarting from many a British whipping to
    find what they believe is an easier and a safer prey.
    (P80)
               Metonymy
• Just as the industrial Revolution took over
  an immense range of tasks from men’s
  muscles and enormously expanded
  productivity.
                  Alliteration
• with its clanking, heel-clicking... (p79)
• I see also the dull, drilled, docile, brutish masses of
  the Hun soldiery plodding on like a swarm of
  crawling locusts.(79)
• …, just as the cause of any Russian fighting for his
  hearth and home is the cause of free men and free
  peoples in every quarter of the globe.(p82)
                   Assonance
• …, with its clanking, heel-clicking, dandified
  Prussian officers, its crafty expert agents fresh from
  the cowing and tying down …
• ... The Hun soldiery plodding on like crawling
  locusts.
• ...smarting from many a British whipping...(p79)
• … delighted to find what they believe is a easier and
  safer prey. (80)
                  Repetition
• We have but one aim and one single purpose. (p80)
• From this nothing will turn us---nothing.
• We will never parley, we will never negotiate with
  Hitler or any of his gang.
• Any man or state who fights on against Nazidom will
  have our aid. Any man or state who marches with
  Hitler is our foe…(p80)
• That is our policy and that is our declaration
                  Repetition
• We shall appeal to all our friends and allies in every
  part of the world to take the same course and pursue
  it, as we shall faithfully and steadfastly
• …, that process of destroying his enemies one by one
  by which he has so long thrived and prospered, and
  that then the scene will be clear for the final act,
  without which all … (p81)
                       Parallelism

• The past, with its crimes, its follies, and its tragedies,
  flashes away.

• I see... .I see... (p79)

• the return of the bread-winner, of their champion, of
  their protector.(79)
                 Parallelism
• “Behind all this glare, behind all this storm, I
  see that small group of villainous men who
  plan, organise, and launch this cataract of
  horrors upon mankind…”
• We will never parley, we will never negotiate
  with Hitler or any of his gang.
                       Parallelism
• We shall fight him by land, we shall fight him by sea, we
  shall fight him in the air, until, with God’s help, we have rid
  the earth of his shadow and liberated its peoples from his yoke.
• Any man or state who fights on against Nazidom will have
  our aid. Any man or state who marches with Hitler is our
  foe…
• On the contrary, we shall be fortified and encouraged in your
  efforts to rescue mankind from his tyranny. We shall be
  strengthened and not weakened in determination and in
  resources.
• Let us learn the lessons already taught by such cruel
  experience. Let us redouble our exertions, and strike with
  united strength while life and power remain. (p82)
               Hyperbole
– I see the ten thousand villages of Russia where the
  means of existence is wrung so hardly from the
  soil.
            Periodic sentences
• When I awoke on the morning of Sunday, the 22nd,
  the news was brought to me of Hitler’s invasion of
  Russia.
• If Hitler imagines that his attack on Soviet Russia
  will cause the slightest divergence of aims or
  slackening of effort in the great democracies who are
  resolved upon his doom, he is woefully mistaken.
• The past, with its crimes, its follies, and its tragedies,
  flashes away.
• Any man or state who fights on against Nazidom will
  have our aid.
       Rhetorical Question

• …, but can you doubt what our policy
  will be? (p80)
                   Inversion
• From this nothing will turn us---nothing. (p80)
• …, but this I will say: if Hitler imagines that his
  attack on …(p81)
     Lesson 9

•Mark Twain ---
Mirror of America
                    Simile
• Most Americans remember Mark Twain as the
  father of Huck Finn’s idyllic cruise through
  eternal boyhood and Tom Sawyer’s endless
  summer of freedom and adventure.
• All would resurface in his books, together with
  the colorful language that he soaked up with a
  memory that seemed phonographic.
                  Metaphor
• Mark Twain --- Mirror of America
• …, who saw clearly ahead a black wall of
  night.
• The geographic core, in Twain’s early years,
  was the treat valley of the Mississippi River,
  main artery of transportation in the young
  nation's heart.
                    Metaphor
• …, the vast basin drained three-quarters of the settled
  United States
• The cast of characters set before him in his new
  profession was rich and varied- a cosmos.
• All would resurface in his books, together with the
  colorful language that he soaked up with a memory
  that seemed phonographic.
• Steamboat decks teemed not only with main current
  of pioneering humanity, but its flotsam of hustlers,
  gamblers, and thugs as well. (p151)
                  Metaphor
• When railroads began drying up the demand for
  steamboat pilots and the Civil War halted commerce,
  … (p152)
• He went west by stagecoach and succumbed to the
  epidemic of gold and silver fever in Nevada’s Washoe
  region.
• For eight months he flirted with the colossal wealth
  available to the lucky and the persistent, and was
  rebuffed.
                  Metaphor
• Mark Twain honed and experimented with his
  new writing muscles, but he had to leave the
  city for a while because of some scathing
  columns he wrote. (p152)
• Twain began digging his way to regional fame as a
  newspaper reporter and humorist. (p152)
• Casually he debunked revered artists and art
  treasures, and took unholy verbal shots at the
  Holy Land.
                Parallelism
• Most Americans remember Mark Twain as the father
  of Huck Finn’s idyllic cruise through eternal
  boyhood and Tom Sawyer’s endless summer of
  freedom and adventure.
                    Hyperbole

• Most Americans remember Mark Twain as the father of
  Huck Finn’s idyllic cruise through eternal boyhood and
  Tom Sawyer’s endless summer of freedom and
  adventure.
• The cast of characters set before him in his new
  profession was rich and varied- a cosmos.
              Personification
• I found another Twain as well– one who grew
  cynical, bitter, saddened by the profound
  personal tragedies life dealt him. (p150)
• In later life Twain acknowledged that the river
  had acquainted him with ...
• Broke and discouraged, he accepted a job as
  reporter with the Virginia City Territorial
  Enterprise, to literature's enduring
  gratitude.(p152)
                Personification
• --and when she projects a new surprise, the grave
  world smiles as usual, and says ‘well, that is California
  all over.’”(p153)
• -an entry that will determine his course forever.(p153)
• America laughed with him.(p154)
• Bitterness fed on the man who had made the world
  laugh.(p155)
• Personal tragedy haunted his entire life.(p155)
                      Antithesis
• From them all Mark Twain gained a keen perception of the
  human race, of the difference between what people claim
  to be and what they really are.(p151)
• Casually he debunked revered artists and art treasures, and
  took unholy verbal shots at the Holy Land.
• Where they have left no sign that they had existed --a
  world which will lament them a day and forget them
  forever.
                    Euphemism
• Dictating his autobiography late in life, he commented with
  a crushing sense of despair on men's final release from
  earthly struggle.
               Alliteration
It was a splendid population– for all the slow, sleepy,
   sluggish-brained sloths stayed at home…(p153)

… and rushing them through with a magnificent
 dash and daring and a recklessness of cost or
 consequences...
                     Metonymy

• The instant riches of a mining strike would not be his in
  the reporting trade, but for making money, his pen would
  prove mightier than his pickaxe.
                 Synecdoche
• Keelboats, flatboats, and large rafts carried the first
  major commerce.
           Unit 10
• The Trial that Rocked the World
               1. Metaphor:
•   No one,... that may case would snowball
  into...
•   ...our town ...had taken on a circus
  atmosphere.
•   The street ...sprouted with ...
•   He thundered in his sonorous organ tones.
•   ...champion had not scorched the infidels...
• …after the preliminary sparring over legalities…
               2. Simile:
•   ...swept the arena like a prairie fire
•   ...a palm fan like a sword...
           3. Metonymy
•   ...tomorrow the magazines, the books,
  the newspapers...
•   The Christian believes that man came
  from above. ...below.
            4. Hyperbole:
• The trial that rocked the world
• His reputation as an authority on Scripture
  is recognized throughout the world.
           5. Ridicule:
•   Bryan, ageing and paunchy, was
  assisted ...
•   Bryan mopped his bald dome in
  silence.
            6. Sarcasm:
• There is some doubt about that.
• And it is a mighty strong combination.
      7. Transferred epithet
•  Darrow had whisper throwing a
  reassuring arm round my shoulder.
             8. Antithesis
•  The Christian believes that man came
  from above. The evolutionist believes that
  he must have come from below.
           9. Assonance:
•  when bigots lighted faggots to burn...
            10. Repetition:
• The truth always wins...the truth...the
  truth...
         11. synecdoche
• the case had erupted round my head
  12. oxymoron (矛盾修饰法)
• Dudley Field Malene called my conviction
  a , “victorious defeat”
       Lesson 11
But What's a
 Dictionary For?
            Personification
• The storm of abuse in the popular press that greeted
  the appearance of Webster’s Third New International
  Dictionary is a curious phenomenon. (p185)
• An article in the Atlantic viewed it as a
  “disappointment,” a “shock ,” a “calamity,” “a
  scandal and a disaster.”
• The Yew York Times, in a special editorial, felt that
  the work would…
• The Journal of the American Bar Association saw the
  publication as ...
                Alliteration
• --a concept of how things get written that throws
  very little light on Lincoln but a great deal on Life.
  (p185)
                 Assonance
• The difference, for example, between the much-
  touted Second International (1934) and the much-
  clouted Third International (1961) is not like the
  difference between … (p186)
               Synecdoche
• What of those sheets and jets of air that are now
  being used, in place of old-fashioned oak and
  hinges, to screen entrances and exists?
                 Metonymy
• The Washington Post, in an editorial captioned
  "keep Your Old Webster's,” says, in the first
  sentence, … (p189)
• in short, all of these publications are written in the
  language that the 3rd International describes, even
  the very editorials which scorn it. (p189)
           Zeugma (轭式修饰法)

• the use of a word to modify or govern 2 or more
  words usu. in such a manner that it applies to each in
  different sense or makes sense with only one.


• He lost his hat and his temper.
• To wage war and peace
                  Zeugma
• Miss Bolo went home in a flood of tears and a
  sedan chair.

• With weeping eyes and hearts
• The issue of New York Times …hail the
  Second as the authority… and the Third as a

  scandal…
   LESSON 12


• THE
• LOONS
                   Metaphor
• You could look out the windows and see, through the
  filigree of the spruce trees, the water glistening
  greenly as the sun caught it.(p209)
• It seemed to me that Piquette must be in some way a
  daughter of the forest, … (p210)
• I tried another line. (p211)
• At night the lake was like black glass with a streak of
  amber which was the path of the moon. (p213)
             Personification
• The two grey squirrels were still there, gossiping…
• The news that somehow had not found its way into
  letters.
       Transferred epithet

– All around, the spruce trees grew tall and close-set,
  branches blackly sharp against the sky which was
  lightened by a cold flickering of stars.
– I was ashamed, ashamed of my own timidity, the
  frightened tendency to look the other way.
           Transferred epithet

• My brother, Roderick, who had not been born when
  we were here last summer, sat on the car rug in the
  sunshine and examined a brown spruce core,
  meticulously turning it round and round in his small
  and curious hands.
                 Metonymy
• Those voices belonged to a world separated by aeons
  from our neat world of summer cottages and the
  lighted lamps of home. (our modern civilization)
               Synecdoche

• the damn bone’s flared up again
                 Hyperbole
• … her grimy cotton dresses that were always miles
  too long. (p207)
• …those voices belonged to a world separated by
  aeons from our neat world
                 Hyperbole
• A: Exaggeration by using numerals:
  – 1. Thanks a million.
  – 2. The middle eastern bazaar takes you back
    hundreds even thousands of years.
  – 3. I see the ten thousand villages of Russia where
    the means of existence is wrung so hardly from the
    soil.
                 Hyperbole
• B: Exaggeration by using comparative and
  superlative degrees of adjectives
  – 1. Sherlock Holmes is considered by many people
    as the greatest detective in fictional literature.
  – 2. There was never a child who loved her father
    more than I do.
  – 3. I never saw a prettier sight.
  – 4. You write ten times better than any man in the
    class.
                Hyperbole
• Exaggeration by using extravagant
  adjectives:
  – 1. … where goods of every conceivable kind are
    sold.
  – 2. The burnished copper containers catches the
    light of innumerable lamps and braziers.
  – 3. The apprentices were incredibly young.
                 Hyperbole
• D. Exaggeration by using noun or verb
  phrases:
   – 1. It is a vast cavern of a room, so thick with
     the dust of centuries that the mud-brick
     walls and vaulted roof are only dimly
     visible.
   – 2. The sister cried her eyes out at the loss of
     the necklace.
                 Hyperbole
–   3. They beat him into all the colors of rainbow.
–   4. Her dress was always miles too long.
–   5. I was scared to death.
–   6. I sat there for a while, frozen with horror.
–   7. She was so beautiful--- her beauty made the
    bright world dim.
           UNIT Fourteen
• Argentia Bay
                      Metaphor
• Passing from the Augusta to the Prince of Wales in King’s
  barge…
• Hitler’s bitten off a big bite this time
• This is the changing of the guard.
• Blockade,…would in time weaken the grip of Nazi claws on
  Europe.
• They vote their political hunches to protect their political
  hides.
• The war’s a ball game they can watch. You’re the home team,
  because you talk our language.
• Hitler’s black emprie would suddenly collapse in rubble,
  blood, dang flame.
             Transferred epithet
• Gray peace pervaded the wilderness ringed Argentia Bay in
  Newfoundland.
• The sailors swarmed into a laughing, cheering ring aroud the
  two men.
                   Pun
• It was a shocking jump.
                 personification
• Winston Churchill came to the Augusta at eleven o’clock,
  which saw the dramatic handshake of Poosevelt and Churchill
  at the gangway.
              Antonomasia代称
• Churchill, a bent Pickwick in blue uniform, looked up at him
  with majestic good humor.
               oxymoron
• Hopkins gave Victor Henry a sad smile.
                  Assonance
• Wine and dine
Thank You!

				
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