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					                     Foundational Principles of Hermeneutics
                                 Instructor: Amos ben Michael


                                          Resources 1
I. Strong’s
       A. Illustrate Strong’s
              1. Word
              2. Numbering System
              3. Dictionary
              4. Strengths And Weaknesses
II. TWOT
       A. Kept: Gen 26:5
       B. What does this word mean?
III. Workshop:
       A. The Reference                 Genesis 26:5
       B. The Word                      Kept
       C. The Strongs #                 8104
       D. The TWOT #                    2414
       E. The Hebrew Word               Shamar:
       F. Nuances: keep, guard, observe, give heed.
               1. Root          Shamar:
               2. Family (derived words)
                       a) (2414a) shomrâ: guard, watch (Psa 141:3, only).
                       b) (2414b) shemura: eyelid (Psa 77:4, only).
                       c) (2414c) shimmûr: night watch (Exo 12:42, only).
                       d) (2414d) shomrôn Samaria.
                       e) (2414e) ashmûrâ, and ashmoret) night watch.
                       f) (2414f) mishmar guard, guardpost.
                       g) (2414g) mishmeret obligation, service.
ENTRIES
sh¹mar is used 420 times in the Qal, 37 times in the Niphal, 4 times in Piel and Hithpael. The
Akkadian cognate sham¹ru means "wait upon, " "attend to"; the Phoenician, "watch, guard"; the
Arabic samara "watch." The closest synonym is n¹ƒar "watch, " "guard, " "keep, " "observe, "
which is used in much the same way as sh¹mar. There are other verbs which occasionally overlap
one of the uses of sh¹mar, but which are otherwise quite distinct.



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The basic idea of the root is "to exercise great care over." This meaning can be seen to underlie
the various semantic modifications seen in the verb: In combination with other verbs the
meaning is "do carefully or diligently". Thus Prov 19:8, "Give heed to understanding"; Deut
11:32, "Be careful to do (i.e. perform carefully) all the statutes and ordinances" and in Num
23:12, speak carefully or faithfully.

Secondly it expresses the careful attention to be paid to the obligations of a covenant, to laws,
statutes, etc. This is one of the most frequent uses of the verb. Thus in Gen 18:19 Abraham is to
command his children to keep the way of the Lord, that is, give careful heed to God's ways (cf.
also Exo 20:6; Lev 18:26; Deut 26:16; Ezek 11:20). It should be noted that the observance of
God's laws was not to be a matter of theory only or of perfunctory compliance. The expression
"to do them" is frequently appended, such as in Ezek 37:24. Proverbs 4:21 states they are to be
kept in the heart. Furthermore, the expression is used not only of an obligation to laws, etc., but
also to a sacred occupation such as the priesthood (Num 18:7).

A third ramification is "take care of, " "guard." This involves keeping or tending to things such
as a garden (Gen 2:15), a flock (Gen 30:31), a house (2Sam 15:16). Or it may involve guarding
against intruders, etc., such as the cherubim guarding the way to the tree of life in Gen 3:24, or
gatekeepers (Isa 21:11) or watchmen (Song 5:7). The same is true with regard to persons. Thus
Cain asks, "Am I my brother's keeper?" (Gen 4:9). David frequently speaks of God's care and
protection in such passages as Psa 34:20 [H 21 ]; Psa 86:2; Psa 121:3-4, 7, and others. In Job 2:6
God uses sh¹mar in his injunction to Satan not to touch Job's life. Again, David touchingly
admonishes Joab, before he enters battle against Absalom to "watch over Absalom for me" in
2Sam 18:12.

Frequently the verb is used to speak of personal discipline, the need to take heed in respect to
one's life and actions: Psa 39:2 "I will heed my ways"; and Prov 13:3, of guarding the lips.

A fourth category is the meaning "regard," "give heed to." It is used of a man's attitude of paying
attention to, or reverence for, God or others. Thus in Hos 4:10, Israel has abandoned paying heed
to God. Psalm 31:6 [H 7] speaks of those who revere (sh¹mar) vain idols. In another related use,
the Psalmist says in Psa 130:3, "If Thou shouldest mark (sh¹mar, truly pay attention to)
iniquities, who would stand?" (see also Job 13:27). This may be used in a hostile sense as in
2Sam 11:16, or in an expectant sense, as in Zech 11:11 and Psa 59:9.

The last category has to do with "preserving, " "storing up, " such as the anger against Israel
which Edom cherishes and preserves (Amos 1:11), or knowledge in Mal 2:7. So also with food
in Gen 41:35 and 1Sam 9:24, or anything that is precious (Exo 22:7 [H 6]).


Bibliography: Beegle, D. M., "Samaria, " in WBE. Kelso, J., "Samaria, " in ZPEB. Wiseman, D.
J., "Samaria, " in NBD. Wright, G. E., "Samaria, " Biblical Archeologist 22:67-78, TDNT, IX,
pp. 237-39. THAT, II, pp. 982-86.




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 Macintosh HD:Users:russbeeson:Documents:Microsoft User Data:Saved Attachments:5-T-How to use resources-
                                               Heb.doc
                     Foundational Principles of Hermeneutics
                                 Instructor: Amos ben Michael


                                     Resources - Template
IV. Workshop:

       A. The Reference                 ____________________________________

       B. Word                          ____________________________________

       C. The Strongs #                 ____________________________________

       D. The TWOT #                    ____________________________________

       E. The Hebrew/Greek Word                 ____________________________________

       F. Nuances: ___________, ___________, ___________, ___________, Etc.

               1. Root          ___________________________________

               2. Family (related words)

                       a) _________________________________________________

                       b) _________________________________________________

                       c) _________________________________________________

                       d) _________________________________________________

                       e) _________________________________________________

                       f) _________________________________________________

                       g) _________________________________________________

                       h) _________________________________________________




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