Federal Republic of Nigeria Political and Economic Change by hcj

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									 Federal Republic of Nigeria
Political and Economic Change
       By Héctor Barrera
                  Background
 Nigeria is a Federal Republic
 Ethnic and religion communities have challenged the
  legitimacy of the national authority since the days of
  colonialism.
 The north (Hausa-Fulani) is mostly Muslim.
 The southwest (Yoruba) is predominantly Muslim and
  Christian.
 The southeast (Igbo) are comprised of mainly Christians.
 Gained its independence in 1960 from the United
  Kingdom.
 How Political and Economic Change
       Is Studied In Nigeria

 Political and economic change in Nigeria can
  be studied by dividing its history in three
  parts:
          Pre-colonial era (800-1860 C.E.)
          Colonial era (1860-1960)
          Modern Nigeria (1960-pressent)
   Pre-colonial Era (800-1860 C.E.)
                    Political Change
 Nigeria was a collection of
  various empires, kingdoms, and
  states with elaborate networks
  of trade and complex political
  systems.
 The Fulani came to the north and
  established the Sokoto Caliphate
  (Muslim state, 1808-1900), which
  put in place the tradition of an
  organized, central government      The State of Ife, Kingdom of Benin, and Kingdom
                                     of Oyo are located approximately within the
  based on religious faith.          territory designated “Yoruba” on the map. Their
                                     political systems included limited government.
  Pre-colonial Era (800-1860 C.E.)
    Political Change: How The Fulani Came To
    Power In The North


 Fulani people (their origins from western Sudan) began
  immigrating to the Hausa states from the west.
 Fulani man named Usman ‘dan Fodio waged a series of
  religious and political revolts in the region, which led to
  the conquest of what is today most of Northern Nigeria.
 The territory that he controlled is known as the Sokoto
  Caliphate.
       Pre-colonial Era (800-1860 C.E.)
                         Economic Change
 British interest in West Africa was due to
  trade—Slave trade, which was the first
  important international trade.
 Slave trade started in the 16th century
         Motivated by Western goods
         Wars fought among the different
           kingdoms guaranteed a plentiful
           supply of captives, mainly in
           Southwestern Nigeria
                                              Slave trading patterns were
         The British Parliament outlawed the slowly converted to other goods
           slave trade in 1807
          Colonial era (1860-1960)
                        Political Change
 European colonization changed the
  politics, economics, and cultures of the
  entire African continent.
 In the case of Nigeria, it was Britain who
  was the colonizer.
 In 1914, Lord Lugard joined for the first
  time the north and south of Nigeria into a
  single colony, although both parts
  continued to be governed separately.
        Colonial era (1860-1960)
                          Political Change Cont.
 Lord Lugard had set in place a system of indirect rule in Nigeria:
  the British administration would not intervene directly into
  everyday life in its colonies, but would support the rule of
  traditional leaders, such as the Fulani emirs. This system
  worked best in the north, but ran into some problems in the
  south.
 British rule was strongest in the south
     Islamic hierarchies were already prevalent in the North
     Western style education- -had schools set up by Christian missionaries. This
      created a relatively literate population.
     Created more divisions b/w north and south
          Colonial era (1860-1960)
                          Economic Change
 An export economy
     market orientated
     Exported raw materials to Britain
       o Involved in export was the expanding mining industry
     Mainly benefited Europe, while exploiting the labor and resources of Nigeria.
     The development of a modern day system of transportation and communication was
      important to stimulate commerce.
     The Nigerian people were taxed heavily.
 Move to Independence
     Unions and political associations formed during the colonial period, as well as a
      growing group of intellectuals and professionals. These groups formed a strong
      base in the nationalist movement for independence.
     Western values such as justice and freedom were taught in schools--unknowingly
      providing the tools with which to challenge colonial rule.
     Pressure from leaders of the different ethnic groups in the region
    Modern Nigeria (1960-pressent)
                                Political Change
 Independent Nigeria was born on October 1, 1960.
 1st Republic (Parliamentary system , 1963 -1966) ended in a coup
       Instability: Mistrust and suspicions of fraud
       President Azikiwe and Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa were
        removed from power by a military coup.
 1966-1998: UNPREDICTABILITY
      Between 1966 and 1979, several military rulers led Nigeria. In 1979 the country move to
       civilian rule again under the elected President Alhaji Shegu Shagari. But in 1983, another
       series of military coups began. Four more military leaders ruled Nigeria during this time
       period.
      2nd and 3rd Republics failed
 1999-Present: Democratically Elected Presidents
      The 1999, 2003, and 2007 elections, although fraudulent and controversial
       satisfy the three election rule, suggesting Nigeria will keep its democracy.
      The People's Democratic Party (PDP) has won all three elections.
   Modern Nigeria (1960-pressent)
                     Political Change
 Biafran War (July 1967 – 15 January 1970): southeastern
  provinces attempted secession as the self-proclaimed Republic
  of Biafra.
      The conflict was the result of ethnic, economic, cultural and
       religious tensions among the many peoples of Nigeria.
 Sharia Law Conflicts—2000
      Several predominantly Muslim states in northern Nigeria
       formally adopted Sharia law as part of their legal system.
    Modern Nigeria (1960-pressent)
               Political Change Cont.
 Sharia In the Headlines
     Nigeria's Sharia law has
      gained attention because of
      Amina Lawal, a 30-year-old
      divorced Muslim woman who
      had a child out of wedlock.
      Evidence of adultery was
      considered strong enough
      that she faced charges in a
      Sharia court.
     Modern Nigeria (1960-pressent)
                   Economic Change
 Nigeria is a Rentier State: a state that obtains much of its revenue from
  the export of oil or another natural resource.
 Its largest exports are oil and natural gas.
       Overly dependent on the petroleum sector
       In terms of total oil exports, Nigeria ranks 8th in the world
       Combined oil and natural gas make up about 80% of government
        revenue and up to 95% of export profit.
       The UK and the US are the largest trade partners for Nigerian
        exports.
 Major Imports: machinery and heavy equipment
 GDP Composition by Sector: Agriculture 33.4%, Industry 34.1%, service
  32.5%
 GDP US$ 273.042 billion (2011 estimate) --32th ranked
 GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,600 (2011 est.) --177th ranked
    Modern Nigeria (1960-pressent)
                Economic Issues
 1970s—Nigeria joins OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum
  Exporting Countries)
 1980s: as the price and output of oil fell in the 1980s, Nigeria
  suffered economically. As a result of the growing poverty in
  Nigeria, the country qualified for loans from the World Bank and
  International Monetary Fund (IMF) by the late 1980s.
   This began a series of Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs)
     that were conditions of the loans. SAPs required the Nigerian
     government to reduce spending on social programs, privatize
     many state companies, ease trade restrictions, and control the
     local currency.
 Modern Nigeria (1960-pressent)
           Economic Issues Cont.
 Nigeria’s oil revenue does not benefit the average
  citizen.
 Doesn’t really use that much oil revenue to invest in
  education or infrastructure
 NEEDS and SEEDS (National/Sate Economic
  Empowerment and Development Strategies, 2003-
  2007) tried to fix some of these problems.
 Improve the quality of assistance to the country--
  poverty reduction, job creation, consolidate democratic
  structures, etc.
Modern Nigeria (1960-pressent)
         The Oil Curse
 Economies that are dependent on natural
  resources are prone to the “Dutch
  Disease.”
    Causes domestic products to become
     more expensive on international
     markets. This depresses domestic
     export industries.
    Modern Nigeria (1960-pressent)
                    Economic Change
 2006--Nigeria paid off its multi- billion dollar Paris Club debt.
 Nigeria agreed to pay the Paris Club $12.4 billion in exchange for
  the remainder of its $30 billion official debts being written off.
 Nigeria still owe money to the IMF and World Banks
   external debt is $6 billion (October 2012 est.)
 Most small industries were nationalized in the 1970s and 1980s
 1990s—privatization of small government companies and of
  large industries (i.e. National Electric Power Authority)
 Nigeria’s economy has improved very much in recent years
http://www.online-
stopwatch.com/countdown-timer/
                         Bibliography
Comparative Politics Today (textbook)
Atofarati, Abubakar A. "The Nigerian Civil War, Causes, Strategies, And Lessons
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"Country Comparison." index Mundi. Web. 10 Feb. 2013.
     <http://www.indexmundi.com/g/r.aspx?c=ni&v=67>.
"The Emergence of Sharia Law." OnlineNewsHour. Web. 10 Feb. 2013.
     <http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/africa/nigeria/sharia_law.html>.
 "Nigeria Economy." Economy Watch. Web. 10 Feb. 2013.
     <http://www.economywatch.com/world_economy/nigeria/>.
 "Nigeria settles Paris Club debt." BBC News. Web. 10 Feb. 2013.
     <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4926966.stm>.
 "Sectors: Oil & Gas." Frontier: Market Intelligence. Web. 10 Feb. 2013.
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     26&p_site_id=126>.
  "Unit Five: Country Perspectives." Exploring Africa. Web. 10 Feb. 2013.
     <http://exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu/teachers/curriculum/m25/activity3.ph
     p>.

								
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