Federal Republic of Nigeria Political and Economic Change By Héctor Barrera Background Nigeria is a Federal Republic Ethnic and religion communities have challenged the legitimacy of the national authority since the days of colonialism. The north (Hausa-Fulani) is mostly Muslim. The southwest (Yoruba) is predominantly Muslim and Christian. The southeast (Igbo) are comprised of mainly Christians. Gained its independence in 1960 from the United Kingdom. How Political and Economic Change Is Studied In Nigeria Political and economic change in Nigeria can be studied by dividing its history in three parts: Pre-colonial era (800-1860 C.E.) Colonial era (1860-1960) Modern Nigeria (1960-pressent) Pre-colonial Era (800-1860 C.E.) Political Change Nigeria was a collection of various empires, kingdoms, and states with elaborate networks of trade and complex political systems. The Fulani came to the north and established the Sokoto Caliphate (Muslim state, 1808-1900), which put in place the tradition of an organized, central government The State of Ife, Kingdom of Benin, and Kingdom of Oyo are located approximately within the based on religious faith. territory designated “Yoruba” on the map. Their political systems included limited government. Pre-colonial Era (800-1860 C.E.) Political Change: How The Fulani Came To Power In The North Fulani people (their origins from western Sudan) began immigrating to the Hausa states from the west. Fulani man named Usman ‘dan Fodio waged a series of religious and political revolts in the region, which led to the conquest of what is today most of Northern Nigeria. The territory that he controlled is known as the Sokoto Caliphate. Pre-colonial Era (800-1860 C.E.) Economic Change British interest in West Africa was due to trade—Slave trade, which was the first important international trade. Slave trade started in the 16th century Motivated by Western goods Wars fought among the different kingdoms guaranteed a plentiful supply of captives, mainly in Southwestern Nigeria Slave trading patterns were The British Parliament outlawed the slowly converted to other goods slave trade in 1807 Colonial era (1860-1960) Political Change European colonization changed the politics, economics, and cultures of the entire African continent. In the case of Nigeria, it was Britain who was the colonizer. In 1914, Lord Lugard joined for the first time the north and south of Nigeria into a single colony, although both parts continued to be governed separately. Colonial era (1860-1960) Political Change Cont. Lord Lugard had set in place a system of indirect rule in Nigeria: the British administration would not intervene directly into everyday life in its colonies, but would support the rule of traditional leaders, such as the Fulani emirs. This system worked best in the north, but ran into some problems in the south. British rule was strongest in the south Islamic hierarchies were already prevalent in the North Western style education- -had schools set up by Christian missionaries. This created a relatively literate population. Created more divisions b/w north and south Colonial era (1860-1960) Economic Change An export economy market orientated Exported raw materials to Britain o Involved in export was the expanding mining industry Mainly benefited Europe, while exploiting the labor and resources of Nigeria. The development of a modern day system of transportation and communication was important to stimulate commerce. The Nigerian people were taxed heavily. Move to Independence Unions and political associations formed during the colonial period, as well as a growing group of intellectuals and professionals. These groups formed a strong base in the nationalist movement for independence. Western values such as justice and freedom were taught in schools--unknowingly providing the tools with which to challenge colonial rule. Pressure from leaders of the different ethnic groups in the region Modern Nigeria (1960-pressent) Political Change Independent Nigeria was born on October 1, 1960. 1st Republic (Parliamentary system , 1963 -1966) ended in a coup Instability: Mistrust and suspicions of fraud President Azikiwe and Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa were removed from power by a military coup. 1966-1998: UNPREDICTABILITY Between 1966 and 1979, several military rulers led Nigeria. In 1979 the country move to civilian rule again under the elected President Alhaji Shegu Shagari. But in 1983, another series of military coups began. Four more military leaders ruled Nigeria during this time period. 2nd and 3rd Republics failed 1999-Present: Democratically Elected Presidents The 1999, 2003, and 2007 elections, although fraudulent and controversial satisfy the three election rule, suggesting Nigeria will keep its democracy. The People's Democratic Party (PDP) has won all three elections. Modern Nigeria (1960-pressent) Political Change Biafran War (July 1967 – 15 January 1970): southeastern provinces attempted secession as the self-proclaimed Republic of Biafra. The conflict was the result of ethnic, economic, cultural and religious tensions among the many peoples of Nigeria. Sharia Law Conflicts—2000 Several predominantly Muslim states in northern Nigeria formally adopted Sharia law as part of their legal system. Modern Nigeria (1960-pressent) Political Change Cont. Sharia In the Headlines Nigeria's Sharia law has gained attention because of Amina Lawal, a 30-year-old divorced Muslim woman who had a child out of wedlock. Evidence of adultery was considered strong enough that she faced charges in a Sharia court. Modern Nigeria (1960-pressent) Economic Change Nigeria is a Rentier State: a state that obtains much of its revenue from the export of oil or another natural resource. Its largest exports are oil and natural gas. Overly dependent on the petroleum sector In terms of total oil exports, Nigeria ranks 8th in the world Combined oil and natural gas make up about 80% of government revenue and up to 95% of export profit. The UK and the US are the largest trade partners for Nigerian exports. Major Imports: machinery and heavy equipment GDP Composition by Sector: Agriculture 33.4%, Industry 34.1%, service 32.5% GDP US$ 273.042 billion (2011 estimate) --32th ranked GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,600 (2011 est.) --177th ranked Modern Nigeria (1960-pressent) Economic Issues 1970s—Nigeria joins OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) 1980s: as the price and output of oil fell in the 1980s, Nigeria suffered economically. As a result of the growing poverty in Nigeria, the country qualified for loans from the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) by the late 1980s. This began a series of Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) that were conditions of the loans. SAPs required the Nigerian government to reduce spending on social programs, privatize many state companies, ease trade restrictions, and control the local currency. Modern Nigeria (1960-pressent) Economic Issues Cont. Nigeria’s oil revenue does not benefit the average citizen. Doesn’t really use that much oil revenue to invest in education or infrastructure NEEDS and SEEDS (National/Sate Economic Empowerment and Development Strategies, 2003- 2007) tried to fix some of these problems. Improve the quality of assistance to the country-- poverty reduction, job creation, consolidate democratic structures, etc. Modern Nigeria (1960-pressent) The Oil Curse Economies that are dependent on natural resources are prone to the “Dutch Disease.” Causes domestic products to become more expensive on international markets. This depresses domestic export industries. Modern Nigeria (1960-pressent) Economic Change 2006--Nigeria paid off its multi- billion dollar Paris Club debt. Nigeria agreed to pay the Paris Club $12.4 billion in exchange for the remainder of its $30 billion official debts being written off. Nigeria still owe money to the IMF and World Banks external debt is $6 billion (October 2012 est.) Most small industries were nationalized in the 1970s and 1980s 1990s—privatization of small government companies and of large industries (i.e. National Electric Power Authority) Nigeria’s economy has improved very much in recent years http://www.online- stopwatch.com/countdown-timer/ Bibliography Comparative Politics Today (textbook) Atofarati, Abubakar A. "The Nigerian Civil War, Causes, Strategies, And Lessons Learnt." africamasterweb. 10 Feb. 2013. <http://www.africamasterweb.com/BiafranWarCauses.html>. "Country Comparison." index Mundi. Web. 10 Feb. 2013. <http://www.indexmundi.com/g/r.aspx?c=ni&v=67>. "The Emergence of Sharia Law." OnlineNewsHour. Web. 10 Feb. 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/africa/nigeria/sharia_law.html>. "Nigeria Economy." Economy Watch. Web. 10 Feb. 2013. <http://www.economywatch.com/world_economy/nigeria/>. "Nigeria settles Paris Club debt." BBC News. Web. 10 Feb. 2013. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4926966.stm>. "Sectors: Oil & Gas." Frontier: Market Intelligence. Web. 10 Feb. 2013. <http://www.tradeinvestnigeria.com/pls/cms/TI_SECOUT.secout_dev?p_sid= 26&p_site_id=126>. "Unit Five: Country Perspectives." Exploring Africa. Web. 10 Feb. 2013. <http://exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu/teachers/curriculum/m25/activity3.ph p>.
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