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					HTKD          Page        Comment
Chap. 1                 3 Franz Bopp was the first to establish comparison between languages on a systemat
Chap. 1                 3 There are two kinds of linguistc comparison, equally legitimate but with two distinc
Chap. 1       2,3         Wherever the comparative method is carried to a successful conclusion it leads to t
Chap. 1                 6 Comparative Indo-European poetics may be difined as a linguistic approach to the f
Chap. 1                 7 Language is linked to culture in a complex fashion: it is at once the expression of cu
Chap. 1                 8 Non-material culture, what anthropologist now term symbolic culture, is equally am
Chap. 1                 9 On a higher level of grammar, where meaning is pertinent, we find the syntactic, se
Chap. 1                 9 The formulas tend to make reference to culturally significant features--'something t
Chap. 1                 9 A MERISM is a two-part figure which makes reference to the totality of a single high
Chap. 2                12 The study of what we now term Indo-European poetics has hitherto proceeded in th
Chap. 2       16, 17      The primary modifications to Parry's definition of theme were to de-emphasize the
Chap. 2                20 Paul Thieme: "We may state with certainty that they [the Indo-European community
Chap. 2                27 The comparative method in linguistics and poetics can illuminate not only ancient w
Chap. 3                28 On the level of sounda alone, where meaning per se and meaningful units are not i
Chap. 3                29 In all instances (phonetic figures, grammatical figures, etc.) the fundamental organ
Chap. 3                29 Analysis of the phrase "last but not least"

          4            50   Two opposite but complementary lines of study: 1) proceed back from languages to
          4            51   Three earliest attested branches of IE are Anatolian, Indo-Iranian, and Greek (secon
          4            51   Anatolian attested through excavations in central Turkey that have unearthed clay t
          4            52   Great majority of Hittite texts are religious in nature, both public and private, and in
          4            52   Hittite mythological texts are mostly prose but contain some portions that are mean
          4            53   Origin legend of Zalpa Tale has same themes as Greek legend (subject of Aeschylu
          4            54   Some Lydian inscriptions have been discovered to be organized into strophes and e
          4            54   The Rigveda (rg--verse, veda--knowledge, sacred knowledge) is the oldest collectio
          4            56   The Artharvaveda is a collection of hymns used to appease, bless, and curse; formu
          4            56   interesting clothing detail of being girded with a cord for strength
          4            59   Anatolian Hittite, Vedic Indic, and Old Iranian poetic literatures are mostly religious
          4            59   Poetic monuments begin with Iliad and Odyssey (Homer), along with Theogony and
          4            60   examples of "the Hellenization of Indo-European poetics"
          4            62   Tend to find IE inheritance in Italy in the language of religion/cult and the language
          4            62   This developing literature soon gave up its native Italic (?) versification for Greek m
          4            62   I like the features of the English translation of these lines--the alliteration and voice
          4            64   Interesting correlation between Christianization and a flourishing of poetical literat
          4            65   Tocharian (extinct language) shows a connection to IE through its praseology for th
          5            68   Chapter 5 will be covering the social function of poetry and the purpose of the IE po
          5            68   Function of IE poet was to be custodian and transmitter of traditional culture
          5            69   From Campanile quote: IE poetry was a society's sum of knowledge, which was ora
          5            70   The poet, like the priest, was indispensible. The IE poet was the hightest-paid profe
          5            70   Same reciprocity relation between poet and patron also existed between poet and g
          5            70   Poetry was a necessity of IE life, a necessary condition for existence. The spoken w
          5            72   Reciprocity relations between host/guest, poet/patron, god/worhipper
          5            73   Words for the poet's understanding, wisdom, and remembering and all derivatives o
          5            73   Single most telling indication of common IE origin of the reciprocal poet-patron rela
 8          109   The language of India (earliest documentation in the Rigveda) raised the art of the
 8          110   some effects are purely phonetic (non-semantic)
 8          111   goddess's speech to the poet is an exhaustive classification of the speech sounds o
 8          111   The distortion of the grammar is often correlated with and in the service of phonolo
 8          112   The figure of anaphora, repetition of a sound, word, or phrase at the beginning of s
 8          115   priamel: stylistic focusing devce in which one or more terms serve as foil for the po
 8          116   The choice involved in composition is mainly a choice of formulae, motives, themes
 9          117   Ordinary word (Irish) for a lerned poet was fili, etymologically "seer"; another was b
 9          118   Old Irish word for "phophecy, prophetic wisdom" and Welsh for "poetry" and Gaulis
 9          119   The principal relevant phonetic features in Irish are the many varieties of rhyme and
 9          119   A further adornmen used concurently with rhyme is "consonance"
 9          120   Native term for alliteration seems to have been "stitching"
 9          120   Irish is unusual in that alliteration is by underlying morphophonemes, not by surface
 9          122   There is chain alliteration between the last word of each verse and the first (stresse
10          126   The single most important cultural manifestation of "the flowering of Italy" was the
10 130-31         This Faliscan poet has produced an epigram for an occasion. With all the technique
10          132   These poetic figures are not likely to be borrowed from Greek; they are independen
10          132   inscribed stones show the word order figure of distracted constituents straddling a
10          134   The advent of writing in Italy in the seventh and sixth centuries only opened a wind
11          135   ...the problem of origins is, in a sense, a false one. It would be better to speak of an
11          136   The great majority of our documents in the 2nd-millenium Anatolian languages Hitt
11          136   Aim is to call attention to certain manifestations within Hittite and Anatolian rituals
11          138   The initial imperative "open!" provides a dramatic frame to begin the dialogue, a de
11          143   The implication is clear: by the 17th century BC we have unambiguous evidence for
11          143   The number of speakers is never more than three

12          152 reivew: The syntactic component of the grammar of IE poetics is the domain of "for
12          152 In formulaics especially, as elsewhere in the study of poetics, the investigator must
12          153 Formulas may make reference to other formulas and derive their full meaning only b
12 153-54       Long-term preservation is assured by repetition; thematic continuity--the preservati
12          154 It is naturally not always possible to demonstrate whether semantically identical or
12          155 Example of diachronic dynamic of formula, lexical renewal: alliterative merism of Co
12          156 Yet another pattern of the dynamics of change in formula is the transferred epithet,
12          157 The study of formula leads to the reconstruction of a total semiotic model for a pre
12          157 Such lexical collocations between closely related languages are sometimes not to b
12          158 In India the formulaic system describing HOUSE is preserved in a metaphor of the T
12          158 Quote from Gimbutas (archeologist): Burial practices are not loaned to other cultur
12          161 Ancient metaphors can be expressed in formulas which have become more or less o
12          164 The conicidence in lexical expression of the first members, the same order of the tw
13          165 Not only words but whole phrases can be equated between or among cognate langu
13          165 Examination of the stylistic figure of the repetition or iteration of a verb form (V1) b
13          167 Force of the structure can be iterative as well as climactic.
13          169 The use of figura etymologica (like English "sing a song" and Latin "uoce uocabat" i
13          169 The specificity and the complexity of the iteration figure includes such features as t
14          170   In this group of noun and adjectival epithet ("sharp-winged eagle"), both in its form
15          173   The middle of the 19th century saw the first extensions of the purlieu of linguistic c
15          175   The formulaic unit, as a thematic, semantic, and syntactic whole, is both larger and
16          179   In the poetic traditions of most or all of the early IE languages we find texts, often i
16          179   It should be emphasized that in the early IE world the primary form of artistic expre
16          179   For the IE world, the further back we go, the greater the emphasis on purely verbal

18          214   Among the most interesting texts that antiquity has left us are the seven bronze tab
18          216   "magic square"--text that can be read or linked both horizontally and vertically
18          217   patterns formed by the magic squares in the text--interesting
18          218   It is far more likely that this [sacrificial] formula was diffused over part of the geogr
18          218   In comparative and historical poetics (and other cultural manifestations) the role of
18          220   more interesting magic square patterns using merisms
18          222   interted T structure: three alliterative two-word figures followed by a three word fig
18          224   In the domain of poetics we may well think of Ancient Italy in the early to middle fir
19          226   The ellipsis of a verb, the pronominalization, and the same "minimalist" expression
19          227   It is the deixis implicit in the two grammatical relations, the dative argument of the
19          228   Whether there is a genetic relation between the Italic and Vedic formulas is perhap
20          229   Observations of early Latin and Umbrian prayer and liturgy have led to the recognit
20          229   The lines commonly involve counting entities, for example sequences of dyads follo
20          229   We may emphasize finally that the "lines" of these strophes are informed and pene
20          230   The "strophic style" of early Latin and Umbrian prayer and liturgy is neither ordinary
21          232   We find comparable strophic structures which are generally termed "rhythmic prose
21          233   The fact that the lines of the strophes of the YH are not syllable-counting ('metrical
21 234-35         interesting examples of rhythmic pattern (counterpoint of triad and dyad, some mon
21          239   Young Avestan, the formula for old ritual terms 'milk and ghee' or 'milk and fat' is u
22          241   Most beautiful light of lights, most beautiful form of forms--The two superlatives ar
22          243   This construction is most at home in liturgy.
22          245   Bipartite, two-member compound personal names, as is known, continue IE themes

27          297   One or more myths about a god or hero killing a dragon or other reptilian adversary
27          297   Watkins' goal will not go into all themes reflected in various traditions; only to stud
27          298   For Benveniste, there are in Vedic three separate themes: 1) a religious motif, the e
27          298   The Vedic "dragon" Vrrta owes his personalized existence to an Indo-Iranian divine
27 298-99         In concentrating on the protagonists, the hero/subject and monster/object, Benvinis
27          299   Watkins' own study is primarily formulas themselves as linguistic and poetic entitie
27          299   All myth variations and elaborations ultimately come from a single theme: hero slay
27          299   We must as the question, Why does the hero slay the seprent? What is the function
27          300   The Chaos which the dragon symbolizes may take many manifestations in the differ
27          301   Most students of mythology tend to throw language--diction--out the window as so
27 301-02         Basic theme or semantic structure is HERO SLAY SERPENT. May optionally include t
27          302   Semantic consitutents of the basic theme may undergo paradigmatic variants…It is
27          303   The 'purpose' of the central theme and its expression in the basic formula is predic
27          303   The formula is a percious tool for genetic as well as typoogical investigation in the
28          304   In India, the hero par excellence is the god Indra--the prototypical gargantuan, gour
28            305 The word for "slay" in IE and Vedic both contain the voiced aspirate labio-velar gh,
28            305 The formula Is always sentence-initial and verse-initial; subject is always Indra.
28            309 It is further charateristic of Indic, Iranian, and Greek formulaic narrative of these ex
28            311 The relative clauses underline the thematic and formulaic link.
29            314 The similarity of Indic and Iranian legends is both syntagmatic and paradigmatic: sn
29            317 In the Indian myth, Traitana is a dasa in the sense of 'slave,' but he is at the same t
30            321 It is most important to note that the Hittite sentence, like the vedic and Avestan, fo
30            322 The verbal formula for the theme HERO SLAY SERPENT is boxed as SLAY SERPENT. T
31 324-25         There is always the real or potential danger that the serpent will slay the hero, or so
31            329 Negation of right-to-left action and affirmation of left-to-right in a generalized struc
32            333 interesting connections between 'pressing' and 'soma'--parallel to press, wine, bloo
33            337 Ritual utterances are by their nature traditional, frozen, and enduring. Ritual and m
33 338, 340       The gods are adjured…to crush the evil-doer like reeds, to smash him, and to lay him
 languages on a systematic basis as an autonomous science to explain the forms of one language by those of another.
mate but with two distinct goals: typological, which seeks to establish universal characteristics/laws; and genetic, which se
ul conclusion it leads to the restoration of an "original" language (proto-language). The technique by which reconstruction w
nguistic approach to the form, nature, and function of poetic language; must be both diachronic (genetic) and syncrhonic (ty
 once the expression of culture and a part of it
olic culture, is equally amenable to reconstruction.
  we find the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic components. This is the domain of FORMULAS, set phrases which are the v
 nt features--'something that matters'--and it is this which accounts for their repetition and long-term preservation.
he totality of a single higher concept.
  hitherto proceeded in three distinct streams, each with its own historical sequence. Formulaics (the oldest) examines and
ere to de-emphasize the pure metrical conditions (placing greater emphasis on the notion of theme) and to remove its restr
ndo-European community] possessed a poetic art whose metrical form can be reconstructed from the comparison of Indic, I
minate not only ancient ways of speech but ancient modes of thought.
meaningful units are not in play, we have the domains of METRICS ad other rhythmic features and of the various sound devic
 .) the fundamental organizing principle is recurrence (repetition) or sequencing (counting) of equivalence tokens.

d back from languages to restore common prototype 2) proceed from established forms of proto-language to follow languag
Iranian, and Greek (second millenium BC)
hat have unearthed clay tablet documents (cuneiform script) written in Hittite. Other related languages found in cuneiform
 public and private, and include seasonal fstivals, cultic temple rituals, funerary rites, prayers, conjurations, private rituals.
me portions that are meant to be chanted or sung
 end (subject of Aeschylus' play The Suppliants), which provide evidence for single proto-text. Interesting connection to first
nized into strophes and exhibit the feature of rhyme, perhaps its earliest systematic attestation in the IE world.
ge) is the oldest collection of Vedic literature; arranged in 10 books (mandalas--circles); contains 1028 hymns mostly addre
e, bless, and curse; formulations of both white and black magic; younger than older parts of Rigveda; contains first mention
tures are mostly religious/cultic in character and purpose; represent the work and art of priestly class. Situation is reverse in
along with Theogony and Works and Days (Hesiod); these works attest the cultivation of a long period of oral literary elabora

 on/cult and the language of law
  versification for Greek meters; Greek meters were perfectly transferred to Latin epic, elegiac, and lyric, though some IE trad
 -the alliteration and voiced final fricative consonance of "bronzes that breathe" and the layered meaning of "draw" in "draw
 rishing of poetical literature
ough its praseology for the word "fame"
d the purpose of the IE poet: to say something wholly traditional in a new and interesting (more effective) way.
  traditional culture
nowledge, which was orally transmitted. The main thing was to preserve and increase cultural elements which presented so
as the hightest-paid professional in his society.
 isted between poet and gods.
  existence. The spoken word could produce a physical effect on the world, but only if properly formulated by a poet.
 ering and all derivatives of the same root, meaning active mental force, thinking, perceiving, and remembering
eciprocal poet-patron relation is the existence of a special literary genre in Vedic, Greek, Celtic, and Germanic--"praise of th
eda) raised the art of the phonetic figure to highest form. Impressive because of sheer exuberance. :)

 n of the speech sounds of the Vedic language
 in the service of phonological patterns--a figure of sound
 ase at the beginning of successive verses or other units is very common in Vedic.
ms serve as foil for the point of particular interest. It is a frequent manifestation of perhaps the most important structural pr
ormulae, motives, themes, topics, and set sequences that have, by convention, meanings not always easily perceived from t
ally "seer"; another was bard, "eulogist or praise-maker"; Irish cerd and Welsh cerdd both mean "craft" and "poetry"; Greek
 h for "poetry" and Gaulish for "seer" are old derivitaves of the root *uet--"sees, watches, observes, pays attention to"
any varieties of rhyme and alliteration.

 phonemes, not by surface phonemes
 erse and the first (stressed) word of the next
owering of Italy" was the spread of alphabetic writing.
 n. With all the techniques of quotation (poem within a poem), frustrated expectation, traditional epithet, distraction of wor
eek; they are independent and autonoous developments fo an inherited and much more ancient poetics.
constituents straddling a verb, considered diagnostic for verse
uries only opened a window onto an extraordinarily thriving world of different but related poetic cultures.
d be better to speak of antecedents.
Anatolian languages Hittite, Luvian, and Palaic are rituals…The purpose is to assure the correct and flawless regular re-perf
ttite and Anatolian rituals which show clear and striking affities to what we think of as drama. They thus afford a typologica
o begin the dialogue, a device that is still with us today from doorkeeper scenes to knock-knock jokes. This is its first appea
nambiguous evidence for the incorporation of self-contained episodes of dramatic dialogue into the performance of ritual in

 tics is the domain of "formulaics," and the semantic component of the domain of "thematics." Formulas are the vehicles, th
 ics, the investigator must distinguish the diachronic, historical from the synchronic, descriptive, but at the same time move
e their full meaning only by comparison with the other formula indexically referred to: a form of "intertextuality." Example is
continuity--the preservation of an "essential idea"--implies semantic continuity, which in turn may allow lexical renewal. Th
  semantically identical or equivalent formulas in two or more traditions are cognate when they share no lexical corresponde
 : alliterative merism of Common Italic date--Strength and Life. Alliteration was intact in Latin but lexical item uia was threat
 s the transferred epithet, which plays an important role in etymology. In essence it projects a synchronic contiguity relation
 semiotic model for a prehistoric culture.
es are sometimes not to be termed formulas in the strict sense, where they escape any syntactic constraints. But they are n
ed in a metaphor of the TOMB as house.
not loaned to other cultures; nore are they abruptly abndoned even though they are subject to gradual change…The belief in
 ve become more or less opaque in the tradition where they occur. But where the existence of a cognate formula from anoth
 , the same order of the two constituents, and the general similarity of the traditional and ethical overtones of the pragmatic
n or among cognate languages. Such phrases are termed formulas, since their very repition as "ready-made" surface structu
 tion of a verb form (V1) by a nominal form from the same root (N1) in a semantically equivalent verb phrase: (V1)…(N1 + V)

 nd Latin "uoce uocabat" is widespread outside the IE world as well as in it. These may have something in common with the
 cludes such features as the order of the two elements, which is almost always V1…N1. Within the parentheses N1 and V m
d eagle"), both in its form and in its semantics, we have a probable inheritance from the common poetic language of Indo-Ir
 the purlieu of linguistic comparison beyond the word level to that of the phrase: Homeric Greek and Rigvedic "imperishable
 whole, is both larger and more flexible. Within this larger unit we find formulaic consituents which are themselves formula
 ges we find texts, often in large numbers, which for one reason or another present, or seem to present, some sort of obstac
 ary form of artistic expression is precisely verbal. Visual art typically plays a distinctly limited role until relatively late in the
mphasis on purely verbal art, the art of the spoken word. For the spoken word is a force, a creative power that can have a ph

 are the seven bronze tablets discovred in 1444 in Gubbio, Latin Iguvium…these tables are by far the most extensive source
ontally and vertically
sed over part of the geographic area of Italy, perhaps sometime in the middle of the first millennium BC rather than being in
 anifestations) the role of diffusion, as against either genetic transmission or occasional or systematic borrowing should no

 owed by a three word figure
  in the early to middle first millennium BC as a linguistic area. Over this territory certain poetic features, like linguistic feat
  "minimalist" expression can be closely paralleled elsewhere (sacrificial formula found in other languages)
 e dative argument of the god's name…and the accusative argument of the offering addressed…which is at once pragmatica
 Vedic formulas is perhaps unknowable. But more important is to recognize in these two sets of ritual formulas similar gram
  have led to the recognition of demarcated strophic structures which can be broken into relatively short lines which corresp
 sequences of dyads followed by a triad or a monad. The entities counted are usually stressed words.
es are informed and penetrated by responsions on every level of grammar: responsions of sound and resposions of meaning
 liturgy is neither ordinary prose nor metrical poetry in the contemporary traditions of each culture…The traditional label is "
 y termed "rhythmic prose" elsewhere (such as Old Avestan).
 lable-counting ('metrical') does not mean that they are not verse, the more so when the native tradition speaks of them in
triad and dyad, some monad), rhetorical pattern (Argument plus Counter Argument, Argument plus Negated Counter Argume
 hee' or 'milk and fat' is used more loosely as a symbolic representation of good things: plenty and abundance (Hittite), goo
 --The two superlatives are exact cognates. While figures involving genitives (king of kings, gentleman's gentleman) and su

nown, continue IE themes, formulas, and values: they are windows into prehistory.

 other reptilian adversary, usually just called 'snake, serpent,' is found in a vast number of cultures around the world; it may
 us traditions; only to study linguistic form as inherited formulas.
 1) a religious motif, the exploits of a victorious god; 2) an epic motif, the struggle of the hero with a usually reptilian monst
 to an Indo-Iranian divine epithet "smashing resistance." There was at the outset no dragon named Vrtra: he was just the Se
  monster/object, Benviniste to a certain extent failed to recognize the positive aspect of the formulas themselves as the ac
nguistic and poetic entities; just how enduring and pervasive the scheme which generates the amplification and what a pow
 a single theme: hero slays serpent
 ent? What is the function of this wedespread, or what is the meaning? The dragon symbolizes Chaos, in the largest sense,
 anifestations in the different traditions: pent-up waters (blocking life-giving forces), all that is "anti-social"--which disrupts
on--out the window as somehow irrelevant to the establishment of plot or semiotic structures of particular myths. But in cas
  May optionally include the presence of marginal element--weapon or companion (usually not both).
radigmatic variants…It is characteristic that the same root may appear in different semantic slots, whith the appropraite de
 e basic formula is predication: it is a definition of the HERO…At the same time, the function of the basic formula is indexica
 gical investigation in the study of literature…the "intertextuality" of these versions of the basic formula, varying in time, pla
otypical gargantuan, gourmandizing, soma-swilling warrior-hero. His primary exploit is the slayin gof the serpent-monster Vr
   aspirate labio-velar gh, which together with b is the rarest of IE obstruent consonants, and thereby inherently most expres
 bject is always Indra.
 laic narrative of these exploits that they are syntactically conveyed by one or more relativ clauses, with the name of the adv
 atic and paradigmatic: snytagmatic in the sequential linkage of the two stories and paradigmatic in the near-identities of th
e,' but he is at the same time a dasa 'demon': the HERO has become the MONSTER. The power of Truth, of the spoken word
the vedic and Avestan, focuses on the object; the subject is known from the preceding clause, but not overt in its own claus
boxed as SLAY SERPENT. This asymmetry in the correspondence of formula to theme is precisely the IE touch we were lookin
 nt will slay the hero, or someone else…Hence we have the possibility that the action can go in either direction: the HERO m
 ght in a generalized structure, HERO VERB ADVERSARY, is yet another way to praise the hero. It is also only another syntac
  rallel to press, wine, blood--Atonement language
 d enduring. Ritual and myth are furthermore inextricably linked, in ancient Anatolia as welsewhere, where the narration of m
 smash him, and to lay him beneath their feet…Lying or being placed at or under the feet of the victor is of course a universa
by those of another.
ws; and genetic, which seeks to understand the history
 by which reconstruction works consists of equations of linguistic forms between languages; the key word is systematicity
enetic) and syncrhonic (typological)

 t phrases which are the vehicles of THEMES. The totality of themes may be thought of as the culture of the given society.
 rm preservation.

he oldest) examines and compares lexically and semantically cognate or closely similar phrases in cognate languages. Met
e) and to remove its restriction to "a group of words" (because a single word may have tru formulaic status.
the comparison of Indic, Iranian, and Ancient Greek data with an exactitude whose precision excludes any possibility of dou

of the various sound devices which we can refer to globally as PHONETIC FIGURES, such as alliteration and rhyme. On a high
 alence tokens.

 nguage to follow language developmet (study transformations of earlier language elements)

 ages found in cuneiform script include Palaic and Cuneiform Luvian. Sepulchral and administrative inscriptions in Lycian and
 urations, private rituals.

  esting connection to first man and rib (female).
 the IE world.
  028 hymns mostly addressed to particular dieties
  a; contains first mention of tiger and rice, indicating geographical movement (deeper penetration into Indian subcontinent)

ass. Situation is reverse in Greek, with verbal art being secular, part of a secular, warrior ruling class.
 od of oral literary elaboration and the development of Ionic epic literary dialect.

 lyric, though some IE tradition still seeps through in the language associated with religion and cult (holy barley and sparkin
eaning of "draw" in "draw faces from marble"

 ective) way.

ments which presented something essential to the well-being, collectivity, and stability of the society (magic spells, legal fo

 ulated by a poet.

d Germanic--"praise of the gift"

st important structural principle known to choral poetry, in particular to those forms devoted to praise.
ys easily perceived from the surface denotations of the words themselves. Study the motivational grammar of choral compo
raft" and "poetry"; Greek cognate means "gain, profit" (see chap. 5 for etymology)
 , pays attention to"

pithet, distraction of word order, diminutivization, complex ring-composition, and resolution he has deftly succeeded in four


d flawless regular re-performance of the ritual…The result is that we are far better informed about Anatolian ritual than abo
y thus afford a typological comparandum to the possible but unattested antecedents of Greek drama in ritual.
 es. This is its first appearance in the IE speaking world
e performance of ritual in Hittite Anatolia. The seeds of drama are there.

mulas are the vehicles, the carriers of themes; they are collectively the verbal expression of the traditional culture of the IE p
 t at the same time move from the one to the other.
 tertextuality." Example is fyrena hyrde "shepherd of crimes" (from Beowolf), which indexes by both lexicon and alliteration
 allow lexical renewal. That is to say, we can have the preservation of formulaic status under partial or even total lexical rep
 re no lexical correspondence.
exical item uia was threatened with near-homonymy with the ancestor of uia (way), so the formula was renewed as uires uit
hronic contiguity relation onto the diachronic, historical semantic plane. To explain a number of lexical items in various IE la

onstraints. But they are nonetheless valuable indications of diachronic contiguity relations, relations which point to an inher

ual change…The belief in an afterlife replete with the same earthly social structure is one of the most conservative features
gnate formula from another tradition can be demonstrated, the darkness of the first is at least diminished, if not dispelled. E
vertones of the pragmatics of the two phrases transforms the question of the meaning of TREE and ROCK from a Greek prob
 dy-made" surface structures" over long periods of time is precisely what makes the possible th eapplication of the Compara
rb phrase: (V1)…(N1 + V)

hing in common with the verb/noun stylistic figure but none is in any way comparable in grammar, style, or tone of the who
parentheses N1 and V may be reversed, or disjoined, but they almost always follow V1. Stylistically the progression is clima
oetic language of Indo-Iranian, Greek, and Armenian.
d Rigvedic "imperishable, unfailing fame." Kuhn's innovation lay in the fact that instead of equating two words in two langu
 are themselves formulas.
sent, some sort of obstacle between the hearer (reader) and the message. And often it seems that that "obstacle" is in som
until relatively late in the tradition…There is a world of difference between the crudely carved human figure and external ap
power that can have a physical effect on the external world, when it is 'worked' or 'crafted' by the poet.

he most extensive source of information for the Umbrian language and are no less important for the study of religion in anc

m BC rather than being inherited from a period of linguistic community that might antedate the migration of its speakers int
atic borrowing should not be underestimated, particularly in geographicaly contiguous and contemporary cultures as in Anc

atures, like linguistic features, could be diffused across language boundaries in an ambience of largely shared cultural instit
 ich is at once pragmatically all-important and all that matters.
ual formulas similar grammatical responses, using cognate grammatical features, and similar religious, pragmatic, and sym
 short lines which correspond to syntactic units. These lines are often ornamented by alliteration and other phonetic figures
 d resposions of meaning, responsions of words, grammatical catagories, and syntactic structures. The are the links which a
…The traditional label is "rhythmic prose," but that is far from being even observationallly adequate, the more so since the t

dition speaks of them in the same terms as those of the Gathas (verse). Syllables are not the only equivalence tokens in wh
Negated Counter Argument, Argument plus Synonymous Argument, etc), chiastic word order, grammatical figures.
 abundance (Hittite), goods and chattels (Greek to English), milk and honey (non-IE)
man's gentleman) and superlatives (lowest of the low, dearest of the dear) are fairly widespread, also outside IE, the combi

 around the world; it may be a quasi-universal. Task is to sort out the IE modalities of the myth as a verbal message, find pe

a usually reptilian monster; and 3) a mythical motif, the freeing of the waters.
 Vrtra: he was just the Serpent.
 las themselves as the actual vehicle for the long-term preservation of tradition.
lification and what a powerful device it is for the reconstruction of linguistic cultural, and literary history.

 os, in the largest sense, and killing the dragon represents the ultimate victory of Cosmic Truth and Order over Chaos. As pa
 i-social"--which disrupts the established hirarchy of gods and men, violates hospitality; guards treasure (keeps wealth from
 rticular myths. But in cases where we can knoww, we can observe that language or diction, the precise verbal form of the n
whith the appropraite derivational and inflexional morphology
  basic formula is indexical and memorative…As such it serves to locate the hero and the narrated event in a cosmology and
mula, varying in time, place, and language but taken collectively, constitute a background without which one cannot fully ap
of the serpent-monster Vrtra, which releases the pent-up waters.
y inherently most expressive.

 with the name of the adversary and a form of the basic ver root ghen-. This figure is one of the syntactic and stylistic varia

n the near-identities of the names of the heor and attributes of the dragon and protoganists of the two myths.
Truth, of the spoken word, drives his WEAPON back on himself.
not overt in its own clause, regardless of the order of Verb and Object.
e IE touch we were looking for. The boxed verb phrase constitutes the predicate which defines the IE hero...In Hesiod, there
 er direction: the HERO may be the subject and the SERPENT the object, or the SERPENT may be the subject and the HERO t
 also only another syntactic, verbal, and linear manifestation of the same inherited stylistic figure we have studid earlier in

, where the narration of myth is itself usually a ritual act, a single action as part of a larger whole.
or is of course a universal image of the vanquished. But the collocation of the remaining roots is in no way universal. Anato
y word is systematicity

re of the given society.

 cognate languages. Metrics examines and compares similar versification systems. Stylistics examines and compares all th
ic status.
des any possibility of doubt."

tion and rhyme. On a higher level, this poetic grammar has a morphological component, where sound and grammatical mea

 inscriptions in Lycian and Lydian.

nto Indian subcontinent).


t (holy barley and sparking salt).

ty (magic spells, legal formulas, pryaers, genealogies, eulogies)
 rammar of choral composition.

s deftly succeeded in four or five lines in incorporating and contextualizing a traditional blessing formula and focusing its m

 Anatolian ritual than about that of any other IE culture of teh period.
ma in ritual.

ditional culture of the IE people themselves.

h lexicon and alliteration the common formula folces hyrde "shepherd of the people," which is common in IE languagnes as
al or even total lexical replacement.

 was renewed as uires uitaque, with a new word for "strength."
xical items in various IE languages we must assume the prior existence of fixed formulas of noun and epithet: dry land, mor

ns which point to an inherited theme or interatction of themes which can be realized as formula at any one point.

 ost conservative features of IE societies.
inished, if not dispelled. Example is Greek "from oak or from rock" (as generally rendered), though studies of other texts hav
  ROCK from a Greek problem to an IE problem, which means there are many more traditions whose evidence may yet provid
pplication of the Comparative Method to them.

 style, or tone of the whole. (another example is Lehi "dreamed a dream")
 y the progression is climactic. And both V1 and (N1 + V) in each tradition are placed in parallel positions of prominence in t
 g two words in two languages he equated two phrases in the two languages, two syntagmas of noun and adjective which h

  that "obstacle" is in some sense what that society considers art. "For the gods love the obscure."
man figure and external appearance of the South Picene incribed grave stele of Bellante from ca. 500 BC and the artistry of i

 e study of religion in ancient Italy (being a detailed set of liturgical and cultic instructions for a college of priests).

gration of its speakers into the Italian peninsula.
 porary cultures as in Ancient Italy.

 gely shared cultural institutions, both material and symbolic.

ious, pragmatic, and symbolic cultural features, which may themselves be cognate.
nd other phonetic figures, and may and usually do exhibit characteristic rhetorical and grammatical figures.

The are the links which articulate and index the whole. These responsions are, in short, equivalence tokens.
e, the more so since the typical responsion of equivalence tokens that "rhythmic prose" shows is precisely 'the essential ch

 equivalence tokens in which 'equivalence is promoted to the constitutive device of the sequence.'
 matical figures.

 lso outside IE, the combination is much rarer and more striking.

 a verbal message, find pecularities which characterize IE version which allow us to assert that it existed. Looking fo rhte IE


  Order over Chaos. As part of the Frazerian 'dying god' myth, it is a symbolic victory of growth over stagnation or dormancy
 asure (keeps wealth from circulating). Ultimately represents the chaos of destruction, the threat to life and property, ravage
 ecise verbal form of the narration of myth, is almost incredibly persistent.

event in a cosmology and ideology perceived as permanent and everlasting.
which one cannot fully apprehend, understand, and appreciate the traditional elements in a given ancient IE literature.
ntactic and stylistic variations of the IE basic formula and it functions as an index and a definition of the IE HERO.

two myths.

IE hero...In Hesiod, there is a widespread omission of an overt subject where 'it is the thing dominant in Hesiod's mind.' ...T
e subject and the HERO the object.
we have studid earlier in birpartite noun phrases, Argument + Negated Counter-Argument. Stylistically these doubtless go b

n no way universal. Anatolian ritual and Indic myth, separatedin time, space, and genre, here preserve two enduring semant
ines and compares all the other linguistic devices, figures, and other recurrent phonological, morphological, and syntactic v

nd and grammatical meaning alone are in play: we have the domains of GRAMMATICAL FIGURES. Figures of grammar may
rmula and focusing its message onto the particular occasion itself. The inscription of the poem of the pot transforms the sim

mon in IE languagnes as well as other non-IE (Psalm 23).

nd epithet: dry land, mortal man, earthly man, white barley

any one point.

studies of other texts have shown "tree" to be more appropriate.
e evidence may yet provide a real solution. (both symbols of Christ?)

sitions of prominence in the discourse, verse line, or sentence, making reference to metrical and phrase boundaries.
un and adjective which have, as we shall see, every right to be termed formulas.

0 BC and the artistry of its message, with its colometric isosyllabism, fixed daesura, chain alliteration, and conventionalizze

lege of priests).

l figures.

ce tokens.
recisely 'the essential characteristic of verse.'

xisted. Looking fo rhte IE "touch," found in formula.

 stagnation or dormancy in the cycle of the year, and ultimately a victory of rebirth over death.
 life and property, ravager of man and beast.

ancient IE literature.
of the IE HERO.

ant in Hesiod's mind.' ...The lack of an overt subject is quite noteworthy.

ally these doubtless go back to Proto-IE. But at the same time, they are universal, transcendent, and enduring.

rve two enduring semantic and thematic structures which are ultimately the same. (Similar to bruise heel, crush head langu
hological, and syntactic variables which may be in play in verbal art in cognate languages.

Figures of grammar may also--but do not necessarily--involve lexical meaning. On a still higher level, lexical meaning is per
the pot transforms the simple gift into a strena--a ritual gift that brins good fortune and good luck.

hrase boundaries.
tion, and conventionalizzed speaker-hearer discourse relation.
d enduring.

se heel, crush head language in Fall narration?)
el, lexical meaning is pertinent and obligatory. Vocabulary and syntax are the domains of FORMULAS, which are the vehicle
AS, which are the vehicles of semantic THEMES. These themes are collectively the verbal expression of the culture of the In
on of the culture of the Indo-Europeans.
Poems of ED Page           Comment                                                 Mode
Intro                11                                                            general
                           Interesting that it took so long to allow Dickinson's poetry to stand as she wrote it
           1         15                                                            syntax
                           Does the parallel structure of "Adam, Eve, moon, and sun" place Eve as having the
           2         18    irony of lines 52-56                                    semantics
           5         21    metric change at line 17                                metrics
           6         22                                                            diction?
                           contrast in perspectives(especially in the direction "down and down" and "shot - ex
           9 22-23         expressing sadness through its opposite                 semantics
          14         25    feeling the abundance of grace through a sunrise        general
          21         27    assonance in the last line                              phonetics
          32         30    personification of nature wearing the season            diction
          36         31                                                            semantics
                           "time sh'd gurgle on" gurgle provides the image of a stream or river
          37         32    irony of blossoming in the dark                         semantics
          43         35    used "glid" for past tense                              syntax
          46         36    the idea of clothing as a witness                       semantics
          69 43,44                                                                 diction
                           the randomness of chance; we are unaware of what we have avoided

        161          78                                                                  syntax
                           word order in line 1 "follow soft"; initial verb, line 8; inversion, line 9 "nearer steal";
        163          79    relative clauses w/o object, lines 1-2; parison, lines 5-7    syntax
        164          79     modifier (adverb) in line initial position, line 9 "Modest"  syntax
        165          80                                                                  syntax
                           use of "appalling" at beginning and end of strophe; hypotactic structure, line 13
        166          80                                                                  syntax
                           paradigmatic alliteration (I just made that up :) lines begin with same sound), lines
        169 81-82                                                                          position, line 3; parison lines
                           verb initial position, lines 1-2, 5; modifier in line initialsyntax
        170          82                                                                  syntax
                           phrase repetition in line 1; parison in lines 7-8 with rhyme between Death/Breath
        171          83                                                                  syntax
                           NP line initial, line 1; word order, line 3; alliteration, line 12 struts/sewing/silk
        172          83    parallel repetition, lines 1-2 and 4-5                        syntax
        173          83    "Except" in line initial position, lines 1-3, 5-6;            syntax
        175          84                                                                  syntax
                           Similar structure in lines 1-2, with modifier added in line 1; parison lines 9-10; relat
        176          85    hypotactic structure, line 1, 7                               syntax
        177          85    parallel catalog? Lines 5-7                                   syntax
        178 85-86                                                                        syntax
                           verb in line initial position, lines 1, 3, 5,13; repetition of /s/ in "Ascend in ceaseless
        179          86                                                                  syntax
                           hypotactic structure, lines 1, 3; alliteration, line 14; object clause initial position, lin
        180          87                                                                  syntax
                           PP line initial position, line 1; verb initial, lines 5, 7; alliteration line 6 Tawny/time; p
        181          87    phatic structure, line 3; alliteration, line 9 mirth/mail syntax
        182          88    periodic structure, line 2; parallelism, lines 3-4, 5, 7 syntax
        187          90    parallel? Lines 3-4 feet upon Temptation/faces-opon God       syntax
        189          91    rhyme, lines 1-2 true/Sue/two                                 phonetics
        194          92                                                                  syntax
                           NP line initial, line 1; assonance line 2 Wife/Sign; rhyme, line3-4 Degree/me/Calvar
        199          94    alliteration, line 5 descending/dumb/dark                     phonetics
        201          95    parison, lines 1-3                                            syntax
        208          96                                                                  syntax
                           paradigmatic repetition of initial word/sound Whose/With; alliteration Stanzas/Spri
        212          97                                                                  semantics
                           line 1 ED uses the word "transport" often--not sure what it means
        214 98-99                                                                        syntax
                           near repetition of initial lines (first word changed) of each strophe, phrase duplicati
        221          101   phatic structure 'Twas'nt, lines 5-7                          syntax
        224          102                                                                 syntax
                           line initial polysyndeton, lines 6-9; similar beginning to line 10-11 The /m/
        229          103                                                                   "Nor";
                           alliteration, line 2 silver strife; polysyndeton, lines 8-9syntax line initial "Some" line
233            105 alliteration, line 1-2 slash/sweep/scarlet; assonance, phonetics
                                                                            line 6 Bank/Day
236            106 assonance, line 11 instead/getting/Heaven                phonetics
239            107 verb in line initial position at beginning of each strophe

314            140                                                              chill-->cold
                     feathers-->quill (writing); Gale--OE galen is "to sing"; semantics and also not anim
314            140   theme of poet as singer                                    semantics
314            140   Use of "And" at the beginning of lines 3-6, "That" 7-8 syntax
315            140   "To die" verb initial; "They" line two, no antecedent syntax
315            140   Day, line 5--space of time; sleep, line 11--death          semantics
315            140   alliteration line 12                                       phonetics
316            140                                                              semantics
                     fleeces (line 8)-->cloud cover, veil separating mortal from immortal
316            141                                                              mortality
                     idea of banishment (as from Eden?) after seeing God; semanticsas foreign (line 11)
317            141                                                              phonetics
                     rhyme of delight/flight (line 1); assonance/rhyme (lines 3-6) say/way/Skein/Rain; rh
317            141                                                              general
                     the degree to which we treasure something is in proportion to our fear of losing it
318   141-42         sun as female?                                             general
318   141-42                                                                    semantics
                     Brooms (line 1)-->sweeping tool and also current, swirl of wind; Ravelling (line 5)-->
318   141-42                                                                    syntax
                     parallelism, lines 4-5 You dropped… and lines 9-10 And still…; alliteration line 11 Du
320   142-43                                                                    takes the
                     interesting alliteration line 1 certain/Slant/light (light phonetics second sound of the
320   142-43                                                                     defined as
                     "Heft" (line 3) is defined as a heavy burden but is alsosemantics majesty and gran
322            143                                                              syntax
                     rhyme pattern: a,a,b,c,c,b (in the first strophe "wick" and "diligent" are near rhyme;
322            143                                                              semantics
                     wick (line 4) also defined as life source; Lamp also defined as Light of Christ; Revei
330            147   "He" in line 1 and "Whose" in lin 15--no antecedent syntax
330            147   alliteration connection between "Belt" and "Buckle"; alliteration line 5-7 Deliberate
330            147                                                              semantics
                     antynomy--she is a Member of the Cloud (line 8) yet lives "stoop" to notice her (line
337   151-52                                                                    semantics
                     interesting syllable structure--solid 8-6 for the first three strophes, then 8-6-7-6, the
337   151-52                                                                    syntax
                     parallelism in structure and meaning, line 13-14 Robberies/pilfered
337   151-52                                                                     /s/: nearness/sundered/Thin
                     consonance/alliteration lines 1-4 (connection through phonetics
337   151-52         Knots-->unifying bond, association                         semantics

441         204 rhyme/assonance line 1, find/try/die; line 14-16 Grace/stay/place
442         205 alliteration line 14 so/surpassing/Sun; assonance line 15 deem/be/continually
445         206 theme of being enclosed (shut up) in Prose               general
446         206 sonance line 3 "distills amazing sense"; rhyme between line 3,5 sense/immense;
450         208 sonance line 7 Spokes/spin/conspicuous; alliteration line 11 Picture publishes - pre
451         208 rhyme pattern a,a,b,b, with an extra line in the third strophe
451         208 sonance line 7 Swarthy fellow swam, line 9 Home to the Hut! What lot
454 209-210     consonance lines 5-7 Prince/chants, Film/Hymn            phonetics
454         210 sonance lines 20-22 Thews/Hymn/Sinew/within/knew/knew    phonetics
463         214 parallel alliteration line 4 Stretch of Limb/stir of Lid phonetics
465 21-2154                                                              phonetics
                parison, lines 1-2, 3-4; sonance between ruddy/eddies; Vermillion Wheels
476         218 parison, lines 1-2; sound connection between pray/prate/relate (lines 1-3)
477 218-219                                                              phonetics
                sound connection with /s/, /z/: fumbles/Soul/Players/Keys/stuns/Degrees;
483         221 parallelism, line 1-2; alliteration line 1,2 Most/muteness, won/way
483         221 strophe two an allusion to the widow who fed Elijah? general
485         222 assonance lines 4-6 reprieves/eases/teeth/teaze          phonetics
485             222   antonymy line 9 Life's award - to die                   semantics
486             222   antonymy lines 3-4 infant face/Cicatrice of years       semantics
487             223                                                           phonetics
                      assonance line 1 long/Lawn; also /s/ sonance lines 3-4 notice/startled/Grass/Dark
491             224   alliteration lines 1-3 World/When/We/We/want            phonetics
491             224   alliteration/consance line 9 Mine/Ministry              phonetics
494   225-226         sonance lines 1-6 today/play/Hay, Hay/Hat, Hat/that phonetics
494   225-226                                                                 phonetics
                      sonance lines 7-10 Bur/door/Fir/Fir/Where/Declare/Were/there
494   225-226                                                                 phonetics
                      sonance lines 11-16 Odors/Clovers, Our's/Mowers/Hours, Hay/Way/Day
494   225-226         sonance lines 17-19 Pebble/stubble/steeple              phonetics
494             226   sonance/word play in final three lines                  phonetics
495             226   personification line 1                                  semantics
495             226                                                           phonetics
                      alliteration line 2,3 Garter/Gold, Petticoat/Purple/plain
495             226   parison 9-10, also repetition of too/to/to              syntax

593           266 First strophe is very irregular, then the following have metrics
                                                                             fairly consistent syllable patt
594           267 Strict 5-syllable count per line; makes each line feel like a solid statement
595   267-68      8-6-8-6 throughout                                        metrics
596           267 8-6-8-6 throughout; ring composition                      metrics
597           268 8-6-8-6                                                   metrics
597           268 I like "pelteth"--connected to Pearl through alliteration?; alliteration Diamonds/Diad
598           269 8-6-8-6                                                   metrics
598           269 Syntactic connection of all first lines                   syntax
598           269 the difference between syllable and sound--great          semantics
599           269 irregular first strophe (compared to other regular ones) reflects the unevenness? tu
603           270 Regular 7-6-7-6 pattern but the last two syllable counts are combined to form one f
605   271-72                                                                semantics
                  irony in calling life (mortality) infinite, yet simultaneously tying the infinite concept
606           272 consistent 6-4-6-4 pattern until penultimate 8 line (which is long, reflecting the me
607   272-73                                                                  a change
                  not sure what it Is to be waiting for the Coach--there'ssemantics in feeling because
608           273 8-6-8-6 throughout                                        metrics
608           273 similarity of grief and joy                               semantics
609           273 merism: The Day that was Before/And Day that was Behind   general
610           274 8-6-8-6 throughout except the third strope, where the metrics 8-syllable line is brok
611   274-75                                                                metrics
                  poem begins with three heavy syllables (reflecting the weight)
612           275 syllable drop off in last two lines to two then one, contrasting her smallness with d
616           276 great last line--"Dying - annuls the power to kill"       general
620           278 sound play on Much Madness/divinst Sense and Much Sense/starkest Madness
621   278-79      ring composition                                          syntax
621   278-79      assonance line 17 visited/still/flitting                  phonetics
625   280-82                                                                general
                  linkage in final strophe--final word rhyme, same syllable count (except for last line)
627   281-282                                                               general
                  description of intense light (Lunacy of Light line 7) and sound Might Metres (line 17
631   283-84                                                                general
                  not sure what she is trying to prove (lines 1-2); connection between first lines of se

736             329 line 1, I think the "was Great" quotation is something she was actually told rather th
736             329 ring composition between "suit" (line 4 and line 18) syntax
736             329 sound play: lower/Wren (line 6), consonance guess/Rhinoceros/Mouse; assonance
737            329 "struggle slacker" is hard to say (phonetics reinforce the meaning)
738   329-30                                                                phonetics
                   Alliterative connection between Consequence/Contemplation/Cotemporaneous/Com
739            330 Antonymy between Joy/Pain, Joy/perished                  semantics
739   330-31       Assonance between rely/pry/divide/side/Suffice           phonetics
739            331 irony--not far off/From furthest Spirit                  general
743            332 connecting merisms in lines 1-2, 13-14, 15-16; also, ring composition between lines
743            332 alliteration Death/Drift/Dissolving/Dawn; also Dateless/Dynasty/diversify/Duplicat
748   333-34                                                                general
                   play on Bird (poet), Crumb (word/phrase), Indiaman (powerful writer)--she is Sovrei
748   333-34       Famine refer to Amos 8:11?                               general
752            335 Teneriffe--volcano in Canary Islands                     general
752            335 alliteration Passive/Pomp/Parting/pleading               phonetics
752            335 ring composition--Ah, Teneriffe                          syntax
753   335-36                                                                syntax
                   definition poem: Grief is…; structure varies in third strophe--definition is first and la
755            337 parallelism in first two lines and rhyme between first words
755            337 alliteration Daffodil/Doth/Dew                           phonetics
757            338 parallel first lines in first three strophes; same beginning word in all lines of fourth
757            338 sonance in fifth strophe Certainties/Sun, Midsummer/Mind, steadfast/South/Soul, t
757            338 irony between what is real and what is fiction           general
760   339-40       description (rather than definition) poem of pain        general
763            341 interesting meter--would be 8-6-8-6 if the lines were not broken (listening I would h
teration line 5-7 Deliberate/Duke/Deed/Dedicated;

5 deem/be/continually

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