Horti-Crop Production LM

					Technology and Livelihood Education

                                      Page 1

      This is to acknowledge the different practitioners, experts, and specialists who
made this learning materials and teaching guides for Grade 8 possible.

                        Writers ( Agriculture and Fishery Arts)
1.   Aniceta Kong             Master Teacher I          Div. of Oriental Mindoro
2.   Delia San Diego          Master Teacher I          FFHNAS, Sta. Maria, Bulacan
3.   Julie Francisco          Teacher I                 FFHNAS, Sta. Maria, Bulacan
4.   Nenita dela Cruz         Teacher III               MMFSL, Malolos City
5.   Emma Mendoza             Master Teacher I          TSF, Tanauan City
                                    Language Editor
Dr. Ofelia C. Flojo           Retired Regional          CALABARZON
                              English Supervisor
Alberto Dumo                  Retired BSE               Sta. Maria Bulacan
                              Agriculture Specialist
1. Mila Dena Lomat            Master Teacher I          FNAS, Floridablanca,
2. Wilfred S. Murla           Principal                 VHS – Annex, Victoria, Tarlac
3. Armado V. Illescas         Master Teacher I          MMFSL, Malolos City
4. Eliseo T. Caseres          Instructor I              MMFSL, Malolos City
5. Nenita P. Dela Cruz        Teacher III               MMFSL, Malolos City
                               Lay-Out Artist/Illustrator
1. Henry Allen M. Arcos
2. Brenn R. Bulado
3.Arlene A. Guiao
4.Francis C. Pili
5. Noel C. Pili
6. John S. Saladas
                                  Management Team
1. Dr. Lolita M. Andrada          Director IV
2. Joyce DR. Andaya               Director III
2. Ms. Bella O. Marinas           Chief,SDD
3. Dr. Jose D. Tuguinayo, Jr.     SST. CHIEF, CDD, OIC
4. Mr. Emmanuel S. Valdez         EPS II
5. Mr. Albert B. Erni             EPS II

       All pictures and graphic illustrations taken from the internet are properties of the
original owners and are used only as supplemental materials for educational purposes.

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                 Technology and Livelihood Education
     Agriculture and Fishery Arts – Horticulture &Crop Production


                     This module is an exploratory and basic course in Horticulture and
Crop Production. It consists of what to know, what to process, what to reflect and
understand and what to transfer. Specifically, this module is designed to enhance your
knowledge, skills, and desirable attitudes in Horticulture and Crop Production. It
includes lessons that will enable you to demonstrate skills and understanding in the use
of farm tools and equipment and their maintenance, selection of farm site, land
preparation, planting methods, cultural requirements, and harvesting and marketing. It
will provide you opportunities to integrate the common competencies in estimation and
calculation, interpretation of plans and layout and application of safety measures in
workplace. All of these when mastered will give you not only a source of food but also a
source of income that eventually may serve as your career pathway in the future.
Hence, this module requires your ability to apply the safety measures in the workplace
and undertake hands – on activities to be well equipped.


            At the end of this module, you are expected to:

   1) demonstrate skills and understanding in:
      a. the use of farm tools and equipment;
      b. the selection of farm site;
      c. land preparation;
      d. planting methods;
      e. cultural requirements; and
      f. harvesting and marketing practices in Horticulture and Crop Production.
   2) demonstrate an understanding of mensuration and calculation
   3) demonstrate an understanding of interpretation of plans and layout
   4) demonstrate an understanding of the application of safety measures in the

                                                                                 Page 3

Directions: Below is a list of competencies in Horti-Crop Production. Put a check mark
            in the specified number that best represents how you feel about each of the
            given topics. Use the scaling below:
            3       very much           2     a little      1     not at all

                                                            3         2         1
   1. Using farm tools and equipment.
 How much do I know about this?
 How skilled am I in using this?
 How interested am I in learning more about this?
   2. Selecting farm site
 How much do I know about this?
 How skilled am I in applying this?
 How interested am I in learning more about this?
   3. Preparing land
 How much do I know about this?
 How skilled am I in using this?
 How interested am I in learning more about this?
   4. Planting methods
 How much do I know about this?
 How skilled am I in using this?
 How interested am I in learning more about this?
   5. Applying fertilizer
 How much do I know about this?
 How skilled am I in using this?
 How interested am I in learning more about this?
   6. Weeding
 How much do I know about this?
 How skilled am I in using this?
 How interested am I in learning more about this?

   7. Irrigating and draining
 How much do I know about this?
 How skilled am I in using this?
 How interested am I in learning more about this?
   8. Protecting the crop against insect pests

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How much do I know about this?
How skilled am I in using this?
How interested am I in learning more about this?
  9. Harvesting crops
How much do I know about this?
How skilled am I in using this?
How interested am I in learning more about this?
  10. Marketing produce
How much do I know about this?
How skilled am I in using this?
How interested am I in learning more about this?


           Based on the objectives of this module, define the personal goals/targets
     you wish to accomplish at the end of this lesson.

            My Goals:
            My Targets:

                                                                               Page 5
              CROP PRODUCTION
                                              Lesson 1

                         What to know
                         You are now about to learn the basic knowledge and
                         skills in Horti-Crop Production. Good luck!

              Activity # 1

Below are some of the farm tools and equipment in agricultural crop production. Draw a
smiling face   if the tool is familiar to you and a sad face   if it is not in the opposite
box under remarks. Put a        if you know how to use it and       if you don’t in the next

         Farm Tools and Equipment
                                                         I know it             I can use it

   1. Spade
   2. Hand Fork
   3. Rake
   4. Wheelbarrow
   5. Sickle/scythe
   6. Bolo
   7. Dibber or dibble
   8. Shovel
   9. Pruning shear
   10. Sprayer
   11. Spading fork
   12. Hand trowel
   13. Sprinkler
   14. Grub hoe
   15. Pick mattock

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          Activity # 2
Choose three of the given farm tools and equipment in Activity 1 which you are familiar
with. Describe your experiences in using each of them.
   1. _________________________________________________________
   2. _________________________________________________________
   3. _________________________________________________________

       Farm tools and equipment play a very important role in every farm practice and
operation. Hence, as a learner you should be able to know, identify, and learn their uses
to become a successful farmer someday.
   A. Hand Tools
            Hand tools are the most simple tools since they are used with your bare
      hands in performing farm operation and practices in a small farm or vegetable
      garden in the backyard or in school.

  Sickle/scythe is a hand tool that has a
  curved blade attached to a short
  handle which is used for harvesting
  grains or cutting grasses.

  Grub-hoe is a heavy hoe used for
  breaking hard topsoil and pulverizing

  Bolo is a large cutting tool used for
  cutting tall grasses and weeds and
  cutting branches of trees.

  Pick mattock is a digging tool with a
  pointed head at one end and a
  transverse blade at the other.

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Hand trowel is a gardening tool which
is used for loosening the soil, digging
small holes, transplanting seedlings
and other similar task.

Hand fork is a gardening tool with
sharp tines which makes it easy to
prick into the soil (moist soil) making it
suitable for planting, transplanting,
weeding and mixing additives into the

Crowbar is a tool used for digging big
holes and for digging out big stones
and stumps.

Hand cultivator is a gardening tool
used for cultivating the garden plot by
loosening the soil and removing weeds
around the plant.

Spade is a gardening tool with a flat
and sharp edge which is used for
digging or loosening soil.

Shovel is a tool for digging, lifting,
moving bulky materials from one place
to another, removing trash, and mixing
soil media.

Rake is a long-handled tool used for
cleaning the ground by gathering the
leaves and for loosening or leveling the

                                             Page 8
Spading fork is a gardening tool with
a handle and strong tines which is
used for loosening the soil, digging out
root crops and turning over the
materials in a compost heap.

Dibbler or dibble is a pointed wooden
stick used in making holes in the
ground for planting seeds, seedlings or
small bulbs.

Pruning shears is a type of scissors
used for basic maintenance tasks like
cutting small branches, twigs and

Sprinkler is a devise used for watering
plants and seedlings.

Sprayer is an equipment used for
applying herbicides, pesticides and
fertilizers to agricultural crops.

Wheelbarrow is a hand-propelled
vehicle used for hauling trash, manure,
fertilizers, planting materials and other

                                            Page 9
Pail or can is a container used for
hauling soil, compost, chemical
fertilizer and even water.

Axe is an implement used to split and
cut abigger post

Knives are cutting tools used for
cutting planting materials, grafting,
marcotting, budding, and for
performing other operations in

B. Farm Implements
           These are accessories which are pulled by working animals or mounted
    machineries (hand tractor, tractor) and which are usually used in the preparation
    of land. These are usually made of a special kind of metal.

Plow - farm implement pulled by either
a working animal or a tractor. It is
specifically used for tilling large areas,
making furrows and inters row

                                                                              Page 10
  Harrow. The native wooden harrow is
  made of wood with metal teeth and
  pulled by a carabao, while the disc
  harrow is made of metal mounted to a
  tractor. Harrows are used for tilling and
  pulverizing the soil.

  Rotavator - is an implement mounted
  to a tractor used for tilling and
  pulverizing the soil

   C. Farm Machinery
         1. Combined Harvester - is a machine which is used in
            harvesting grain crops. It is the combination of harvesting—
            reaping, threshing, and winnowing. It is one of the most economically
            important labor-saving inventions, enabling a small fraction of the
            population to be engaged in agriculture.
      Visit http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n5KnL2Td4xc to view how combine
harvester works.
         2. Hand Tractor
         3. Four wheeled hand tractor

                    What to process

                  Activity # 1
       Your group is tasked to prepare a vegetable garden at the back of your
classroom. You and your friend are assigned to get the tools and equipment in the tool

                                                                              Page 11
room that will be needed for the task. List down the tools and equipment that you will
get and explain how each one isused in accomplishing the job.

     Tools/Equipment Needed                                Use

Rubric for Rating

         Able to list down and explain the uses of all the needed tools in accomplishing
         the task
         Able to list down and explain the uses of 90%-99% of all the needed tools in
         accomplishing the task
         Able to list down and explain the uses of 80%-89% of all the needed tools in
         accomplishing the task
         Able to list down and explain the uses of 70%-79% of all the needed tools in
         accomplishing the task
         Able to list down and explain the uses of 69% below of all the needed tools in
         accomplishing the task

              Activity # 2

Write the letter of your answer in your answer sheet.
      1. You noticed that there are aphids and worms in your vegetable garden. What
          will you use?
          A. sprayer to apply pesticide
          B. axe to cut the infected areas
          C. sprinkler and water the infected plants
          D. hand cultivator to dig and loose the soil in the garden
      2. You found out that after the storm Marce, some branches of the mango tree
          had been damaged. Which of the following will you use to cut the damaged
          A. axe
          B. bolo
          C. knife
          D. pruning shear
      3. You need to transport the fertilizers from the storage to the farm. Which of the
          following will enable you to perform the task?
          A. Pail

                                                                                 Page 12
           B. Spade
           C. Shovel
           D. Wheelbarrow

           Activity # 3

           List down the common tools and equipment and do a research on how to
           maintain them. You may go and visit the school library or surf the internet.
           Write your output in your notebook.

           Activity # 4

           Report to the class or submit your output to your teacher.

           Activity # 5

           Develop an essay on the proper handling of tools

                 What to reflect on and understand

              Activity # 1

A video presentation of how each of the following tools and equipment are used will be
shown to you. Observe carefully how each tool is used. You need to make a story of
what you have seen which may answer the following questions:
   1.       What is the video presentation about?
   2.       How was each tool used in the presentation?
   3.       Why is it important to know the different tools and equipment and how to use

                                                                                 Page 13
   4.        Was there an application of appropriate safety measures while using the
        tools or equipment and while working in the farm?

                     What to transfer

              Activity # 1
        Your school, Leuteboro National High School, is a participant in the “Search for
Best Gulayan sa Paaralan Implementers”. The cluster evaluation to choose the cluster
winner will be in the month of November to choose the cluster winner. As the school
level TLE President, you need to visit the existing vegetable garden in the school and
take note of the things in order to improve, develop and produce vegetables before the
visitation. Make a project plan on how to address your findings and perform the needed
action by using the appropriate tools in the implementation of the plan.

          Findings             Action to be Undertaken           Tools to be Used

                                                                                Page 14
                                          Lesson 2

                                   SELECTION OF SITE

 Interpretation of Plans and Layout

                       What to know
                        You’re doing fine now. After knowing the farm tools and
                        equipment, continue the lesson in selecting the site.

            Activity # 1
            Given the scrambled letters below, rearrange them to get a word or a group
of words related to factors in selecting the site. Write your answer opposite each item.

   1.        YOPHTPGROA -__________________________
   2.        LOSI PTYE - __________________________
   3.        ESCLIBACSTIYI-__________________________
   4.        FANLRILA -  __________________________
   5.        ERTAW PLUSYP - __________________________

              The success of an Agricultural Enterprise largely depends on proper
location and site. The location and site dictate the cost of production, operation,
harvesting, and transport, accessibility to inputs and others. If you already own a farm
site, select the kind or variety of crop best adapted to the site.
        Factors affecting the selection and location of site
        1. Climate. Climatic condition in a locality determines the kind of crop to
           produce. Example: Cabbage is a cool season crop while okra is a warm
           season plant.
           a.       Temperature
           b.       Rainfall
           c.       Wind velocity
           d.       Relative humidity
        2. Topography – refers to the terrain of the soil that is hilly or level. Knowledge
           of this helps determine the ease of transporting farm implements and produce
           and the kind of plants suited for this site.
        3. Soil – loose and friable materials on the earth surface. Example: sand, clay,
           silt, etc. Soil type, drainage, depth, fertility and pH are the most important soil
           characteristics to consider in choosing the crop to grow.

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       4. Accessibility – the place should be easily reached by vehicles. The nearer the
          place, the lesser is the transportation cost.
       5. Water supply – this refers to both distribution and amount of water for
       6. Socio-economic consideration – these determine the profitability of the
          a.       Peace and order situation
          b.       Cost and availability of labor
          c.       Prevalence of infectious diseases
          d.       Price of land

                    What to process

                Activity # 2
       Make an interview with an experienced crop producer in the locality on how he
selects the site for his crop production. The results of the interviewwill be discussed in
class to answer the following questions.
       1. What are the factors to consider in choosing the location of your farm?
       2. Why is it necessary to consider such factors?
       3. How do these factors affect your production?

                    What to reflect on and understand

             Activity # 1
       Visit a farm in your locality and observe its location. Make a report about the
description of the farm you have visited. Draw the farm site. Is the place suited for crop
production? Why or why not? If you were the owner of the farm, would you choose the
same site? Why or Why not?

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               What to transfer
                It’s your turn now. Show off what you’ve learned.

               Activity # 1

          Your group is tasked to put up a vegetable garden in the school.
A. Considering the different factors in selecting the site, what will be the best site for
   the purpose? Why? Write your answer in the spaces provided below. What kinds
   of    vegetables      are     suited     or     appropriate      for    the     area?
B. Map out/illustrate the best site suited for planting the vegetable in the box

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                                        Lesson 3

   A. Land Preparation

                         What to know

           Activity # 1

Encircle the word or group of words which is related to land preparation.

  L        A         C         O       M        P        O        S         T        P
  A        N         D         P       E        L        I        T         I        A
  N        S         C         B       E        T        H        D         L        P
  D        H         L         S       H        A        N        E         L        A
  I        S         E         R       E        S        T        Y         I        N
  N        H         A         R       R        O        W        I         N        G
  E        A         R         M       A        I        M        A         G        N
  V        N         I         A       N        L        E        P         I        E
  T        L         N         E       E        L        N        A         H        S
  A        E         G         S       H        E        R        W         I        N

       Land preparation is inevitable in crop production. When properly done, it can
eliminate most of the weeds and soil-borne diseases. It also improves the water holding
capacity, drainage, and aeration of the soil. Likewise, it makes field operations, such as
furrow irrigation and mechanized weed control, easier.

Steps in Preparing the Land

        Picture/Illustration                                  Steps
                                        1. Clearing – clear the area of weeds, humps,
                                           rocks, and other debris by using bolo,
                                           scythe, and other tools needed. A clean
                                           area will make planting, weeding, and
                                           fertilizing easier.

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                                           2. Tilling – till the soil by plowing or by using
                                              light hoe or pick mattock depending upon
                                              the physical condition of the soil. This is
                                              done to eradicate weeds, to help the plant
                                              roots penetrate deeper into the soil for more
                                              nourishment and better anchorage. Other
                                              barriers for plant growth are also removed.
                                              Tilling is done at the beginning of the rainy

                                           3. Harrowing – this can be done using a
                                              harrow drawn by an animal or a machine in
                                              bigger farms. It can pulverize the soil, level
                                              it, and remove the plowed weeds as well.

                                           4. Applying compost – this will improve soil
                                              fertility and soil texture. Another way of
                                              improving the soil is through green
                                              manuring. This is a process by which a
                                              legume crop is plowed under soil at its
                                              flowering stage to be decomposed before
                                              the planting of crops.

                                           5. Layouting, staking and marking follow -
                                              Tomatoes, eggplants, okra are planted in
                                              hills while plots are prepared for leafy
                                              vegetables such as pechay, mustard, radish,
                                              celery and others. Beds are elevated in
                                              order to provide drainage especially during
                                              rainy season.

Direction: Write True, if the statement is correct, and False, if it is not.

______1. Thoroughly prepared soil can eliminate weeds on the farm.
______2. Poor soil cannot be cured anymore even if the land is thoroughly prepared.
______3. Thoroughly prepared land may eradicate soil-borne pathogenic organisms.
______4. Direct planting is done with pechay, radish, and tomatoes.
______5. Indirect planting is practical to use with corn, beans, and squash.
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______6. Seedlings can be transplanted immediately when the first leaf appears.

                        What to process

             Activity # 1

         Demonstrate the steps in preparing the land. You will be rated using the rubric

                I    can     do   it   I can do it with   I can do it   with I can do it with
                independently          minimal            moderate           considerable
                and use tools and      assistance         assistance    and assistance and
                equipment               and use tools     use tools     and use tools and
                correctly       and    and equipment      equipment          equipment
                confidently            correctly    and   correctly     and incorrectly and
                at all times           confidently        confidently        less confidently
                                       most of the time   sometimes          most of the time

                         4                    3                  2                  1


                        What to reflect on and understand?

                       Activity # 1

   1.     Mang Rolly is a beginner farmer preparing his farm for crop production. Help
         him explain the steps in preparing the land by filling up the ladder from step 1 to
         step 5?

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Your answer shall be assessed using the rubric below.

             Gives very accurate information and very relevant concepts on
             how to properly prepare the land
             Gives accurate information and relevant concepts on how to
             properly prepare the land.
             Gives less accurate information and concept on how to prepare
             the land.
             Gives inaccurate information and irrelevant concepts on how to
             properly prepare the land.
             Was not able to explain clearly and comprehensively any of the
             steps in preparing the land

                What to transfer

             Activity # 1

           Mang Rolly is not able to get your explanation of the steps in preparing
the land. He asks you if you can demonstrate the steps to him. In the previous
lesson, you have already identified the best site for your vegetable garden,
demonstrate now the steps in preparing the land in the presence of Mang Rolly.

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  Your performance will be rated using the following rubric:

                Able to demonstrate properly all the steps in preparing the land
                Able to demonstrate properly only three of the steps in preparing
                the land
                Able to demonstrate properly only two of the steps in preparing
                the land
                Able to demonstrate properly only one of the steps in preparing
                the land
                Was not able to demonstrate any of the steps in preparing the

B. Planting Crops
   Mensuration and Calculation

                 What to know

  The Seed and How to Select It
             Seeds are very important to animals and human beings because
  almost all plants which are the sources of food come from seeds. Human on the
  other hand, needs clothing, medicine and shelter which also come from plants.
              A seed is a fertilized and ripened ovule which may develop into a plant
  by germination. For example, a grain of palay or a kernel of corn is a seed. A
  seed has three parts: a) cotyledons (seed leaves) b) plumule (future shoot) c)
  radicle (future root).

  Characteristics of a Good Seed
  It must be:
  1. Viable - a viable seed has the capacity to germinate.

  2. Fully matured - a mature seed comes from a ripe and mature fruit which has
  grown from a healthy plant.
  3. Fresh - its germinating power must be preserved.

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     4.   True to type - this means the seeds are not mixed with other varieties.
     5.   Free from seed-borne disease
     6.   Damage-free
     7.   Free from weed seeds and other foreign matter.

     Testing the Viability of Seeds
                 Not all seeds have the ability to germinate due to the following:
     a. High moisture- temperature condition prevailing in our country all year
     b. Long storage - the seeds were kept too long.
     c. Immaturity - too immature when harvested.
                Testing seeds avoids wasting good seeds. There is no need of
     replanting; therefore, allowing uniform germination and maturity of the crop. In
     other words, germination tests will save you time, energy, money, and planting
     Common Methods of testing the viability of seeds
1.   Rag-doll method
2.   Seedbox method
3.   Petri dish method
4.   Floating in water method

Computing the Percentage of Germination

Percentage (%) of Germination=

   After inspecting the seed box, you find that only 85 seeds germinated out of 100
seeds that you have sown. The percentage of germination will be

Percentage of germination=


Percentage of germination = 85%

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   This means that only 85 percent of the total number of seeds germinated.

       To calculate the exact amount of seeds needed to plant a hectare, use the
   following formula:

   New seeding rate=


              a.)   recommended seeding rate is given based on 85%
              b.)   percentage germination is calculated using the first formula


      The recommended seeding rate of pole beans is 35 kg per hectare and the
   percentage of germination is 85. The new seeding rate will be;

   New seeding rate =              = 41 kg/ha

               Activity # 2

      Mang Kimho sowed 50 seeds. After inspecting the seed box you find that only 35
seeds germinated out. What is the percentage of germination using the formula below:

   Percentage of germination=

Methods of planting:
1. Direct planting         means that the seeds are
planted directly in the field where they will grow
permanently up to harvesting. This is usually done to
plants with big seeds such as beans, corn, peanuts,
okra, patola, upo and ampalaya. Many big farms and

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commercial growers use this method to make the work easy.
   However, if seedlings sown in direct planting exceed the normal number of plants
per hill, thinning is done. Thinning is the removal of excess seedlings, which
germinated or are spaced too closely for better growth. Seedlings thinned out can be
used as replacement. In the case of seedlings planted in seedboxes or seedbed,
pricking-off can be applied. Pricking-off means planting apart to give the seedlings
greater space in which to grow prior to transplanting in the field especially if they sprout
too close to each other.

                                          1. Indirect planting is practical
                                             among plants with small seeds
                                             such as cabbage, pechay, mustard,
                                             tomatoes, eggplants and spinach.
                                             They are sown in seedboxes or
                                             seedbeds in rows to produce
                                             seedlings     which      are    then
                                             transplanted into the field. As soon
       as seedlings have grown three or more leaves, they are now ready for

       Transplanting is done when
seedlings have attained 12 -15 cm in
height and 3 – 4 leaves have developed.

Steps to follow in transplanting seedlings:

   1. Water the seedlings before pulling.
   2. Pull the seedlings carefully without
      shaking off the media from the
   3. Plant the seedlings immediately to
      prevent the roots from drying out.
   4. Gently press the soil around the roots.
   5. Water the seedlings at the soil surface with a gentle stream of water to settle the
      soil around the roots.

       Activity # 3

                  Make a reflection paper on the importance of following the proper
       distance of planting. Write your answer in your notebook.

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      Activity # 4

                 Solve the following problems:

      1. How many seedlings will you need to plant tomato in your 500 sq.m. area if
      the distance of planting is 50 X 100 cms.?

      2. If you have 100 sq. m. lot, how many seedlings of cabbage will you need
      following 50 X 76 cms . as the distance of planting?

      3. What must be the distance of planting if you have 100 seedlings in order to
      plant your 25 sq. m. garden?

           Activity # 3
                   Below are pictures of different crops. Write DP if the method of
planting for the said crop is direct and IP if it is indirect opposite each photo.

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                       What to process

            Activity # 1
How do you differentiate direct seeding from indirect planting?
How do you differentiate thinning out from pricking off of seedlings?

                What to reflect on and understand
                  Let us see if you’re really learning a lot?

            Activity # 1

                   A                                             B
Using the illustrations above, answer the following questions.

1. Which picture shows that vegetable plants can attain their right size abundantly?


2. How do we prepare the soil in order to avoid the occurrence in picture B?


3. What are the advantages of having a thoroughly prepared vegetable farm?


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                  What to transfer

               Activity # 1 Land Preparation

Tools Needed:

Pick mattock         Hoe,        Rake       Shovel     Bolo,   Working clothes
Hat                 Gloves       Pail       Stick      Measuring device

   1. Prepare a plan for a vegetable garden. Design the location of different plants
      based on available space. Add rows and beds in the garden separated by narrow
      paths through which you can walk. Make sure the beds are not wider than 3 feet
      and 6 feet long.
   2. Clear the land of stones, rocks, and plant debris. Make sure it has well-drained
      soil and receives at least six hours of direct sunlight every day.
   3. Test the soil to determine the pH value that provides the indication of the
      amounts of nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium present. Do this
      by sending a sample to your local DA (Department of Agriculture ) officer. The
      result will tell you if you need to add fertilizer.
   4. Dig the soil with light hoe, shovel, or pick mattock to a depth of 6 to 8 inches.
      Pulverize after by using a hand trowel, bolo or hand cultivator.
   5. Spread 2 to 3 inches of organic compost or well rotted manure over the area.
      Rake the area to ensure the organic fertilizer be mixed with the soil.

      Your performance will be rated using the following rubric:

         5          Able to demonstrate properly all the steps in preparing the land
                    Able to demonstrate properly only three of the steps in preparing
                    the land
                    Able to demonstrate properly only two of the steps in preparing
                    the land
                    Able to demonstrate properly only one of the steps in preparing
                    the land
                    Was not able to demonstrate any of the steps in preparing the

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              Activity # 2 Indirect Planting (Eggplant)

Materials needed:

Seedbox, 1 sachet of eggplant seeds (1/20 K),sand, compost, loam soil, water, net


   1. Construct a seedbox measuring 1 x 2 feet.
   2. Fill in the seedbox with mixed media (1/3 sand. 1/3 loam soil,1/3 compost)
   3. Sow eggplant seeds by broadcasting uniformly in the seed box.
   4. Cover the seeds with soil thinly. Water them lightly.
   5. Cover the seedbox with net or a discarded sack of onion or garlic to avoid pests
   6. Continue watering the seedbox daily if needed until leaves appear. Bring the
      seedbox into full sunlight.
   7. When seedlings grow too close to each other, do the thinning.
   8. When 4 to 5 true leaves appear, plants are ready for transplanting.

        Your performance will be rated using the following rubric:

        5       Able to demonstrate properly all the eight procedures in the activity
                Able to demonstrate properly six - seven of the procedures in the
                Able to demonstrate properly four - five of the procedures in the
                Able to demonstrate properly one - three of the procedures in the
        1       Was not able to demonstrate any of the procedures in the activity

        Activity # 3
                  What are the things to consider in using the tools in the garden?

        Activity # 4
                  Write the Do’s and the Don’t’s in the use of tools to ensure

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                                        Lesson 4
                             CULTURAL REQUIREMENTS

                   What to know
                     How are plants maintained in order to attain their optimum
                     growth? Find out.

                     Are you ready for the cultural requirements?

Direction: Encircle the letter of the best answer
1. When is the proper time to water plants?
       A. After planting seeds in seedboxes.
       B. After planting seeds in the field.
       C. After transplanting seedlings.
       D. After thinning out.
2. What type of irrigation system is done if water is applied to plants in the form of spray
    or simulated rain?
         A. Drip
         B. Sprinkler
         C. Sub-surface
         D. Surface
 3. What is surface irrigation?
         A. Water flows along furrows.
         B. Water drops like simulated rain.
         C. Water drops in perforated tube.
         D. Water is supplied through submerged.pipes.
4. What is the best definition of fertilizer?
         A .Large amount of substances or nutrients needed by plants
         B. Small amount of substances or nutrients needed by plants
         C. Substances that come from decayed plants
         D. Organic or inorganic material added to soil to improve soil fertility
5. Green manuring refers to:
        A. leguminous plants that are plowed under to serve as fertilizer when
        B. applying chopped green leaves in the field.

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      C. collecting green colored animal manure to fertilize the field.
      D. letting the rice straws decomposein the field.

6. Why are weeds detrimental to crops?
      A. They protect the crops from sunlight
      B. Weeds compete with nutrients
      C. They eliminate insects attacking the plants
      D. They improve crop yield
7. Which is not a biological method of controlling insects?
      A. The use of predators to suppress insect pests
      B. The use of Malathion to spray the crops
      C. Proper land preparation
      D. Proper timing of planting
8. When is irrigation water disastrous?
      A. When it dissolves available nutrients
      B. When all the plant pests are killed
      C. When soil erosion occurs
      D. When plants start wilting
9. Herbicides are chemicals used to kill/eradicate
      A. snails
      B. weeds
      C. fungi
      D. bacteria
10. Why is artificial method of drainage considered the best method of removing excess
      A. Water passes down quickly.
      B. It does not require manpower.
      C. It is economical to use.
      D. Water passes down slowly.

   A. Applying fertilizer
          Fertilizer is any organic or inorganic material that is added to soil to supply
   nutrients essential to the growth of plants. A good fertilization program strives to
   maintain the current supply of nutrients to optimum levels and in correct proportion
   for economical production. It is achieved by proper timing and rate of application;
   thus, gives assurance for better yield of the crops.

   Two kinds of fertilizer
         1. Organic fertilizer – derived from vegetable and animal waste and
            decomposed plants and animal remains. Example: decomposed animal
            manure, green manure, worm castings
         2. Inorganic – man-made fertilizer. Example: Urea, Ammonium Sulfate

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  Determination of fertilizer needs

          The amount and kind of fertilizer to be added to the soil depends primarily
          1. The nutrient requirement of the crop, and
          2. How much nutrient the soil can apply

  Methods of fertilizer application:

          1. Basal method – the fertilizer is applied first
             before or during planting.

                         2.     Side-dressing or Top-dressing - the fertilizer is
                         applied to a crop that is already growing in the field.

          3. Spraying – starter solution fertilizer may be
             sprayed on seedlings, poured on the seedbed
             then into the transplant hole at transplanting
             time to assure good seedling vigor and rapid
             growth of new transplants.

  Major elements needed by plants:

          1. Nitrogen – for healthy growth of leaves and flowers
          2. Phosphorous – for good root and stem development
          3. Potassium – for better leaves, stems, flowers. It also produces bigger
              and heavier fruits.
          Fertilizers especially inorganic should be applied in the right amount and
          at the proper time or else they will defeat the purpose.

B. Weeding

         Weeds are enemies of plants. They lower crop yield and compete with
  crops for light and carbon dioxide and water and soil nutrients as well.
         Kinds of weeds:
         1. Grasses
         2. Sedges
         3. Broad leaf weeds

                                                                             Page 32
      Methods of controlling weeds:

      1. Mechanical – a method that involves the use of hand pulling, hoeing,
         cultivation, mowing, and burning. Tillers drawn by animals or tractors are
         used in large scale plantation.
      2. Chemical – the method of modern weed control that involves chemicals called
      3. Biological - this is method that disrupts the ecological status of pests through
         the use of organisms that are natural predators, parasites, or pathogens.

   C. Irrigation and Drainage in Agricultural Production

            Water is very important to crops. In the absence of rain, irrigation provides
the necessary moisture and carrier of plant food to obtain maximum growth and
development of crops.

   Two systems of irrigation
   1. Gravity – a system of irrigation that requires a dam to direct the water to a
   2. Pumping – a system of irrigation that uses a pump to draw water either from a
      nearby stream or a ground water supply.

   Methods of irrigation
   1. Surface irrigation – the water is
      applied on the surface of the soil
      either in furrows or by flooding. This
      is the most economical method of

                                                2. Sprinkler or overhead irrigation –
                                                   the water is applied in the form of a

                                                                                 Page 33
     spray or artificial rain. This method uses water efficiently and the operation is

                                         3. Drip irrigation – the water is applied
                                            through pipes at calibrated pressures.
                                      Drainage – excess water     in the field is
                                      removed. Excess water in the field may
                                      damage the crops, cause run off and leaching
                                      of soil nutrients.
Methods of drainage:
1. Natural – the method that drains excess water from the field without the
   intervention of man.
2. Artificial – this method may take the form of open ditches and tile drains or under
   drains. This is the best method of removing excess water from the field because
   water passes down quickly, avoiding the removal of surface flow.
Advantages of well- drained land:
1. It is porous. Porous soil is easy to work on.
2. It does not become muddy.
3. It is not acidic.
4. There is no submergence of small growing plants.
5. The growth of plants is generally better.
6. The activities of microorganisms are disturbed.
7. Well-drained land prevents the removal of top soil which is the most fertile part of
   the soil.
8. Good drainage helps in flood control.

D. Crop Protection

     1.          Insect pests cause great damage to crops. They chew, suck and lap
          the leaves, flowers and fruits hence decreasing the yield and quality of
          produce. They also transmit disease to man and crops as well.

                                                                               Page 34
                         Common insect pests:

Beetles ( Coleoptera)

Caterpillar and moth ( Lepidoptera)

Flies (Diptera), beanfly, leaf miner

True bugs (Himeptera) green soldier bug

Aphids, hopper and mealy bugs

Grasshopper and crickets (Ortoptera)

Ants (Hymenoptera)

                                                Page 35
Control methods:
         a.       Cultural methods
                 Use of resistant varieties
                 Use of hand picking
                 Use of botanical insecticides
                 Use of crop rotation
                 Use of intercropping

         b. Chemical method

         c. Biological method
             Use of trap plants ex. Amarillo
             Use of plant attractants ex. Basil (amaranth),
                   sunflower, cosmos, zinnia
Safety measures in using chemicals:
         a. Use least hazardous products
         b. Dispense and mix chemicals in well-ventilated areas
         c. Use appropriate PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)

      2. Diseases
              Disease is more detrimental than insect pest. Its presence is unnoticed at
         first but when noticed, it is already in its advanced stage. Detection of the
         causal organism is not easy as well; hence, controlling the disease is not
Plant disease is either parasitic or non-parasitic.
         1. Parasitic diseases are due to:
                Fungi                                 Nematodes
                Bacteria                              Virus

         2. Non-parasitic diseases are due to:
               Either lack or excess of minerals
               Unfavorable soil- water relations
               Environmental factors such as air pollution, low or high temperature
      Note: Injury from non-parasitic diseases serves as entry of parasitic diseases.
Methods of preventing diseases:
1.    Use of resistant varieties             5.       Soil sterilization
2.    Use of disease – free seed stock       6.       Planting in well –prepared, fertile
3.    Seed treatment                                  fields
4.    Crop rotation                          7.       Weed and insect control

                                                                                    Page 36
     8.     Practice cleanliness in the field

                                          Common diseases:

                                                2.         Downy mildew in
1.   Blossom – end rot of

                                                4.        Cucumber mosaic
3.   Pre-emergence                                         virus in tomato
     damping-off seedlings

5.   Post – emergence: rapid
     rotting at the base of the             6.            Fruit rot in eggplant
     enlarged seedling
     causing it to fall

                                                     8.       Leaf blight
7.   Bacterial spot in pepper

                        What to process

                    Activity # 1

            A. Answer the following questions:

            1. What is the role of water in plants?

            2. If water is not available in the farm area, what are you going to do to obtain it
               and how?

            3. How important is the irrigation system in plant production?

                                                                                          Page 37
              Activity # 2

        What are the precautionary measures in the application of insecticides and other
chemicals in the farm? Write your answers in your notebook.

                  What to reflect on and understand

                  Activity # 1
       Watch a video presentation showing the different cultural practices in crop
production. Make a web concept map on how well you understand what you have seen.
Be guided by the questions given below. You may use a similar web concept map
      1.           What are the cultural practices in the presentation?
      2.           How will you describe each of the cultural practices?
      3.           Why do you think it is important to know and understand the different
           cultural practices in crop production?
Cultural Practices                 Description                    Importance

                  Activity # 2

      Analyze the situation and give your best solution to the problem.

                                                                                  Page 38
        Your friend Sherwin owns a hectare of land which is planted with vegetables. He
told you that he noticed different insects in his farm aside from some of the affected
parts of the vegetables.

1. Suggest a solution to solve his problems.

                    What to transfer

                    Activity # 1

                 Visit a vegetable garden in the locality and observe the cultural
      practices done by farmers. If possible try out some of their practices. Make a
      scrap book containing the cultural practices in the farm. It must have pictures and

                     Activity # 2

       Maintain a vegetable garden in the school and at home. Apply the different
cultural practices. Make a report on the activities done and the results.

                                                                                 Page 39
                                  Lesson 5
                      HARVESTING AND MARKETING

                What to know

A. Harvesting

              Production ends at harvest time. Harvest means the careful separation
  of a commodity from the parent plant.
  Types of maturity:
  1.          Physiological maturity. It is the stage of development when the
      commodity has attained full growth and development, the stage at which the
      external and internal characteristics of the fruit allow normal ripening after
  2.          Commercial or horticultural maturity. It is the stage of development
      when the plant part possesses the necessary characteristics preferred by
      consumers. It is used as a basis for declaring when to harvest for commercial
      purposes but it varies specially for vegetables, depending on the intended use
      of the commodity and the preference of the consumers.
  Characteristics of commodities harvested at the proper stage of maturity:
  1.        Longer storage life
  2.        Greater resistance to physiological disorders
  3.        Greater resistance to mechanical stresses and water loss
  4.        Ripe fruit possesses all desirable characteristics
  Some pointers for harvesting some crops:

   1. Tomatoes are harvested before they reach the ripe stage.
   2. Cabbages are picked when heads are full grown.
   3. Peppers are gathered green but should be allowed to ripen when used for
   4. Green beans are best picked before the pods become stringy.
   5. Lettuce is gathered before seed stalks begin to develop.
   6. Okra is best picked when young and tender.
   7. Young corn when harvested early in the morning is sweeter than those
      harvested at noon.
   8. Pechay and mustard have higher consumer appeal when harvested between
      9:00AM to 3:00 PM because damage in stem and leaves is lessened.
   9. Mangoes should be harvested from 9:00AM to 3:00PM to minimize latex flow.
  10. Tomatoes are harvested before they reach the ripening stage.

                                                                            Page 40
   B. Marketing

                Marketing is the process of selling harvested crops, either on
      wholesale or retail basis.
      Two types:
      1.        Wholesale marketing - selling produce on a large scale, usually to
         middlemen or directly to large consumer groups like restaurants, hotels, and
      2.        Retail marketing – selling on a small scale. It is selling directly to the
         buyers, usually the home consumers.
      Factors to consider to ensure success in marketing of vegetables:

      1. Buyers usually consider size, appearance, and quantity of the vegetables.
      2. Some vegetables,l ike onion, have their skin removed before being sold.
      3. Freshness of appearance is maintained when vegetables are harvested and
         marketed on the same day.
      4. Cucumber, eggplants, and gourds are preferred when they are young and
         when their seeds are about to be formed.
      5. Leaf crops, like lettuce and mustard, are sold when they are about six or
         more leaves on each plant.
      6. Green pods like beans, cowpeas, and seguidillas sell best when pods are of
         good size and not when they are tough or stringy.
      7. Some vegetables, like radishes, potato, beets, carrots, and turnips, should be
         washed thoroughly before they are sold.
      8. Proper handling of newly harvested vegetables in woven baskets minimizes
         bruises and injuries. Remember, the best quality commands the best price.

                One of the most important features of marketing is record keeping.
      You should list all the expenses spent and the sales from the harvest. Subtract
      your expenses from your total sales to determine if you are losing or gaining.

4 M’s of Production

a. Manpower – This is by all means the most important resource in production. If you
              have good people you can make saleable products.
b. Machine- After acquiring highly capable people, you must acquire a good if not the
                best machine. Nowadays, it is very important to acquire technologically
                updated machines.
c. Methods- Today, we see that every business tries to keep track of technology.
              Businesses are trying their best to be updated with the current market

                                                                                  Page 41
d. Materials- A businessman must not forget that in order to produce a product
               continuously, abundant raw materials should be available.

                     What to process

                Activity # 1
         1. How is physiological maturity different from commercial maturity?

         2. You are a farmer who just harvested 100kgs of tomatoes and 200kgs of
            eggplants. If you are to choose how you will market your commodities,
            which would you prefer, wholesale or retail? Why?

         3. Give the 4 M’s of production and explain its importance in crop production.
            a. ____________________________________________________
            b. ____________________________________________________
            c. ____________________________________________________
            d. ____________________________________________________

                     What to reflect on and understand

                     Activity # 1
                Conduct an interview with the nearest crop producer in the locality
      about harvesting and marketing practices. Make a narrative and pictorial report of

                                                                                Page 42
      the conduct of the interview for reporting in class. Be guided by the following
      questions below:
          1. What are the crops grown in the farm?
          2. When is the right time to harvest each crop?
          3. How do we know that they are ready for harvest?
          4. What are precautionary measures observed to protect and maintain the
         quality of the produce?
          5. How does the crop producer market the commodities? Why does he
         prefer such?
      Your report will be rated using the given rubrics below:

    CRITERIA               4               3                2                 1
                     Exceptional     Generally       Lacks clarity,   Unclear,
                     ly clear,       clear, quite    difficult to     impossible to
                     easy to         easy to         understand       understand
                     understand      understand

     Organize        Very well-      Well            Organized        Not organized
                     organized       organized

                     Thorough        Substantial     Partial report   Was not able to
                     and             Report but      that answers     report anything
                     complete        answers         only two of
  Comprehensive      report          only three      the questions
                                     to five of
                     Highly          Generally       Somewhat         Irrelevant
      Relevant       relevant as     relevant        relevant, has
                     supported       with less       no pictures
                     by pictures     pictures

                   What to transfer
                     Is proper way of harvesting and marketing clear to you
                     now? Great! Be ready for the hands-on activity.

Goal – Your goal is to help students in a Crop Production class understand how to
      properly harvest and market crops.

                                                                                   Page 43
Role - You’re an agriculturist who was invited to be a resource person.
Audience– The target audience is the Grade 7 students taking up Crop Production as
     exploratory subject in TLE.
Situation – You need to demonstrate the proper way of harvesting and marketing crops
Product/Performance – Proper demonstration of:
                            A. Harvesting; and
                            B. Marketing crops.
Standard – You will be assessed using the given rubric below.
 Your performance for harvesting will be rated using the following rubric:
                Works independently and able to demonstrate properly with
        5       ease and confidence at all times the proper way of harvesting
                and marketing.
                Works independently and able to demonstrate with ease and
        4       confidence most of the time the proper way of harvesting and
                Works independently and able to demonstrate with ease and
        3       confidence sometimes the proper way of harvesting and
                Works and able to demonstrate with assistance from others the
                proper way of harvesting and marketing.
                Was not able to demonstrate any of the proper way of
                harvesting and marketing.


                       The lessons in this module on Crop Production serve as eye
                 openers to what is to be done in the workplace.
       The different knowledge and skills acquired in crop production are essential for
you to become a good crop producer. You should take into consideration the factors in
the selection of site, land preparation, planting and transplanting and following the
appropriate cultural requirements to come up with the desired and satisfying produce.
Bear in mind that harvesting in the right time will give you quality and profitable products
and when marketing, take into consideration the prevailing price in the market be it
wholesale or retail basis.

                                                                                    Page 44
              GLOSSARRY OF TERMS

Crop rotation         -    planting of different crops in succession on the same
                           piece of land
Soil                  -    loose and friable material of the earth surface
Insecticide           -    a chemical used for killing insects
Herbicide             -    a chemical used to eradicate weeds
Compost               -    decomposed plants and animal manures mixed with
Green manuring        -    the process of plowing leguminous crops as fertilizer
                           under the soil during their flowering stage to improve
                           soil fertility
Producer              -    one who creates products
Consumer              -    end user of a product
Produce               -    harvested products
Product               -    refers to manufactured goods or items for
Commodity             -    refers to harvested produce in this module
Market                -    place where buyers and sellers meet
                           target customers
Irrigation            -    artificial application of water to the field
Drainage              -    removal of excess water in the field


You have successfully completed the course with flying colors!

                                                                             Page 45


1. Bautista, Ofelia K. Tropical Horticulture.
2. Brookhart, Susana M. PLC Series: Exploring Formative Assessment, ASCD,
   Alexandria, Virginia USA
3. Rojo, Cruz, Villanueva, et al., Effective Technology and Home Economics II,
   Textbook Second Year.


1. http://business.inquirer.net/1796/manpower-development-for-agriculture-
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sickle
3. http://www.agribusinessweek.com/agri-entrepreneurship-simplified/
4. http://www.bukisa.com/articles/134282_harvesting-and-marketing-vegetables
5. http://www.elateafrica.org/elate/entrepreneur/entrepreneur/characteristics.html
6. http://www.gardentoolcompany.com/small-hand-forks/
7. http://www.google.com.ph
8. http://www.google.com.ph/search?
9. http://www.google.com.ph/imgres?

                                                                             Page 46

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