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Dr. Salinas - Doctoral Defense

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					Dissertation Defense
Prairie View A & M University
   Educational Leadership
Candidate: Roselia Alaniz Salinas

       Dissertation Chair:
 William Allan Kritsonis, Ph.D.

   Dissertation Committee:
   Douglas Hermond, Ph.D.
   David Herrington, Ph.D.
    Camille Gibson, Ph.D.
A Comparison of Alternatively and Traditionally
   Certified Bilingual Elementary Teachers’
        Student Achievement Scores in
     Selected Major Urban Texas Schools

                     A Dissertation Defense
                               by
                      Roselia Alaniz Salinas

        Dissertation Chair: William Allan Kritsonis, Ph.D.
                  Prairie View A & M University
                       Educational Leadership
        Dissertation Defense Format
I.      Theoretical Framework
II.     Purpose of the Study
III.    Research Questions
IV.     Method of Procedure
V.      Quantitative Major Findings
VI.     Qualitative Major Findings
VII.    Review of Literature
VIII.   Recommendations



                                      3
                  Theoretical Framework
Teacher Competencies                               Student Performance
001. Human Development          Certification Routes
Processes
                                                        TAKS
002. Student Diversity            TRADITIONAL
003. Instruction &                                     READING
Assessment
004. Learning Processes
005. Classroom Climate
006. Student Behavior
007. Communication                 ALTERNATIVE           TAKS
008. Student Engagement
009. Technology
                                                         MATH
010. Monitors Feedback/
Flexibility
011. Family Involvement
012. Professional Development
013. Legal & Ethical


                                                                  4
         Purpose of the Study
The purpose was threefold:
1. It sought to examine whether teacher

   certification route (i.e., alternative or
   traditional) made a difference in the
   performance of elementary bilingual students
   in selected major urban school districts in
   Texas as measured by the Texas Assessment of
   Knowledge and Skills (TAKS).

                                              5
Purpose of the Study
2.   It attempted to distinguish if similarities or
     differences exist in teacher preparation routes.

3.   It intended to identify the extent classroom
     teachers were prepared by their certification
     program in the 13 teacher competencies
     outlined in the Texas Examinations of
     Educator Standards (TExES).

                                                        6
   Quantitative Research Questions
1. How do bilingual elementary teachers rate their
  preparedness for the teaching profession as
  determined by the 13 teacher competencies
  measured by the Survey on Competencies Learned
  Through Certification Routes instrument?




                                                     7
   Quantitative Research Questions
2. What are the differences in the academic
  performance of 3rd and 5th grade students taught
  in a bilingual classroom setting by traditional
  certified teachers compared to those taught by
  alternative certified teachers based on the Texas
  Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS)
  “Percent Met Standard” scores in Reading?



                                                      8
   Quantitative Research Questions
3. What are the differences in the academic
   performance of 3rd and 5th grade students taught
   in a bilingual classroom setting by traditional
   certified teachers compared to those taught by
   alternative certified teachers based on the Texas
   Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS)
   “Percent Met Standard” scores in Mathematics?



                                                       9
            Null Hypotheses
H01 - There are no statistically significant
 differences in the academic performances of 3rd
 and 5th grade students taught in a bilingual
 classroom setting by traditional certified teachers
 compared to those taught by alternative certified
 teachers based on the Texas Assessment of
 Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) “Percent Met
 Standard” scores in Reading.

                                                   10
            Null Hypotheses
H02 - There are no statistically significant
 differences in the academic performances of 3rd
 and 5th grade students taught in a bilingual
 classroom setting by traditional certified teachers
 compared to those taught by alternative certified
 teachers based on the Texas Assessment of
 Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) “Percent Met
 Standard” scores in Mathematics.

                                                   11
 Qualitative Research Questions
4. What do bilingual elementary teachers who
   received either traditional or alternative
   certification describe as factors that helped or
   hindered them during their preparation to enter
   the classroom?




                                                      12
 Qualitative Research Questions
5. What are some specific skills that alternative or
   traditional certified bilingual elementary teachers
   wished their preparation program had exposed
   them to before entering the classroom?




                                                     13
          Mixed Methods Study


Quantitative Data
  Descriptive Statistics
      Demographic   data
      13 teacher competencies



  Independent t-test
      Comparison   of Means

                                 14
          Mixed Methods Study

Qualitative Data
   Two-open ended questions
   Triangulation – Validation of the Findings
     Categorized the teacher participant questionnaire
      responses to the 13 teacher competencies;
     Performed an analysis of the quantitative data
      collected; and
     Conducted a qualitative analysis of the study.


                                                          15
                     Method
   Independent Variables – Teacher certification
    routes (alternative or traditional)

   Dependent Variable – Student achievement
    based on “Percent Met Standard” in
    Mathematics and Reading TAKS scores by
    teacher.


                                                    16
                            Method
   Subjects of the Study
     Alternative and traditional certified
      elementary bilingual teachers
     Grades 3 and 5

     5 major urban school districts

     25 demographically similar schools

     116 teachers responded out of 206
           56% rate of return


                                              17
                        Method
Subjects of the Study
            Traditional Certified: 53.4%
            Alternative Certified: 46.6%

Years of Experience
           0-3 years       31.0%
           4-7 years       25.0%
           8-12 years      20.7%
           13-20 years     12.1%
           > 20 years      11.2%

                                           18
                         Method
   Instrumentation
       Four-choice Likert-type scale:
          No Preparation/None
          Minimal/Little Preparation

          Some/Moderate Preparation

          Significant Preparation




                                         19
                           Method
   Instrumentation
       Survey on Competencies Learned Through the Certification
        Route

       Instrument components:
          13 closed-ended responses taken from the Texas
           Examination for Educator Standards (TExES).
          2 multiple choice questions about demographic data.

          2 open-ended questions soliciting responses about
           level of teacher preparedness.

                                                                   20
                     Method

   Pilot test conducted in an urban district with similar
    demographics consisting of 40 participants.




                                                             21
                         Method
Instrumentation: 13 teacher competencies
Domain I – Designing Instruction and Assessment to
                  Promote Student Learning

   001.The teacher understands human development processes
        and applies this knowledge to plan instruction and ongoing
        assessment that motivate students and are responsive to
        their development characteristics and needs.

   002.The  teacher understands student diversity and knows how
        to plan learning differences and design assessments that are
        responsive to differences among students and that promote
        all students’ learning.

                                                                   22
                           Method
Instrumentation: 13 teacher competencies
Domain I – Designing Instruction and Assessment to
                   Promote Student Learning

      The teacher understands procedures for designing
   003.
                effective and coherent instruction and
    assessment based            on appropriate learning goals and
    objectives.

   004. The   teacher understands learning processes and factors that
          impact student learning and demonstrates this knowledge
          by planning effective, engaging instruction and appropriate
          assessments.

                                                                    23
                           Method
Instrumentation: 13 teacher competencies
Domain II – Creating a Positive, Productive Classroom
                    Environment

   005. The   teacher knows how to establish classroom climate
          that fosters learning, equity, and excellence and uses this
          knowledge to create a physical and emotional environment
          that is safe and productive.

   006.   The teacher understands strategies for creating an
           organized and productive environment for managing
           student behavior.


                                                                    24
                            Method
Instrumentation: 13 teacher competencies
Domain III – Implementing Effective, Responsive Instruction
             and Assessment

   007.   The teacher understands and applies principles and
          strategies for communicating effectively in varied
          teaching and learning contexts.

   008.   The teacher provides appropriate instruction that actively
           engages students in the learning process.




                                                                       25
                             Method
Instrumentation: 13 teacher competencies
Domain III – Implementing Effective, Responsive Instruction
             and Assessment

    009.   The teacher incorporates the effective use of technology
           to plan, organize, deliver, and evaluate instruction for all
           students.

    010.   The teacher monitors student performance and
           achievement; provides students with timely, high-quality
           feedback; and responds flexibly to promote learning for
           all students.


                                                                          26
                            Method
Instrumentation: 13 teacher competencies
Domain IV – Fulfilling Professional Roles and Responsibilities

011.   The teacher understands the importance of family
       involvement in children’s education and knows how to
       interact and communicate effectively with families.

012.   The teacher enhances professional knowledge and skills by
       effectively interacting with other members of the educational
       community and participating in various types of professional
       activities.


                                                                       27
                           Method
Instrumentation: 13 teacher competencies
Domain IV – Fulfilling Professional Roles and Responsibilities

013.   The teacher understands and adheres to legal and ethical
        requirements for educators and is knowledgeable of the
        structure of education in Texas.




                                                                  28
           Major Findings
         Research Question 1

How do bilingual elementary teachers rate their
preparedness for the teaching profession as
determined by the 13 teacher competencies
measured by the Survey on Competencies Learned
Through Certification Routes instrument?




                                                  29
                     Major Findings
                   Research Question 1
Traditional certified participants      001-Human Development Processes
 >50% rated teacher                    002-Student Diversity
  preparedness as                       003-Instruction and Assessment
  “significantly prepared”              004-Learning Processes
                                        005-Classroom Climate
  in 11 of the 13
                                        006-Student Behavior
  teacher competencies.                 008-Student Engagement
                                        010-Monitors/Feedback/Flexibility
                                        011-Family Involvement
                                        012-Professional Development
                                        013-Legal and Ethical



                                                                        30
                  Major Findings
                Research Question 1
Traditional certified participants
 <50% rated teacher                    007-Communication
  preparedness as                       009-Technology
  “significantly prepared”
  in 2 of the 13
  teacher competencies.




                                                             31
                   Major Findings
                 Research Question 1
Alternative certified participants
 >50% rated teacher                    004-Learning Processes
   preparedness as                      005-Classroom Climate
   “significantly prepared”             010-Monitors/Feedback/Flexibility
   in 5 of the 13                       012-Professional Development
                                        013-Legal and Ethical
   teacher competencies.




                                                                        32
                    Major Findings
                  Research Question 1
Alternative certified participants
 <50% rated teacher                    001-Human Development Processes
   preparedness                         002-Student Diversity
                                        003-Instruction and Assessment
   as “not significantly prepared”
                                        006-Student Behavior
   in 8 of the 13                       007-Communication
   teacher competencies.                008-Student Engagement
                                        009-Technology
                                        011-Family Involvement




                                                                           33
                Review of Literature
                Research Question 1
Laczko-Kerr & Berliner (2003) – Classroom teachers appear to
perform better in their teaching abilities if they have fulfilled a
teacher preparation program that concentrates on content
knowledge, pedagogical coursework including learning theories,
developmental theories, theories of motivation and issues of
student assessment and practice teaching.

Glass (2002) – Teachers must know teaching methods, curriculum
design, learning theory and child adolescent development before
they get in front of a class of students and be a successful teacher.


                                                                      34
              Review of Literature
              Research Question 1
Darling-Hammond (1999) – A growing body of literature
confirms that effective teachers are those who comprehend their
subject matter, understand student learning and development,
know a wide range of teaching methods, and have developed their
skills under expert guidance.




                                                                  35
               Review of Literature
               Research Question 1
Lannie & McCurdy (2007) – Classroom management is seen as an
important component of effective teaching. For classroom teachers
to be successful in urban schools, they must embed classroom
management in every phase of classroom life, making the teaching
of social skills an automatic component of daily instruction.

Ingersoll & Smith (2004) – Scores of educational research have
recognized that the existence of a sense of community and
cohesion among teachers, parents, and students through
professional development and growth is critically important for the
success of schools.

–
                                                                  36
            Major Findings
          Research Question 2
What are the differences in the academic
performance of 3rd and 5th grade students taught
in a bilingual education classroom setting by
traditional certified teachers compared to those
taught by alternative certified teachers based on
the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills
(TAKS) “Percent Met Standard” scores in
Reading?

                                                37
                       Major Findings
                     Research Question 2
TAKS Reading
                                     n                     _
                                                           x
  Alternative certified             80                    54.31
  Traditional certified             110                   67.84


  Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills Reading Scores t-test
                            t         df           Sig.       Mean
                                                (2-tailed) Difference
  TAKS          Equal       2.689         188     .008*           13.524
  Reading       variances
                assumed

  *p≤0.05
                                                                           38
            Major Findings
          Research Question 3
What are the differences in the academic
performance of 3rd and 5th grade students taught
in a bilingual education classroom setting by
traditional certified teachers compared to those
taught by alternative certified teachers based on
the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills
(TAKS) “Percent Met Standard” scores in
Mathematics?


                                                39
                        Major Findings
                      Research Question 3
TAKS Mathematics
                                    n                      _
                                                           x

  Alternative certified             65                    52.65
  Traditional certified             63                    69.51

   Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills Mathematics Scores t-test
                             t         df          Sig.      Mean
                                                (2-tailed) Difference

  TAKS          Equal       2.775        126      .006*           16.862
  Math          variances
                assumed

                                                                           40
            Review of Literature
          Research Questions 2 & 3
Darling-Hammond, Holtzman, Gatlin, & Vasquez Heilig (2005) –
Results might be due to the specific knowledge classroom teachers
need to know to effectively teach English learners.

Darling-Hammond (2000) – Studies show that measures of teacher
preparation and certification of classroom teachers are the strongest
connections of student achievement in reading and mathematics.




                                                                    41
            Review of Literature
          Research Questions 2 & 3
Laczko-Kerr & Berliner (2003) – Alternatively certified teachers
tend to have a narrow viewpoint of curriculum and a lack of
understanding of their student’s ability.

Laczko-Kerr & Berliner (2003) – Alternatively certified teachers
face difficulty translating content knowledge into meaningful
information for their students to understand; they are less effective
planners of instruction; and they tend not to learn about teaching
through their experiences.




                                                                        42
           Major Findings
         Research Question 4
What do bilingual elementary teachers who
received either traditional or alternative
certification describe as factors that helped or
hindered them during their preparation to enter
the classroom?




                                                   43
                        Major Findings
                        Research Question 4
Factors that helped teacher preparedness:

     Competency             Traditional     Alternative
003 - Instruction and         7.4%            19.6%
     Assessment
006 - Student                 9.3%            15.2%
      Behavior
008 - Student                 13.0%           21.7%
      Engagement
012 - Professional            63.0%           39.1%
      Development



                                                          44
                    Major Findings
                    Research Question 4
Traditional certified participant
“Student teaching was a wonderful experience- it really helped
expose me to the classroom setting.”


Traditional certified participant
“The main thing that helped to prepare me for teaching was the
experience provided in my field based classes. That allowed me
to interact first-hand with what would be our potential future
careers.”

                                                                 45
                    Major Findings
                    Research Question 4
Traditional certified participant
“I was a teacher assistant for the entire time I was in college. By the
time I became a teacher, I was ready. I had the knowledge to run a
classroom more smoothly.”

Traditional certified participant
“The teaching experience and my love for teaching.”

Traditional certified participant
“My self-enthusiasm has helped and desire to perform the job has
kept me in the profession.”
                                                                      46
                  Major Findings
                Research Question 4
Traditional certified participant
“Observation of veteran educators in action with their class at
several grade levels helped me a great deal. Tutoring children while
in college helped prepare me also.”

Alternative certified participant
“Inservices and different institutes because they gave me some
ideas and strategies to implement in the classroom.”



                                                                       47
                  Major Findings
                Research Question 4
Alternative certified participant
“I had a lot of help during my ACP training especially with the
development of lesson plans, lesson cycles, and classroom
management.
Alternative certified participant
“Classroom management workshops. Lesson cycle workshops.”
Alternative certified participant
“Previous life experiences, plus student teaching helped prepare me.”


                                                                  48
               Review of Literature
               Research Question 4
Darling-Hammond (1999) – A growing body of literature confirms
that effective teachers are those who comprehend their
subject matter, understand student learning, know a wide range of
teaching methods, and have developed their skills under expert
guidance in clinical settings.

Ingersoll & Smith (2004) – Scores of educational research have
recognized that the existence of a sense of community and cohesion
among teachers, parents, and students through professional
development and growth is critically important for the success of
schools.
                                                                    49
               Review of Literature
               Research Question 4
Menken & Antunez (2001) – Teacher preparation and professional
development of teachers has become a focus to the problem of
teacher quality in today’s schools as a way to cultivate a pool of
teachers able to effectively teach the students.

Darling-Hammond, Holtzman, Gatlin & Vasquez Heilig (2005) – A
good quality teacher preparation program provides experiences for
the preservice teacher to convert information gained from
coursework in order to learn in the context of the real world of
teaching in the classroom.

                                                                     50
                 Major Findings
               Research Question 4
Factors that hindered teacher preparedness:
Traditional certified
Competency 002 (1.9%)    -   Student Diversity
Competency 003 (5.6%)    -   Instruction and Assessment
Competency 005 (1.9%)    -   Classroom Climate
Competency 006 (9.3%)    -   Student Behavior
Competency 010 (3.7%)    -   Monitors/Feedback/Flexibility
Competency 012 (9.3%)    -   Professional Development




                                                             51
                  Major Findings
                  Research Question 4
Factors that hindered teacher preparedness:
Alternative certified
Competency 002 (7.7%)    -   Student Diversity
Competency 003 (3.8%)    -   Instruction and Assessment
Competency 004 (1.9%)    -   Learning Processes
Competency 006 (1.9%)    -   Student Behavior
Competency 008 (5.8%)    -   Student Engagement
Competency 010 (3.8%)    -   Monitors/Feedback/Flexibility
Competency 012 (3.8%)    -   Professional Development



                                                             52
                 Major Findings
               Research Question 4
Non-category factors that hindered teacher preparedness:
Traditional certified
Program structure (5.6%)
Unrealistic teacher preparation (5.6%)
Teaching experience (3.7%)

Alternative certified
Program structure (7.8%)
Unrealistic teacher preparation (2.0%)
Expectation of “knowing how to teach” (2.0%)
More hands-on preparation (2.0%)
Mentoring (2.0%)
                                                           53
                 Major Findings
               Research Question 4
Traditional certified participant
“I think most education degrees and alternative certification
programs do a great job of preparing a teacher for an ideal teaching
situation. The problem is 99% of schools are not ideal situations.
Also, the larger number of minority students in Texas and their
learning and communication styles is not addressed in most
education classrooms. The truth is, the minority is the majority in
Texas, so why isn’t that truth really addressed in preparing teachers
to teach mostly Hispanic and African-American students?”


                                                                        54
                  Major Findings
                Research Question 4
Traditional certified participant
“The educational programs found in undergraduate
programs are based on theories for which there is no
practical application of them. The issues that a classroom
teacher is faced with today aren’t covered in any depth for
the unsuspecting educator. Ways and tactics to deal with
these issues are discussed even less.”



                                                          55
                   Major Findings
                   Research Question 4
Traditional certified participant
“College cannot fully prepare you for what a teacher has in store in
the classroom. It is learned through experience.”

Traditional certified participant
“When I started teaching, my university courses had done nothing
for me.”

Alternative certified participant
“I was expected to know how to teach since I had accepted the
position.

                                                                       56
                     Major Findings
                   Research Question 4
Alternative certified participant
“ACPs do a great job preparing a teacher for the
ideal teaching situation. The problem is, schools
are not ideal situations.”

Alternative certified participant
“There is nothing that can ever prepare you than your first day in
the classroom seeing different kinds of behavior that sets the tone
of planning especially how you teach.”


                                                                      57
                Major Findings
              Research Question 4

Alternative certified participant
“Some things that hindered my teaching were not knowing exactly
what things were due/procedures or doing
grades/referrals/basic classroom need to know things.”

Alternative certified participant
“Not knowing how to handle children with special needs was a
hindrance.”


                                                                  58
                  Review of Literature
                  Research Question 4
Imig (1997); Wong & Glass (2005) - Colleges and universities need
to continue to transform every feature of their teacher preparation
program in response to preparing students for realistic teaching
environments which consist of economically disadvantaged,
culturally and linguistically diverse student learners.




                                                                      59
                   Review of Literature
                   Research Question 4
Hawley (2002) -Subject-matter content and subject-matter
methods, as well as skills and pedagogy, need to be
learned prior to teaching.

Darling-Hammond (2004) - Classroom teachers admitted
through alternative certification programs have difficulty
with curriculum development, pedagogy content
knowledge, teaching to students’ different learning styles
and levels, classroom management, instructional delivery
methods and assessment tools, and student motivation.


                                                             60
             Major Findings
           Research Question 5
What are some specific skills that alternative or
traditional certified bilingual teachers elementary
teachers wished their preparation program had
exposed them to before entering the classroom?




                                                      61
                      Major Findings
                    Research Question 5
Skills wished exposed to in teacher preparation:
       Competency            Alternative           Traditional

002 - Student Diversity        21.1%                 37.0%

003 - Instruction and          19.2%                 5.6%
     Assessment
006 - Student Behavior         27.0%                 26.0%

008 - Student                  23.0%                 16.7%
      Engagement



                                                                 62
                   Major Findings
                   Research Question 5
Non-category skills wished exposed to for teacher preparedness:
Traditional certified
Program structure (5.6%)
Realistic experiences (5.6%)
Teaching experience (3.7%)
Teaching trends (1.9%)

Alternative certified
Program structure (11.8%)
Realistic experiences (2.0%)
Teaching experience (2.0%)
                                                                  63
                 Major Findings
               Research Question 5
Traditional certified participant
“Different kinds of behavior and how to deal with situations as it
happens.”

Traditional certified participant
“Needed to know how to motivate the unmotivated student.
Helping students who fail but have the potential to perform. ARD
process, modifying assignments for student with special needs;
addressing the needs of the homeless students; students of trauma
(separation from parents; Katrina).


                                                                     64
                     Major Findings
                     Research Question 5
Traditional certified participant
“I strongly believe that the best way to implement the competencies is
to use them in the classroom. Internships and student teaching is
probably the best way to actually prepare an educator. I now can see
and realize that many who did not have prior experience in the
classroom tend to actually harm the system, and most importantly,
the students. Their hearts may be in the right place, but skills must
be learned through practice.”




                                                                         65
                   Major Findings
                  Research Question 5
Traditional certified participant
“How to organize, plan for flexible groups and
individual instruction.”

Traditional certified participant
“I wish that my university had placed me in a school where I could
get real experience, practice, observations, speakers (teachers).”




                                                                     66
                    Major Findings
                  Research Question 5

Alternative certified participant
“DISCIPLINE. DISCIPLINE. DISCIPLINE. For example,
dealing with one rowdy student is no big deal. I was taught how to
handle that. But no one ever addressed what to do when half of
your students don’t want to be in your class and are determined to
act out in order to show you this.”




                                                                     67
                   Major Findings
                   Research Question 5
Alternative certified participant
“Spend at least one month in a real-life classroom to get familiar.”

Alternative certified participant
“Some of the difficulties one would come to face in the classroom
environment. Immerse for a week or so in the real teaching
environment. Expose the prospective teacher to the learning
environment longer than just casual observations. Share ideas,
lesson plans, etc.


                                                                       68
                  Review of Literature
                  Research Question 5
Howard (2003) – Teacher preparation programs must clearly
educate its students about the social framework of education in
urban schools, and by being realistic on how they prepare teachers
for the classroom. The majority of students in urban schools endure
a life outside of the school walls that are unfamiliar to most of the
classroom teachers teaching in those schools.




                                                                   69
                  Review of Literature
                  Research Question 5

McKibben (2001) – In their efforts to provide their students with
positive teaching field experiences, most universities assign students
to complete class observation hours and fulfill student teaching
assignments at schools whose student populations are not the same
type of schools that these students get teaching jobs upon
graduation.




                                                                     70
                   Review of Literature
                   Research Question 5
Weiner (2003) – Urban schools tend to hire significant numbers of
teachers who have never had formal preparation to teach. When this
occurs, the school becomes the training ground for classroom
teachers to learn to teach. For these teachers, “the workplace is their
classroom, as their classroom becomes their workplace.”

Darling-Hammond & Youngs (2002) - A teacher’s sense of
preparedness has been reported to be a prevailing predictor of
teaching efficacy.

                                                                     71
                   Conclusions
It can be concluded that the level of teacher preparedness is
critical to the impact of student achievement.

Teacher preparation programs must construct programs that
prepare teachers for realistic teaching environments comprised
of economically disadvantaged, culturally and linguistically
diverse student learners.

Alternative certification programs are not adequately preparing
3rd and 5th grade bilingual teachers to enter the classroom.


                                                                  72
                Recommendations
   Alternative teacher preparation programs should provide
    rigorous training preparedness in the areas of designing
    classroom instruction and assessment to promote student
    learning; creating a positive, productive classroom environment;
    and implementing effective, responsive instruction and
    assessment.

   Alternative teacher preparation programs should provide
    opportunities for classroom observations and field experiences
    in realistic classroom teaching environments prior to entering the
    classroom as the teacher of record.




                                                                       73
                Recommendations
   Principals should provide ongoing professional development
    opportunities for traditional certified teachers to understand and
    apply principles and techniques and strategies for communicating
    effectively in varied teaching and learning contexts.

   Principals should provide ongoing professional development
    opportunities for traditional certified teachers to apply and
    incorporate the use of technology to plan, organize, deliver and
    evaluate instruction for all students.




                                                                       74
                Recommendations

   Principals should not assume that alternative certified teachers
    “know how to teach.”

   Principals should provide “hands-on” training opportunities for
    alternative certified teachers.

   Principals should conduct needs assessment of all its alternative
    certified teachers to determine their confidence of preparedness
    for the classroom.




                                                                        75
                Recommendations
   Principals should determine the level of support based on the
    needs assessment so that a plan of support can be developed to
    support alternative certified teachers.

   Principals should provide and encourage time for collaboration
    between alternative certified teachers and master teachers within
    grade level planning meetings and other campus teams.




                                                                     76
                Recommendations
   Principals should ensure that mentoring supports are in place for
    alternative certified teachers by holding those involved
    accountable for providing the support (i.e. mentor and assigned
    campus administrator) needed.

   Principals should provide ongoing professional development
    opportunities for alternative certified teachers on student
    diversity to include planning for learning experiences, and
    designing assessments that are responsive to student differences
    that promote student learning.




                                                                       77
              Recommendations
   Principals should provide ongoing professional development
    opportunities for alternative certified teachers on strategies for
    creating an organized and productive learning environment
    and for managing student behavior.

   Principals should provide ongoing professional development
    opportunities for alternative certified teachers to learn
    appropriate instructional strategies that actively engage
    students in the learning process.




                                                                     78
                Recommendations

   Principals should engage the assistance of district curriculum
    teams to aid alternative certified teachers with implementation of
    curriculum and assessment.




                                                                     79
                  Recommendations
                   for Further Study
   A study could be conducted to compare first-year alternatively
    certified bilingual classroom teachers with first-year traditional
    certified bilingual classroom teachers to determine whether there
    is a difference in student achievement based on the annual
    student assessment.

   A study could be conducted to compare experienced
    alternatively certified bilingual classroom teachers with
    experienced traditional certified bilingual classroom teachers to
    determine whether there is a difference in student achievement
    based on the annual student assessment.



                                                                        80
                  Recommendations
                   for Further Study
   A study could be conducted to compare alternatively certified
    bilingual classroom teachers and traditional certified bilingual
    classroom teachers to determine whether there is a difference in
    student achievement by matching identical or similar teacher
    preparation program characteristics.

   A study could be conducted to see if a difference exists in
    student achievement among elementary bilingual students in
    small urban schools.




                                                                       81
                 Recommendations
                  for Further Study
   A study could be conducted to see if a difference exists in
    student achievement among elementary bilingual students in
    small rural schools.

   A study could be conducted to see if a difference exists in
    student achievement among elementary bilingual students from
    different regions in the United States.




                                                                   82   *
A Comparison of Alternatively and Traditionally
   Certified Bilingual Elementary Teachers’
        Student Achievement Scores in
     Selected Major Urban Texas Schools


                   Dissertation Defense

             Candidate: Roselia Alaniz Salinas

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Dissertation Chair for Roselia Salinas, PVAMU/The Texas A&M University System