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Evaluating cultural variations in attachment - Beauchamp Psychology

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					Evaluating cultural variations in
          attachment
         Starter activity: True or false?

Instructions
1. Write down numbers 1-10 on a piece of paper.
2. Read each statement carefully.
3. Answer each statement with either “true” or “false”
4. If the statement is “false” state why.
5. Two questions will have additional marks for extra
details.
Good luck!
1.   Individualist countries emphasise the importance
     of the individual.
2. The USA is an example of a collectivist culture.
3. Ainsworth was interested in seeing if there was
evidence of inter-cultural differences in attachment
between countries.
4. A problem with cross cultural studies in attachment
is that the strange situation is culturally biased (extra
point for saying what this means)!
5. Fox observed attachment styles in an Israeli kibuttz.
6. A criticism of Fox’s research stated that Fox was
accused of Observer Bias.
7. Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg found most
infants in Uganda were cared by several adults and so
formed multiple attachments.
8. One problem with the study by Van Ijzendoorn and
Kroonenberg was that 27 of the studies were carried
out on non-western countries and only 5 on western
countries.
9. An imposed etic is when behaviour is studied from
outside the culture.
10. The strange situation technique can be seen as
culturally biased. (Extra point for saying why)
                  Questions (True or false)

1.    Individualist countries emphasise the importance of the individual.
2.    The USA is an example of a collectivist culture.
3.    Ainsworth was interested in seeing if there was evidence of inter-cultural
      differences in attachment between countries.
4.     A problem with cross cultural studies in attachment is that the strange
      situation is culturally biased (extra point for saying what this means)!
5.    Fox observed attachment styles in an Israeli kibutz.
6.    A criticism of Fox’s research stated that Fox was accused of Observer
      Bias.
7.    Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg found most infants in Uganda were
      cared by several adults and so formed multiple attachments.
8.    One problem with the study by Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg was
      that 27 of the studies were carried out on non-western countries and only
      5 on western countries.
9.    An imposed etic is when behaviour is studied from outside the culture.
10.   The strange situation technique can be seen as culturally biased. (Extra
      point for saying why)
                Learning objectives

 To consider important research and to use this
  research to evaluate cultural variations in
  attachment.
 To outline and critically assess the strengths and
  weaknesses of cultural variations research in
  attachment.
   Evaluating cultural variations in attachment
                   Criticisms

Criticism
1. Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg (1988) research is
    non representative and culturally biased.

Why?
 The strange situation may not be a valid measure in all
  countries as the values in each different culture.
  (Individualistic vs collectivist cultures)
 Example: sensitivity in Japan is different from the US
 Therefore: it is not a valid measure of attachment.
                    Example 1

 The sensitivity hypothesis


 Ainsworth and Bowlby state that secure attachment
  relies on the caregiver being responsive and
  sensitive.
 However Rothbaum et al (2000) argue that they only
  consider the western view of promoting
  independence.
 Whereas in collectivist cultures such as Japan
  competency is based on being group-oriented.
       Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg

2. Attachment theory is based on individualist
   cultures ideas.

 Therefore research is culturally biased.
 This is an imposed etic (the use of a technique
  designed in one culture but imposed on another) as
  Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg looked at several
  studies of attachment behaviour which had been
  studied from outside the culture.
 We cannot make assumptions about other cultures.
                    Example 2.

 The Continuity hypothesis.


 Ainsworth and Bowlby believe secure attachment
  leads to more social and emotional competency.
 However Rothbaum et al (2002) suggest that the
  view of competency is biased as it is about
  independence.
 In Japan competency is based on being group
  oriented.
                   Exam question



 Explain one criticism of investigating cultural
 variations in attachment using the “strange
 situation” (3 marks)
   Exemplar answers: three mark answer

 Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg’s findings for
 evidence of inter-cultural differences in attachment
 between countries came from 18 different studies.
 (Mark 1 for identifying a criticism) We can’t be sure
 that all of the studies were carried out in the same
 way. (2 mark for elaboration) It is possible that the
 “strange situation” or ways of categorising types of
 attachment were different in the different studies.
                   One mark answer

 One criticism of investigating cultural variations in
 attachment using the “strange situation” is that you
 can’t apply this for all countries.- 1 Mark

 No explanation of the criticism
 No elaboration
               Peer marking activity

 Read your participants answer and:


1.   Highlight the key words in the question.
2.   Highlight the key psychological words in each
     answer.
3.   Underline the key evaluation point.
4.   Using the mark scheme provided, score their
     answer out of 3.
5.   Justify each mark given and state how you may
     improve the answer.
                         Task

 In pairs, look back at your notes of the strange
  situation.
 Identify two strengths of the strange situation as a
  way of measuring attachment.
 Using your notes of Fox (1977) and Van Ijzendoorn
  and Kroonenberg (1988) write these two strengths
  from the strange situation.
 Consider how you would apply these strengths when
  answering a question on cultural variations in
  attachment (you will need this for the next task).
                       Essay plan.

 “Outline and evaluate research into cultural variations in
    attachment”- 12 marks.

 Write an essay plan of how you would answer this
    question.
   Look at the essay plan grid on the board for help.
   Remember you should include both AO1 and AO2 in your
    answers.
   Working independently.
   You have 15 minutes to do this.
   These will be taken in at the end of the lesson.
                     H0mework

 Make revision notes for cultural variations into
  attachments.
 These will be taken in at the beginning of next
  lesson.
      Plenary activity: stand up sit down activity

1.     ……………believe secure attachment leads to more social and emotional
       competency. (Ainsworth and Bowlby)
2.     Collectivist cultures focus on the importance of the ……… (group)
3.     A weakness of Van Ijzendoorm and Kroonenberg was that ……
4.     The sensitivity hypothesis states that……..
5.     What does culturally biased mean?
6.     What is an “imposed etic”?
7.     What is an example of a collectivist culture?
8.     What is a criticism of Fox’s research?
9.     What is the most common found attachment type across all studies?
10.    Who looked at an Israeli Kibbutz?
11.    What is the continuity hypothesis?
12.    How many criticisms should you give for a 3 mark question?
13.    Give me 1 mark you would get for a 3 mark evaluation qu.
14.    Give a second/third mark example?
15.    Give a strength of the strange situation?

				
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posted:6/5/2013
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