Introduction to Pharmacognosy - Free Courseware at UWC

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					Introduction to Pharmacognosy
Ø Carrot
             Ø Coriander
Ø   Lettuce     Ø   Cardamom
Ø   Cucumber    Ø   Nasturtium
Ø   Cornsilk    Ø   Rose
Ø   Butternut   Ø   Hibiscus
Ø   Celery      Ø   Agapanthus
Ø   Oats        Ø   Pine
Ø   Melons      Ø   Plantain
Ø   Chillies    Ø   Garlic
Ø   Fennel      Ø   Cinnamon
Ø   All spice   Ø   Bay
Ø   Flaxseed    Ø   Clove
Ø   Turmeric    Ø   Cumin
Ø   Nutmeg      Ø   Ginger
                Ø   Onion

Pharmakon = A Drug

Gignosco = To acquire a
Knowledge of a Structure,
Function & Geographical habits of
a Plant
Ø BOTANY:     The Science of or Study of

Ø PHYTOTHERAPY:           The study of herbs
 and its application for holistic healing.

Ø BIOCHEMISTRY:   To Understand the
 Chemical Composition of the plant.
Ø   PHARMACOLOGY: The study of drugs, their
    sources, nature, and properties, and the body's
    reaction to these drugs.

Ø   COMMERCE: The buying and selling of goods,
    especially on a large scale, as between cities or
    nations. The exchange of commodity for

Ø   GENETICS: A branch of biology involving the
    study of the structure, location, effects &
    abnormalities of genes (physical unit of heredity)
Enzymology: Branch of biochemistry concerned with
the structure & Fx of enzymes & co-enzymes.

Plant Chemistry: Chemistry specific to plant function
& structure.

Horticulture:    The science/art of cultivating fruits,
vegetables, flowers, ornamental plants or herbs.

Quality Control:         A procedure for keeping quality
of inputs or outputs to specifications. The operational
techniques and the activities used to fulfil and verify
requirements of quality.
Ø Ethnobotany  The plant lore of a
 race or people; also the
 systematic study of such lore.

Ø Ethnopharmacology           The
 study of biologically active plant
 constituents, traditionally
 employed or observed by man for
Ø Aim of Pharmacognosy:

Ø Development of Pharmacognosy
              Herbal Glossary
Ø   Abortifacient:
Ø   Can stimulate a miscarriage (see
Ø   E.g. Hydrastis cannadensis – used to for
    digestive disorders.

Ø   Adaptogen:
Ø   Increases the body’s resistance to stress (helps
    the body “adapt”).
Ø   E.g. Ashwaganda
Ø Adrenal tonic:
Ø Strengthens and nourishes the adrenal
Ø E.g. borago – exam stress

Ø Alterative:
Ø Herbs  that gradually alters one’s condition,
  normalizes body functions and increases
  health and vitality.
Ø Galium aperine
Ø Analgesic, Anodyne:
Ø Reduce pain
Ø e.g.   Papaver somniferum – opium poppy

Ø Anti-helmentic:
Ø removes worms from body – most are
 toxic in high dosage.
Ø Artemissia afra – Wormwood and Garlic.
Ø Anti-bilous:
Ø helps remove excess bile
Ø e.g.Hydrastis Canadensis

Ø Anti-catarrhal:
Ø helps the body remove excess catarrhal
 or mucous buildups; In the sinuses and
 other parts of body.
Ø E.g. Garlic and Golden seal – Hydrastis
Ø   Anti-emetic:
Ø   Herbs that reduce the feeling of nausea and can
    help relieve or prevent vomiting.
Ø   E.g. Mentha piperita, Zingiber officinalis (works
    better than pharmaceutical anti-emetics).

Ø   Anti-lithic:
Ø    A herb that helps prevent the formation of
    stones or “gravel” in the UT and helps the body
    with their removal.
Ø   E.g. Gravel Root, Stone Root, Carrot, Parsley
Ø Anti-microbial:
Ø herb that helps the body destroy or
 prevent pathogenic micro-organisms.
Ø E.g. Garlic, allium sativum

Ø Anti-spasmodic:
Ø Prevent or ease spasms and cramps in
 the body.
Ø E.g. Cramp bark
Ø Aperient:
Ø mild laxative herbs.
Ø E.g.Apricots, Prune juice, Linum

Ø Aromatic:
Ø Aromatic herbs have a strong and often
 pleasant odour and can be used to
 stimulate the digestive system. They are
 often used to add aroma and taste to other
Ø E.g. Mentha piperita (peppermint).
Ø Astringent:
Ø Herbs that contract tissues by precipitating
  proteins and therefore reduce secretions
  and discharges.
Ø All astringents contain tannins. E.g.

Ø Bitter:
Ø A herb that has a bitter taste that acts as
  a stimulating tonic for digestion.
Ø e.g. Wormwood
Ø Cardiac Tonic:
Ø Affect the heart. Affect heart in different
  ways depending on the specific herb.
Ø E.g. Crataegus monogyna.

Ø Carminative:
Ø Stimulate peristalsis, relax the stomach
  and support digestion.
Ø E.g. Fennel – Foeniculum vulgare,
Ø Chologogue:
Ø Herbs that stimulate the release of bile.
 Also have a laxative effect
Ø E.g. Hydrastis Canadensis – Golden

Ø Demulcent:
Ø Herbs rich in mucilage which soothe and
 protect irritated and inflamed internal
Ø E.g Glycerrhiza glabra.
Ø Diaphoretic:
Ø Promote perspiration and aid elimination
  of toxins via the skin.
Ø E.g. Zingiber officinalis – Ginger

Ø Diuretic:
Ø Increases the secretion and elimination of
Ø E.g. Galium aperine, Clivers, Cleavers
Ø Emetic:
Ø Herbs that cause vomiting.   Most herbs
  are only emetic in very high doses.
Ø e.g. Lobelia inflate and Blood root

Ø Emmenogogue:
Ø  Stimulate and “normalize” the menstrual
Ø E.g. False unicorn root, Raspberry, Red
  Sage, Thyme, True Unicorn Root,
  Wormwood, Squaw vine, Rosemary
Ø Febrifuge, anti-pyretic:
Ø Helps reduce fevers
Ø E.g. Peppermint Red sage, Thyme,

Ø Galactogogue:
Ø Help stimulate the “flow” of breast milk
Ø e.g.   Brewers yeast, Fennel, Raspberry
Ø Hepatic:
Ø Aid the liver.
Ø E.g. Black root, Blue flag, Celery, Fennel

Ø Hypnotic:
Ø Herbs that induce sleep (not a hypnotic
  trance). Also called a soporific.
Ø E.g. Wild lettuce, hops
Ø Laxative:
Ø Promote the evacuation of the bowels
Ø E.g. Aloe, Senna

Ø Mucilage:
Ø Mucilaginous herbs act as demulcents
  and emollients
Ø e.g. Slippery Elm, Iceland moss,
Ø   Nervine:
Ø    Herb that has a beneficial effect on the nervous
    system. Some act as stimulants, others as
Ø   e.g. Chamomile, Ginseng, Lavender,
    Rosemary, Peppermint, Wormwood, Wild

Ø   Ocytocic:
Ø   Stimulate the contraction of the uterus and aid in
Ø   e.g. Squaw vine
Ø   Pectoral:
Ø   Strengthening and healing effect on the
    respiratory system.
Ø   e.g. Comfrey, Symphytum officinalis

Ø   Rubefacient:
Ø    when applied to the skin they mild local irritation
    and stimulate the dilation of the capillaries,
    increasing circulation to the skin. Blood is drawn
    from deeper parts of the body into the skin,
    removing or relieving pain.
Ø   e.g Cayenne, Garlic, Ginger, Mustard,
    Peppermint, Rosemary.
Ø Sedative:
Ø  Calm the nervous system and reduce
  stress and nervousness.
Ø E.g. St Johns Wort, Wild cherry, Wild
  lettuce, Hops

Ø Sialagogue:
Ø  Herbs that stimulate the increase of saliva
  secretion from salivary glands.
Ø E.g.Ginger, Cayenne
Ø Stimulant:
Ø quickens and enlivens the physiological
  functions of the body.
Ø E.g. Cayenne, Rosemary, Garlic

Ø Stomachic:
Ø  Strengthens and tones the stomach,
  reduces gas/flatulence and aids digestion
  (similar but not identical to carminative –
  does not stimulate peristelsis).
Ø E.g. Garlic
Ø Styptic:
Ø Reduce or stop bleeding due to
Ø E.g. Plantain

Ø Tonic:
Ø Strengthen and enliven specific organs or
  the whole body.
Ø E.g. Garlic, Ginseng, Hawthorn.
Ø Yang tonic:
Ø Nourishes and strengthens the fluids of
  the body.
Ø E.g. Daucus carota

Ø Yin tonic:
Ø  Nourishes and strengthens the activity of
  the body’s functions
Ø E.g. Commiphora molmol
Ø Vulnerary:
Ø Aid in healing wounds and cuts
Ø E.g. Aloe ferrox, Hypericum perforatum,
 Compositiae Family (Matricaria recutica)
              Definition of herb
Ø   Botanists: A small, stemless, seed bearing plant
    with fleshy, rather than woody, parts
Ø   Broader defintion: addition to herbaceous
    perennials, includes trees, shrubs, annuals,
    vines, primitive plants, such as ferns, mosses,
    algae, lichens, and fungi. They are valued for
    their flavour, fragrance, medicinal, economic and
    industrial uses, pesticidal properties, and
    colouring materials.
          Carrot – Daucus carota
Ø rich in Vit. A and beta HERB!
  carotene, Ca, P, Mg, K
    carotene, Ca, P, Mg, K
Ø   raw – boosts liver,
    kidneys & GIT
Ø   alterative (blood tonic)
Ø   anti-bacterial & anti-viral
Ø   leaves contains
    significant amounts of
    porphyrins, which
    stimulate the pituitary
    gland and leads to the
    release of increased
    amounts of sex-
    hormones, Worms –
    children (eaten raw)
          Lactuca sativa – Lettuce
Ø   soporific
Ø   cleansing
Ø   tonic to the kidneys
Ø   Vitamins A, C, Bc, Ca (as
    much as milk, actually)
Ø   * anti-spasmodic
Ø   Leaves contain silica –
    strengthens the tissues,
    bones, joints
Ø   Found to be sedative
      Cucumis sativus – Cucumber
Ø   aids digestion
Ø   k, bc, enzyme (erepsin) –
    aids digestion
Ø   dissolves uric acids that
    causes kidney & bladder
Ø   natural laxative (high in
Ø   regulates bp (diuretic –
    high water content)
    Zea mays – Corn silk – HERB!
Ø   Diuretic
Ø   Cystitis
Ø   Rheumatism &
Ø   Demulcent: UTI’s, &
    kidney stones
Ø   Pollen extracts: BPH
Ø   Pollen: weakness &
    appetite loss
Butterut – Juglans cinerea – HERB!
Ø   Anti-helmintic
Ø   Alterative
Ø   Cathertic
Ø   Anti-microbial
Ø   Anti-parasitic
Ø   Cancer
Ø   Cholesterol
Ø   Headache
Ø   Liver stagnation
        Celery – Apium Gravelens

Ø   Diuretic
Ø   Slimming Agent
Ø   Anti-inflammatory
Ø   Anti-acid
    (rheumatism, arthritis,
Ø   UTI’, cystitis
              Avena sativa – oats
Ø   Cardiac tonic
Ø   Nervous system tonic
Ø   Nervous system nutritive
Ø   Beauty: exfoliant,
    cleanser & rejuvenator
Ø   Hot flushes: menopause
Ø   Tonic: thymus gland
Ø   Nervous exhaustion
Ø   Depression
          Cucumis melo – Melons
Ø   Vitamins B & C
Ø   Diuretic
Ø   Kidney tonic
Ø   High gi, low gl, used
    for weight loss (same
    with grapes)
    Corrandrum sativum – Coriander
Ø   wounds
Ø   burns
Ø   sores
Ø   boils
Ø   anti-spasmodic à
    indigestion, colic,
          Elletaria cardamomum –
            Cardamom – HERB!
Ø   Anti-septic
Ø   Anti-spasmodic
Ø   Carminative
Ø   Anorexia
Ø   Strengthen the heart &
Ø   Spleen tonic
Ø   Stimulate the mind,
    impart clarity & mental
Ø   Fetal restlessness
Tropaeolum majus – Nasturtium –
Ø   Anti-viral
Ø   Anti-fungal
Ø   Anti-bacterial
Ø   Diuretic
Ø   Chologogue
               Rosa spp. - Rose
Ø   astringent
Ø   menorrhagia
Ø   skin toner
Ø   originally comes from
Ø   Mildly sedative & anti-
Ø   Rosewater: astringent:
    toner & sore eyes
Ø   Rose petals: reduce high
    cholesterol levels.
    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis – Hibiscus
Ø   mild anti-microbial
Ø   bladder infections
Ø   coughs
Ø   debility
Ø   diarrhoea
Ø   fever
Ø   hypertension
Ø   liver disorder
Ø   eye infections
Ø   itchy skin
Ø   conditioning shampoo can be
    made from the leaves
Ø   anti-inflammatory
          Agapanthus africanus –
           Agapanthus – HERB!
Ø   Decoction given
    orally/rectally as an
    antenatal & postnatal
    birth medicine
Ø   Given to baby
    immediately after birth
Ø   Mild purgative
Ø   Ease difficult labour
Ø   Ensure the placenta
    is expelled
          Pinus sylvestrus – Pine
Ø   colds
Ø   flu
Ø   bronchitis
Ø   sinusitis
Ø   respiratory disorders
Ø   digestive complaints
Ø   diuretic
     Plantago lanceolata – Plantain
Ø   Astringent
Ø   Anti-biotic
Ø   Heamostyptic
Ø   Anti-catarrhal
Ø   Anti-inflammatory
            Allium sativum – Garlic
Ø   immune booster
Ø   decreases cholesterol
Ø   anti-bacterial, anti-
    helmintic, anti-parasitic
Ø   anti-spasmodic
Ø   anti-inflammatory
Ø   anti-thrombotic
Ø   anti-platelet
Ø   alterative
Ø   mucolytic
            Chillies – capsicum
      fructesens/minimum – HERB!

Ø   laryngitis
Ø   sore throat
Ø   tonsillitis
Ø   angina
Ø   bronchitis
Ø   circulatory disorders
Ø   colds and flu
      Fennel – Foeniculum vulgare
Ø   Indigestion
Ø   galactogogue
Ø   flatulence
Ø   colic
Ø   intestinal cramps
Ø   over-indulgence
Ø   laxative
       Allspice – Pimenta officinalis
Ø   proteins, lipids, minerals,
    Vit A, C, B1+2
Ø   digestive stimulant
Ø   flatulence & indigestion
Ø   diarrhoea
Ø   tonic /laxative (how its
    mixed with other herbs)
Ø   anti-septic
Ø   stomach settling
     Linum usitassimum – flaxseed
Ø   Anti-inflammatory
Ø   Analgesic
Ø   Anti-spasmodic
Ø   Anti-tussive
Ø   Expectorant
Ø   Anti-catarrhal
Ø   Bulk laxative
Ø   Emollient
Ø   demulcent
         Curcuma longa – Turmeric
Ø   Hepatic
Ø   Anti-inflammatory
Ø   Anti-oxidant
Ø   Anti-microbial
Ø   Circulatory stimulant
Ø   Hypoglycaemic
Ø   Vulnerary
Ø   Astringent
Ø   Carminative
Ø   Alterative
Ø   Analgesic
       Myristica fragrans – Nutmeg
Ø   Anti-emetic
Ø   Anti-inflammatory
Ø   Anti-spasmodic
Ø   Aromatic
Ø   Astringent
Ø   Carminative
Ø   Circulatory stimulant
Ø   Euphoric
Ø   Hallucinogen (large
         Cinamomum zeylanicum –
            Cinnamon – HERB!
Ø   Analgesic
Ø   Anti-bacterial
Ø   Anti-inflammatory
Ø   Anti-spasmodic
Ø   Anti-diarrhoeal
Ø   Astringent
Ø   Cardiac stimulant
Ø   Stomachic
Ø   Anti-viral
Ø   Anti-oxidant
Ø   Anti-fungal
Ø   Expectorant
Ø   hypoglycaemic
              Laurus nobilis – Bay
Ø   Anti-fungal (tea – soak
Ø   Astringent
Ø   Aromatic
Ø   Carminative
Ø   Diaphoretic
Ø   Circulatory stimulant
Ø   Colic
Ø   Memory loss
Ø   Poultice: bronchitis,
    colds, coughs etc.
     Syzygium aromaticum – Clove
Ø   Analgesic
Ø   Anti-fungal
Ø   Astringent
Ø   Anti-microbial
Ø   Anti-emetic
Ø   Anti-spasmodic
Ø   Expectorant
Ø   Rubefacient
Ø   diaphoretic
      Cuminum cyminum – cumin
Ø   Anti-oxidant
Ø   Anti-septic
Ø   Carminative
Ø   Galactogogue
Ø   Stimulant
       Zingiber officinalis – Ginger
Ø   Diaphoretic
Ø   Anti-inflammatory
Ø   Anti-spasmodic
Ø   Circulatory stimulant
Ø   Anti-microbial
Ø   Sialogogue
                ONION: Allium cepa
Ø   planting between roses
    enhances the smell, insects
    and aphids are less common
Ø   boosts the immune system
Ø   cleanses the blood (alterative)
Ø   flushes the kidneys (diuretic)
Ø   reduces spasm and tension in
    asthma (anti-spasmodic)
Ø   decreases cholesterol
Ø   removes heavy metals from
15 minute
    Influence of European Herbalism
•   increasingly popular in Europe.
•   European Herbal Philosophy: World is made up
    of elements: Earth, Fire, Water & Air.
•   Plants: hot – dry – cold or moist properties
Ø   Theory of 4 humours
Ø   Four principal fluids exist within the body
     • Blood
     l choler (yellow bile)

     l Melancholy (black bile)

     l Phlegm

     Ideally: all 4 humours are in balance (normally with 1 or
       2 predominating)
     l Influences: Phytotherapy & Unani Tibb

     l NOTE: Phytotherapy ≠ Western Herbal Medicine
Ø   TCM & herbal medicine        China
    developed separately
    from Chinese folk
Ø   Principle theories – Yin &
    Yang, 5 elements, effect
    of nature on Health
Ø   Living in harmony with
    these principles = key to
    good health.
Ø   Herbs are said to be Yin
    or Yang tonics, and also
    to strengthen the organs
    associated with each
Ø   Africa has a greater
    variety of herbal traditions   Africa
    than any other continent.
Ø   North Africa: Papyrus BC
    1500 – Gentiana lutea,
    Aloe vera, Papaver
    somnifera with conditions
    ranging from chest pain
    to croc bites.

Ø   Nomadic peoples:
    healing is linked to the
    spiritual worlds (largely
    unchanged from original
    shamanistic beliefs).
Ø Involves Asian Theories about the Energy
  of the body
Ø The Four Element (Humours) Theories of
  Ancient Greece (Unani Tibb)
Ø The Planetary Correspondences of
  Oriental philosophy & astrology
Ø   Five Categories
    l   Sour
    l   Bitter
    l   Sweet
    l   Pungent (spicy)
    l   Salty
Ø   TCM associates each taste with a particular
    organ or organ-system within the body.

Ø   HOW IT WORKS: When we experience a
    flavour, taste sensors send messages to the
    brain à induce physiological effects in the
    organ system affected/linked to the taste.

Ø   Through flavour, we’re able to alter & affect the
    functions of our bodies
              Yin Flavours

Ø Yin Flavours = Cooling

Ø Salty, Sour & bitter flavours.

Ø Yin flavours arise & subside quickly.
           Yang Flavours
Ø Yang flavours = warming

Ø Sweet & pungent flavours = Yang

Ø These tastes are also slower to be sensed
 and remain longer (effect)
           Drying Energies
Ø Sour, bitter & pungent:   drying energy

Ø Help regulate imbalances arising from
 excessive dampness

Ø E.g.oily skin, oedema, joint swelling,
 candida, fatigue, etc.
              Moist Energy

Ø Sweet & Salty:   Moistening

Ø Regulate conditions resulting from fluid

Ø E.g. Dry cough, constipation etc.
                   Salty Flavour
Ø   Cooling, Dry & Astringent
Ø   Normally due to the presence of acids: malic, citric or
    ascorbic acids.
Ø   Stimulates the liver & gallbladder & salivary glands
Ø   Restricts secretions such as sweat, urine, blood, seminal
Ø   Carminative, anti-pyretic.
Ø   Helps cleanse the skin & tonify the tissues
Ø   Pts suffering from hyperacidity, diarrhoea, broken
    capillaries & dark circles under their eyes should be
    careful of overdoing the sour flavour.
                    Bitter Flavours
Ø   Cooling, drying, toning, draining (catabolic).
Ø   Anti-inflammatory & anti-bacterial
Ø   Most bitters contain an alkaloid.
Ø   Bitters stimulate the intestines, pancreas, & digestive secretions.
Ø   Strengthens the heart, lowers cholesterol & fevers, reduces cravings
    for sweets, supports fat metabolism, helps reduce allergies,
    eliminates heat & mucous, especially from the lungs.
Ø   Can aid weight loss, decrease fat, detoxify the blood and clear the
    mind & skin.
Ø   Herbs include Angelica, chamomile, dandelion leaf, green tea &
Ø   Energising: beneficial for those feeling lethargic, & pts who are hot
    & aggressive
Ø   Pts suffering from low energy (chronic), cold & dry or suffering from
    ulcers should use bitters sparingly.
                Sweet Flavours
Ø   Sweet is toning & nourishing.
Ø   Results from the presence of CHO’s
Ø   Helps to slow down acute symptoms, increases
    tolerance to stress & pain.
Ø   Rejuvenating, anabolic, heals & tones muscle.
Ø   Energising & calming
Ø   Sweet nourishes Ying (Fluids of the body), strengthening
    the immune system, especially in the frail & elderly.
Ø   Pts who are cold, dry, cold and “spacey” (Vata) benefit
    especially from sweet foods, such as fruit, whole grains
    & sweet herbs e.g. anise, fennel, liquorice & stevia.
               Pungent Flavours
Ø   pungent or spicy is warming & dispersing
Ø   Stimulating: induces perspiration, stimulates the nerves,
    relieves nerve pain, clears Qi stagnation, promotes
    circulation, aids digestion and clears the skin.
Ø   Moves internal energy to the surface (e.g. ginger)
Ø   Mostly due to the presence of volatile oils (anti-microbial)
Ø   Pungent is cooling to the interior and worming to the
    exterior of the body.
Ø   E.g. Basil, cinnamon, ginger & mint.
Ø   Should not be taken in excess by those suffering from
    excess heat.
                    Salty Flavours
Ø   Cooling, softening, draining & diuretic (drying).
Ø   Indicates the presence of minerals in food/herbs.
Ø   Helps softens hardened masses within the body (tumors).
Ø   Used in moderation, it has a moistening effect.
Ø   Beneficial to the nerves, kidneys & bladder.
Ø   Aids fluid metabolism, helps strengthens the nerves, opens blocked
    Qi meridians, improves circulation, awakens the mind & senses &
    strengthens the heart.
Ø   Excessive salt craving may indicate adrenal exhaustion (prolonged
Ø   Sea vegetables such as kelp and dulse are good examples of salty
    tastes, and herbs such as nettle, dandelion leaf and plantain.
Ø   In reference to the
    activity of the plant:
    does it heat the body
    (ginger), or cool it
Ø   Indicated by the
    condition presented
    by the patient
Ø   E.g. fever or
    inflammation (hot
    conditions) à cooling
Ø   Cold conditions: OA,
    constipation, fatigue
    or poor circulation à
    heating herbs.
Ø   Excessive dampness
    & dryness are signs            Moisture
    of imbalance.
Ø   Dampness: swelling,       Ø   Temperament?
    oedema, diarrhoea,
    infancy (natural
Ø   Dryness: dry cough,
    dry skin, constipation,
    old age (naturally dry)
Ø   Moistening plants
    contain mucilage
Ø   Drying plants contain
Ø   Yin and yang exist only in relation to each other
    & each contain aspects of the other.
Ø   Good health results in Ying & Yang being in
    constant & perfect balance (Homeostasis)
Ø   Yin plants can be used to correct conditions
    arising from a Ying imbalance, Ying plants can
    be used to correct conditions arising from a Yin
Ø   Yin plants: cooling
Ø   Yang plants: Warming
Ø   The association between
    herbs & astrology is rooted in
    the Ancient Doctrine of
Ø   In terms of healing: observing
    a plant’s colour, leaf shape,
    growth habit, habitat; all give
    clues to the plant’s therapeutic
Ø   Acknowledges that
    macrocosms such as planets
    can be represented in
    microcosms such as plants
    (Homeopathy, TCM).
Ø   Corresponds with hot,
    dry energy
Ø   Heart of our solar
    system (governs the
    heart of the body,
    spinal column & eyes)
Ø   Herbs corresponding
    to the sun often affect
    the heart, are hot &
Ø   Cool, moist & feminine        Moon
Ø   Plants: high juice
    content, mild flavour, soft
    leaves, preference to
    growing in or near water
    (TAM: Indigenous herbs
    used for labour), pale
    yellow or white flowers &
Ø   Moon (plants) govern
    body’s fluids, digestive
    secretions, breasts,
    glandular & mucous
    membrane secretions,
    affect the subconscious,
    soothe the stomach and
    aid digestion.
Ø   Cool & dry energy.
Ø   Governs the nervous
    senses of hearing (&
    speaking), thyroid,
    respiratory system
    (incl. lungs, bronchi &
    vocal cords).
Ø   Facilitates the ability
    to make associations
    and link concepts.
Ø Cool & moist energy
Ø   Associated with love,
    sensual pleasures,
    beauty and the arts.
Ø   Related to internal sexual
    & reproductive organs,
    skin, nose and sense of
    smell, umbilical cord,
    neck, spine & palate,
    thyroid, parathyroid,
    thymus gland & kidneys.
Ø   Help purify the blood,
    open up the sweat
    glands, calm desire for
Ø   hot, pungent & dry
Ø   Affects the adrenal
    glands, muscles,
    gallbladder, sense of
    taste, red blood cells,
    metabolism, motor
    nerves, rectum, eye
    muscles, head, left
    brain, left ear.
Ø   Strong, acrid flavour,
    pungent aroma,
    prickles & thorns
Ø   Warm & Moist
Ø   Associated with adventure,
    social order, morals &
Ø   Organs: anterior pituitary
    gland, liver, pancreas, sciatic
    nerve, subcutaneous fat
    tissue, adrenals, kidneys,
    spleen, immune system, blood
    -O2 levels, lungs, blood sugar
    & semen.
Ø   Large forest trees (long-living
    perennials), plants that
    increase bile flow, help
    balance the pancreas, affect
    both the mind & body. Sweet
    fragrance & induce a positive
    frame of mind.
Ø   Cold & dry
Ø   Bitter & sour flavours.
Ø   Affects the bones,
    teeth, joints, bladder,
    skin, nerves, vagus
    nerve, spleen,
    endocardium, ant. Pit
    gland, blood
    constituents (aging
Ø   Cold & dry
Ø   Correlates with
    dramatic, sudden &
    forceful energy,
    originality, genius,
    independence, self-
    expression & a desire
    to break away from
Ø   Herbs: grow in
    unusual places –
    differ from plant to
    plant, commonly
    hybrids & easy to
Ø   Cold & moist
Ø   CSF, pineal gland, lymph
Ø   Obscure, hard to Dx
    conditions, addiction,
    schizophrenia &
Ø   Herbs: ± psychoactive.
    Often grow close or in the
    ocean (algaes &
Ø   Associated with the
    subconscious & spiritual
Ø   Cold & Moist
Ø   Related to excretions,
    secretions &
    reproduction, including
    the metabolic, genetic &
    chemical processes that
    promote health.
Ø   Herbs: Found in remote
    places or underground
Ø Theory of the four elements (humours)
  arose in ancient Greece.
Ø Numerous cultures have similar theories
  (TCM: elements; UT: humours; A:
  doshas, etc).
Ø Elements: Water, Fire, Earth Air.
Ø Plants (like individuals), contain all 4
  elements, although one normally
Ø   Kidneys, bladder,
    sexual energy,

Ø   SENSE: hearing

Ø   EMOTION: fear.
Ø    Heart & Small

Ø   SENSE: Speech

    lack of joy
Ø   Stomach & Spleen

Ø   SENSE: Taste

    Sympathy &
Ø   Lungs, large
    intestines, skin

Ø   Communication

Ø   SENSE: Smell

Ø   EMOTION: grief
Lesson Take-Away

 Ø All Definitions
End of lesson 1

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