Introduction to Pharmacognosy WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING WOULD YOU CLASSIFY A Ø Carrot HERB? Ø Coriander Ø Lettuce Ø Cardamom Ø Cucumber Ø Nasturtium Ø Cornsilk Ø Rose Ø Butternut Ø Hibiscus Ø Celery Ø Agapanthus Ø Oats Ø Pine Ø Melons Ø Plantain Ø Chillies Ø Garlic Ø Fennel Ø Cinnamon Ø All spice Ø Bay Ø Flaxseed Ø Clove Ø Turmeric Ø Cumin Ø Nutmeg Ø Ginger Ø Onion DEFINITIONS IN PHARMACONGNsyY Pharmakon = A Drug Gignosco = To acquire a Knowledge of a Structure, Function & Geographical habits of a Plant SUBJECTS INVOLVED IN PHARMACOLOGY Ø BOTANY: The Science of or Study of Plants Ø PHYTOTHERAPY: The study of herbs and its application for holistic healing. Ø BIOCHEMISTRY: To Understand the Chemical Composition of the plant. Ø PHARMACOLOGY: The study of drugs, their sources, nature, and properties, and the body's reaction to these drugs. Ø COMMERCE: The buying and selling of goods, especially on a large scale, as between cities or nations. The exchange of commodity for commodity Ø GENETICS: A branch of biology involving the study of the structure, location, effects & abnormalities of genes (physical unit of heredity) Enzymology: Branch of biochemistry concerned with the structure & Fx of enzymes & co-enzymes. Plant Chemistry: Chemistry specific to plant function & structure. Horticulture: The science/art of cultivating fruits, vegetables, flowers, ornamental plants or herbs. Quality Control: A procedure for keeping quality of inputs or outputs to specifications. The operational techniques and the activities used to fulfil and verify requirements of quality. Ø Ethnobotany The plant lore of a race or people; also the systematic study of such lore. Ø Ethnopharmacology The study of biologically active plant constituents, traditionally employed or observed by man for healing. Ø Aim of Pharmacognosy: Ø Development of Pharmacognosy Herbal Glossary Ø Abortifacient: Ø Can stimulate a miscarriage (see Emmenogogue). Ø E.g. Hydrastis cannadensis – used to for digestive disorders. Ø Adaptogen: Ø Increases the body’s resistance to stress (helps the body “adapt”). Ø E.g. Ashwaganda Ø Adrenal tonic: Ø Strengthens and nourishes the adrenal glands. Ø E.g. borago – exam stress Ø Alterative: Ø Herbs that gradually alters one’s condition, normalizes body functions and increases health and vitality. Ø Galium aperine Ø Analgesic, Anodyne: Ø Reduce pain Ø e.g. Papaver somniferum – opium poppy Ø Anti-helmentic: Ø removes worms from body – most are toxic in high dosage. Ø Artemissia afra – Wormwood and Garlic. Ø Anti-bilous: Ø helps remove excess bile Ø e.g.Hydrastis Canadensis Ø Anti-catarrhal: Ø helps the body remove excess catarrhal or mucous buildups; In the sinuses and other parts of body. Ø E.g. Garlic and Golden seal – Hydrastis Canadensis Ø Anti-emetic: Ø Herbs that reduce the feeling of nausea and can help relieve or prevent vomiting. Ø E.g. Mentha piperita, Zingiber officinalis (works better than pharmaceutical anti-emetics). Ø Anti-lithic: Ø A herb that helps prevent the formation of stones or “gravel” in the UT and helps the body with their removal. Ø E.g. Gravel Root, Stone Root, Carrot, Parsley Ø Anti-microbial: Ø herb that helps the body destroy or prevent pathogenic micro-organisms. Ø E.g. Garlic, allium sativum Ø Anti-spasmodic: Ø Prevent or ease spasms and cramps in the body. Ø E.g. Cramp bark Ø Aperient: Ø mild laxative herbs. Ø E.g.Apricots, Prune juice, Linum usitassimum Ø Aromatic: Ø Aromatic herbs have a strong and often pleasant odour and can be used to stimulate the digestive system. They are often used to add aroma and taste to other medicines. Ø E.g. Mentha piperita (peppermint). Ø Astringent: Ø Herbs that contract tissues by precipitating proteins and therefore reduce secretions and discharges. Ø All astringents contain tannins. E.g. Catechu Ø Bitter: Ø A herb that has a bitter taste that acts as a stimulating tonic for digestion. Ø e.g. Wormwood Ø Cardiac Tonic: Ø Affect the heart. Affect heart in different ways depending on the specific herb. Ø E.g. Crataegus monogyna. Ø Carminative: Ø Stimulate peristalsis, relax the stomach and support digestion. Ø E.g. Fennel – Foeniculum vulgare, Peppermint Ø Chologogue: Ø Herbs that stimulate the release of bile. Also have a laxative effect Ø E.g. Hydrastis Canadensis – Golden Seal Ø Demulcent: Ø Herbs rich in mucilage which soothe and protect irritated and inflamed internal tissue. Ø E.g Glycerrhiza glabra. Ø Diaphoretic: Ø Promote perspiration and aid elimination of toxins via the skin. Ø E.g. Zingiber officinalis – Ginger Ø Diuretic: Ø Increases the secretion and elimination of urine. Ø E.g. Galium aperine, Clivers, Cleavers Ø Emetic: Ø Herbs that cause vomiting. Most herbs are only emetic in very high doses. Ø e.g. Lobelia inflate and Blood root Ø Emmenogogue: Ø Stimulate and “normalize” the menstrual cycle. Ø E.g. False unicorn root, Raspberry, Red Sage, Thyme, True Unicorn Root, Wormwood, Squaw vine, Rosemary Ø Febrifuge, anti-pyretic: Ø Helps reduce fevers Ø E.g. Peppermint Red sage, Thyme, Ø Galactogogue: Ø Help stimulate the “flow” of breast milk Ø e.g. Brewers yeast, Fennel, Raspberry Ø Hepatic: Ø Aid the liver. Ø E.g. Black root, Blue flag, Celery, Fennel Ø Hypnotic: Ø Herbs that induce sleep (not a hypnotic trance). Also called a soporific. Ø E.g. Wild lettuce, hops Ø Laxative: Ø Promote the evacuation of the bowels Ø E.g. Aloe, Senna Ø Mucilage: Ø Mucilaginous herbs act as demulcents and emollients Ø e.g. Slippery Elm, Iceland moss, Marshmallow Ø Nervine: Ø Herb that has a beneficial effect on the nervous system. Some act as stimulants, others as sedatives. Ø e.g. Chamomile, Ginseng, Lavender, Rosemary, Peppermint, Wormwood, Wild Lettuce Ø Ocytocic: Ø Stimulate the contraction of the uterus and aid in childbirth. Ø e.g. Squaw vine Ø Pectoral: Ø Strengthening and healing effect on the respiratory system. Ø e.g. Comfrey, Symphytum officinalis Ø Rubefacient: Ø when applied to the skin they mild local irritation and stimulate the dilation of the capillaries, increasing circulation to the skin. Blood is drawn from deeper parts of the body into the skin, removing or relieving pain. Ø e.g Cayenne, Garlic, Ginger, Mustard, Peppermint, Rosemary. Ø Sedative: Ø Calm the nervous system and reduce stress and nervousness. Ø E.g. St Johns Wort, Wild cherry, Wild lettuce, Hops Ø Sialagogue: Ø Herbs that stimulate the increase of saliva secretion from salivary glands. Ø E.g.Ginger, Cayenne Ø Stimulant: Ø quickens and enlivens the physiological functions of the body. Ø E.g. Cayenne, Rosemary, Garlic Ø Stomachic: Ø Strengthens and tones the stomach, reduces gas/flatulence and aids digestion (similar but not identical to carminative – does not stimulate peristelsis). Ø E.g. Garlic Ø Styptic: Ø Reduce or stop bleeding due to astringency. Ø E.g. Plantain Ø Tonic: Ø Strengthen and enliven specific organs or the whole body. Ø E.g. Garlic, Ginseng, Hawthorn. Ø Yang tonic: Ø Nourishes and strengthens the fluids of the body. Ø E.g. Daucus carota Ø Yin tonic: Ø Nourishes and strengthens the activity of the body’s functions Ø E.g. Commiphora molmol Ø Vulnerary: Ø Aid in healing wounds and cuts Ø E.g. Aloe ferrox, Hypericum perforatum, Compositiae Family (Matricaria recutica) DEFINITION OF A HERB? Definition of herb Ø Botanists: A small, stemless, seed bearing plant with fleshy, rather than woody, parts ("herbaceous"). Ø Broader defintion: addition to herbaceous perennials, includes trees, shrubs, annuals, vines, primitive plants, such as ferns, mosses, algae, lichens, and fungi. They are valued for their flavour, fragrance, medicinal, economic and industrial uses, pesticidal properties, and colouring materials. GROUP ACTIVITY Ø IDENTIFY ALL HERBS ACCORDING TO THE ABOVE DEFINITION Carrot – Daucus carota Ø rich in Vit. A and beta HERB! carotene, Ca, P, Mg, K carotene, Ca, P, Mg, K Ø raw – boosts liver, kidneys & GIT Ø alterative (blood tonic) Ø anti-bacterial & anti-viral Ø leaves contains significant amounts of porphyrins, which stimulate the pituitary gland and leads to the release of increased amounts of sex- hormones, Worms – children (eaten raw) Lactuca sativa – Lettuce HERB! Ø soporific Ø cleansing Ø tonic to the kidneys Ø Vitamins A, C, Bc, Ca (as much as milk, actually) Ø * anti-spasmodic Ø Leaves contain silica – strengthens the tissues, bones, joints Ø Found to be sedative Cucumis sativus – Cucumber HERB! Ø aids digestion Ø k, bc, enzyme (erepsin) – aids digestion Ø dissolves uric acids that causes kidney & bladder stones Ø natural laxative (high in fibre) Ø regulates bp (diuretic – high water content) Zea mays – Corn silk – HERB! Ø Diuretic Ø Cystitis Ø Rheumatism & arthritis Ø Demulcent: UTI’s, & kidney stones Ø Pollen extracts: BPH Ø Pollen: weakness & appetite loss Butterut – Juglans cinerea – HERB! Ø Anti-helmintic Ø Alterative Ø Cathertic Ø Anti-microbial Ø Anti-parasitic Ø Cancer Ø Cholesterol Ø Headache Ø Liver stagnation Celery – Apium Gravelens HERB! Ø Diuretic Ø Slimming Agent Ø Anti-inflammatory Ø Anti-acid (rheumatism, arthritis, gout), Ø UTI’, cystitis Avena sativa – oats HERB! Ø Cardiac tonic Ø Nervous system tonic Ø Nervous system nutritive Ø Beauty: exfoliant, cleanser & rejuvenator Ø Hot flushes: menopause Ø Tonic: thymus gland Ø Nervous exhaustion Ø Depression Cucumis melo – Melons HERB! Ø Vitamins B & C Ø Diuretic Ø Kidney tonic Ø High gi, low gl, used for weight loss (same with grapes) Corrandrum sativum – Coriander HERB! Ø wounds Ø burns Ø sores Ø boils Ø anti-spasmodic à indigestion, colic, flatulence Elletaria cardamomum – Cardamom – HERB! Ø Anti-septic Ø Anti-spasmodic Ø Carminative Ø Anorexia Ø Strengthen the heart & lungs Ø Spleen tonic Ø Stimulate the mind, impart clarity & mental alertness Ø Fetal restlessness Tropaeolum majus – Nasturtium – HERB! Ø Anti-viral Ø Anti-fungal Ø Anti-bacterial Ø Diuretic Ø Chologogue Rosa spp. - Rose HERB! Ø astringent Ø menorrhagia Ø skin toner Ø originally comes from Iran. Ø Mildly sedative & anti- depressant Ø Rosewater: astringent: toner & sore eyes Ø Rose petals: reduce high cholesterol levels. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis – Hibiscus HERB! Ø mild anti-microbial Ø bladder infections Ø coughs Ø debility Ø diarrhoea Ø fever Ø hypertension Ø liver disorder Ø eye infections Ø itchy skin Ø conditioning shampoo can be made from the leaves Ø anti-inflammatory Agapanthus africanus – Agapanthus – HERB! Ø Decoction given orally/rectally as an antenatal & postnatal birth medicine Ø Given to baby immediately after birth Ø Mild purgative Ø Ease difficult labour Ø Ensure the placenta is expelled Pinus sylvestrus – Pine HERB! Ø colds Ø flu Ø bronchitis Ø sinusitis Ø respiratory disorders Ø digestive complaints Ø diuretic Plantago lanceolata – Plantain HERB! Ø Astringent Ø Anti-biotic Ø Heamostyptic Ø Anti-catarrhal Ø Anti-inflammatory Allium sativum – Garlic HERB! Ø immune booster Ø decreases cholesterol Ø anti-bacterial, anti- helmintic, anti-parasitic Ø anti-spasmodic Ø anti-inflammatory Ø anti-thrombotic Ø anti-platelet Ø alterative Ø mucolytic Chillies – capsicum fructesens/minimum – HERB! Ø laryngitis Ø sore throat Ø tonsillitis Ø angina Ø bronchitis Ø circulatory disorders Ø colds and flu Fennel – Foeniculum vulgare HERB! Ø Indigestion Ø galactogogue Ø flatulence Ø colic Ø intestinal cramps Ø over-indulgence Ø laxative Allspice – Pimenta officinalis HERB! Ø proteins, lipids, minerals, Vit A, C, B1+2 Ø digestive stimulant Ø flatulence & indigestion Ø diarrhoea Ø tonic /laxative (how its mixed with other herbs) Ø anti-septic Ø stomach settling Linum usitassimum – flaxseed HERB! Ø Anti-inflammatory Ø Analgesic Ø Anti-spasmodic Ø Anti-tussive Ø Expectorant Ø Anti-catarrhal Ø Bulk laxative Ø Emollient Ø demulcent Curcuma longa – Turmeric HERB! Ø Hepatic Ø Anti-inflammatory Ø Anti-oxidant Ø Anti-microbial Ø Circulatory stimulant Ø Hypoglycaemic Ø Vulnerary Ø Astringent Ø Carminative Ø Alterative Ø Analgesic Myristica fragrans – Nutmeg HERB! Ø Anti-emetic Ø Anti-inflammatory Ø Anti-spasmodic Ø Aromatic Ø Astringent Ø Carminative Ø Circulatory stimulant Ø Euphoric Ø Hallucinogen (large doses) Cinamomum zeylanicum – Cinnamon – HERB! Ø Analgesic Ø Anti-bacterial Ø Anti-inflammatory Ø Anti-spasmodic Ø Anti-diarrhoeal Ø Astringent Ø Cardiac stimulant Ø Stomachic Ø Anti-viral Ø Anti-oxidant Ø Anti-fungal Ø Expectorant Ø hypoglycaemic Laurus nobilis – Bay HERB! Ø Anti-fungal (tea – soak hands/feet) Ø Astringent Ø Aromatic Ø Carminative Ø Diaphoretic Ø Circulatory stimulant Ø Colic Ø Memory loss Ø Poultice: bronchitis, colds, coughs etc. Syzygium aromaticum – Clove HERB! Ø Analgesic Ø Anti-fungal Ø Astringent Ø Anti-microbial Ø Anti-emetic Ø Anti-spasmodic Ø Expectorant Ø Rubefacient Ø diaphoretic Cuminum cyminum – cumin HERB! Ø Anti-oxidant Ø Anti-septic Ø Carminative Ø Galactogogue Ø Stimulant Zingiber officinalis – Ginger HERB! Ø Diaphoretic Ø Anti-inflammatory Ø Anti-spasmodic Ø Circulatory stimulant Ø Anti-microbial Ø Sialogogue ONION: Allium cepa HERB! Ø planting between roses enhances the smell, insects and aphids are less common Ø boosts the immune system Ø cleanses the blood (alterative) Ø flushes the kidneys (diuretic) Ø reduces spasm and tension in asthma (anti-spasmodic) Ø decreases cholesterol Ø removes heavy metals from blood 15 minute INFLUENCE OF HERBAL MEDICINE ON YOUR STUDIES Influence of European Herbalism Today • increasingly popular in Europe. • European Herbal Philosophy: World is made up of elements: Earth, Fire, Water & Air. • Plants: hot – dry – cold or moist properties Ø Theory of 4 humours Ø Four principal fluids exist within the body • Blood l choler (yellow bile) l Melancholy (black bile) l Phlegm Ideally: all 4 humours are in balance (normally with 1 or 2 predominating) l Influences: Phytotherapy & Unani Tibb l NOTE: Phytotherapy ≠ Western Herbal Medicine Ø TCM & herbal medicine China developed separately from Chinese folk medicine Ø Principle theories – Yin & Yang, 5 elements, effect of nature on Health Ø Living in harmony with these principles = key to good health. Ø Herbs are said to be Yin or Yang tonics, and also to strengthen the organs associated with each element. Ø Africa has a greater variety of herbal traditions Africa than any other continent. Ø North Africa: Papyrus BC 1500 – Gentiana lutea, Aloe vera, Papaver somnifera with conditions ranging from chest pain to croc bites. Ø Nomadic peoples: healing is linked to the spiritual worlds (largely unchanged from original shamanistic beliefs). ENERGETIC CORRESPONDENCES IN HERBAL MEDICINES Ø Involves Asian Theories about the Energy of the body Ø The Four Element (Humours) Theories of Ancient Greece (Unani Tibb) Ø The Planetary Correspondences of Oriental philosophy & astrology Flavour Ø Five Categories l Sour l Bitter l Sweet l Pungent (spicy) l Salty Ø TCM associates each taste with a particular organ or organ-system within the body. Ø HOW IT WORKS: When we experience a flavour, taste sensors send messages to the brain à induce physiological effects in the organ system affected/linked to the taste. Ø Through flavour, we’re able to alter & affect the functions of our bodies Yin Flavours Ø Yin Flavours = Cooling Ø Salty, Sour & bitter flavours. Ø Yin flavours arise & subside quickly. Yang Flavours Ø Yang flavours = warming Ø Sweet & pungent flavours = Yang Ø These tastes are also slower to be sensed and remain longer (effect) Drying Energies Ø Sour, bitter & pungent: drying energy Ø Help regulate imbalances arising from excessive dampness Ø E.g.oily skin, oedema, joint swelling, candida, fatigue, etc. Moist Energy Ø Sweet & Salty: Moistening Ø Regulate conditions resulting from fluid deficiency Ø E.g. Dry cough, constipation etc. Salty Flavour Ø Cooling, Dry & Astringent Ø Normally due to the presence of acids: malic, citric or ascorbic acids. Ø Stimulates the liver & gallbladder & salivary glands Ø Restricts secretions such as sweat, urine, blood, seminal fluid. Ø Carminative, anti-pyretic. Ø Helps cleanse the skin & tonify the tissues Ø Pts suffering from hyperacidity, diarrhoea, broken capillaries & dark circles under their eyes should be careful of overdoing the sour flavour. Bitter Flavours Ø Cooling, drying, toning, draining (catabolic). Ø Anti-inflammatory & anti-bacterial Ø Most bitters contain an alkaloid. Ø Bitters stimulate the intestines, pancreas, & digestive secretions. Ø Strengthens the heart, lowers cholesterol & fevers, reduces cravings for sweets, supports fat metabolism, helps reduce allergies, eliminates heat & mucous, especially from the lungs. Ø Can aid weight loss, decrease fat, detoxify the blood and clear the mind & skin. Ø Herbs include Angelica, chamomile, dandelion leaf, green tea & yarrow. Ø Energising: beneficial for those feeling lethargic, & pts who are hot & aggressive Ø Pts suffering from low energy (chronic), cold & dry or suffering from ulcers should use bitters sparingly. Sweet Flavours Ø Sweet is toning & nourishing. Ø Results from the presence of CHO’s Ø Helps to slow down acute symptoms, increases tolerance to stress & pain. Ø Rejuvenating, anabolic, heals & tones muscle. Ø Energising & calming Ø Sweet nourishes Ying (Fluids of the body), strengthening the immune system, especially in the frail & elderly. Ø Pts who are cold, dry, cold and “spacey” (Vata) benefit especially from sweet foods, such as fruit, whole grains & sweet herbs e.g. anise, fennel, liquorice & stevia. Pungent Flavours Ø pungent or spicy is warming & dispersing Ø Stimulating: induces perspiration, stimulates the nerves, relieves nerve pain, clears Qi stagnation, promotes circulation, aids digestion and clears the skin. Ø Moves internal energy to the surface (e.g. ginger) Ø Mostly due to the presence of volatile oils (anti-microbial) Ø Pungent is cooling to the interior and worming to the exterior of the body. Ø E.g. Basil, cinnamon, ginger & mint. Ø Should not be taken in excess by those suffering from excess heat. Salty Flavours Ø Cooling, softening, draining & diuretic (drying). Ø Indicates the presence of minerals in food/herbs. Ø Helps softens hardened masses within the body (tumors). Ø Used in moderation, it has a moistening effect. Ø Beneficial to the nerves, kidneys & bladder. Ø Aids fluid metabolism, helps strengthens the nerves, opens blocked Qi meridians, improves circulation, awakens the mind & senses & strengthens the heart. Ø Excessive salt craving may indicate adrenal exhaustion (prolonged stress). Ø Sea vegetables such as kelp and dulse are good examples of salty tastes, and herbs such as nettle, dandelion leaf and plantain. Ø In reference to the activity of the plant: does it heat the body Temperature (ginger), or cool it (mint). Ø Indicated by the condition presented by the patient Ø E.g. fever or inflammation (hot conditions) à cooling herbs Ø Cold conditions: OA, constipation, fatigue or poor circulation à heating herbs. Ø Excessive dampness & dryness are signs Moisture of imbalance. Ø Dampness: swelling, Ø Temperament? oedema, diarrhoea, infancy (natural moisture) Ø Dryness: dry cough, dry skin, constipation, old age (naturally dry) Ø Moistening plants contain mucilage Ø Drying plants contain tannins Polarity Ø Yin and yang exist only in relation to each other & each contain aspects of the other. Ø Good health results in Ying & Yang being in constant & perfect balance (Homeostasis) Ø Yin plants can be used to correct conditions arising from a Ying imbalance, Ying plants can be used to correct conditions arising from a Yin imbalance Ø Yin plants: cooling Ø Yang plants: Warming Planets Ø The association between herbs & astrology is rooted in the Ancient Doctrine of Signatures. Ø In terms of healing: observing a plant’s colour, leaf shape, growth habit, habitat; all give clues to the plant’s therapeutic uses. Ø Acknowledges that macrocosms such as planets can be represented in microcosms such as plants (Homeopathy, TCM). Sun Ø Corresponds with hot, dry energy Ø Heart of our solar system (governs the heart of the body, spinal column & eyes) Ø Herbs corresponding to the sun often affect the heart, are hot & drying. Ø Cool, moist & feminine Moon energy. Ø Plants: high juice content, mild flavour, soft leaves, preference to growing in or near water (TAM: Indigenous herbs used for labour), pale yellow or white flowers & fruits. Ø Moon (plants) govern body’s fluids, digestive secretions, breasts, glandular & mucous membrane secretions, affect the subconscious, soothe the stomach and aid digestion. Mercury Ø Cool & dry energy. Ø Governs the nervous system, communication, senses of hearing (& speaking), thyroid, respiratory system (incl. lungs, bronchi & vocal cords). Ø Facilitates the ability to make associations and link concepts. Ø Cool & moist energy Venus Ø Associated with love, sensual pleasures, beauty and the arts. Ø Related to internal sexual & reproductive organs, skin, nose and sense of smell, umbilical cord, neck, spine & palate, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus gland & kidneys. Ø Help purify the blood, open up the sweat glands, calm desire for over-indulgence. Mars Ø hot, pungent & dry Ø Affects the adrenal glands, muscles, gallbladder, sense of taste, red blood cells, metabolism, motor nerves, rectum, eye muscles, head, left brain, left ear. Ø Strong, acrid flavour, pungent aroma, prickles & thorns Jupiter Ø Warm & Moist Ø Associated with adventure, social order, morals & optimism. Ø Organs: anterior pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, sciatic nerve, subcutaneous fat tissue, adrenals, kidneys, spleen, immune system, blood -O2 levels, lungs, blood sugar & semen. Ø Large forest trees (long-living perennials), plants that increase bile flow, help balance the pancreas, affect both the mind & body. Sweet fragrance & induce a positive frame of mind. Saturn Ø Cold & dry Ø Bitter & sour flavours. Ø Affects the bones, teeth, joints, bladder, skin, nerves, vagus nerve, spleen, endocardium, ant. Pit gland, blood constituents (aging process) Ø Cold & dry Ø Correlates with Uranus dramatic, sudden & forceful energy, originality, genius, independence, self- expression & a desire to break away from tradition. Ø Herbs: grow in unusual places – differ from plant to plant, commonly hybrids & easy to transplant. Neptune Ø Cold & moist Ø CSF, pineal gland, lymph system Ø Obscure, hard to Dx conditions, addiction, schizophrenia & psychosis. Ø Herbs: ± psychoactive. Often grow close or in the ocean (algaes & seaweeds). Pluto Ø Associated with the subconscious & spiritual “self” Ø Cold & Moist Ø Related to excretions, secretions & reproduction, including the metabolic, genetic & chemical processes that promote health. Ø Herbs: Found in remote places or underground Elements Ø Theory of the four elements (humours) arose in ancient Greece. Ø Numerous cultures have similar theories (TCM: elements; UT: humours; A: doshas, etc). Ø Elements: Water, Fire, Earth Air. Ø Plants (like individuals), contain all 4 elements, although one normally dominates. Water Ø ORGANS: Ø Kidneys, bladder, sexual energy, willpower Ø SENSE: hearing Ø EMOTION: fear. Fire Ø ORGANS: Ø Heart & Small Intestine Ø SENSE: Speech Ø EMOTIONS: Joy & lack of joy Earth Ø ORGANS: Ø Stomach & Spleen Ø SENSE: Taste Ø EMOTIONS: Sympathy & Obsession Air Ø ORGANS: Ø Lungs, large intestines, skin Ø Communication Ø SENSE: Smell Ø EMOTION: grief Lesson Take-Away Ø All Definitions End of lesson 1 THANK YOU!
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