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Vocabulary Research - Did you know

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									Did you know …?
“High school seniors near the top of
their class knew about four times as
many words as their lower-performing
classmates (Smith, 1941).”

        (in Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002)
Did you know …?
“Kuo and Anderson (2006) summarize
research that shows that morphological
awareness makes a difference in decoding of
morphologically complex words and to
comprehension of text. As students move
through the grades, morphological
awareness increasingly predicts students’
reading.”

     (in Hiebert, http://www.textproject.org/wordfindings)
Did you know …?
“Instruction that involves activating
prior knowledge and comparing and
contrasting word meanings is likely to
be more powerful than simple
combinations of contextual
information and definitions” (Beck &
McKeown, 1991; Baumann,
Kame’enui, & Ash, 2003).
                         (in Graves, 2006)
Did you know …?
“Instruction that involves activating
prior knowledge and comparing and
contrasting word meanings is likely to
be more powerful than simple
combinations of contextual
information and definitions” (Beck &
McKeown, 1991; Baumann,
Kame’enui, & Ash, 2003).
                         (in Graves, 2006)
Did you know …?
Ellis (1984) found that if “students are
involved in a conversation, they will
be more apt to remember and use a
word than if the input is only through
listening to a teacher lecture.”

         (in Hiebert, www.textproject.org/wordfindings)
Did you know …?
Hart and Risley (1994): The gap in students’
vocabularies on school entry is extensive.
There are approximately 180,000 words in
school texts (Zeno et al. 2000). All words
cannot be a focus (through either direct or
incidental instruction). Strategic selection of
vocabulary is required if the gap for students
who depend on schools to become literate is
to be narrowed.

                 (in Hiebert, 2008, IRA presentation)
Did you know …?
“People can usually select (for either
comprehension and production)
exactly the right word from their
memory of 50,000 words or more in a
fraction of a second.”


           (in Nagy & Hiebert, 2007, presentation for
                      National Reading Conference)
Did you know …?
A finding of the National Reading Panel,
  2000:
    Dependence on a single vocabulary
     instructional method will not result in
     optimal learning.

                     (in Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006)
Did you know …?
A finding of the National Reading
Panel, 2000:
 Intentional instruction of
  vocabulary items is required for
  specific texts.

         (in Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006)
Did you know …?
A finding of the National Reading
Panel, 2000:
 Repetition and multiple exposures
  to vocabulary items are important.

         (in Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006)
Did you know …?
A finding of the National Reading
Panel, 2000:
 Learning in rich contexts is
  valuable for vocabulary learning.
         (in Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006)
Did you know …?
A finding of the National Reading
Panel, 2000:
 Vocabulary learning should entail
  active engagement in learning
  tasks.

         (in Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006)
Did you know …?
   “Lack of vocabulary can be a crucial
    factor underlying the school failure of
    disadvantaged students (Becker,
    1977; Biemiller, 1999).”
       One study found that three year-olds
        from advantaged homes had oral
        vocabularies as much as five times
        larger than children from
        disadvantaged homes (Hart & Risley,
        1995).

                   (in Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006)
Did you know …?
“First-grade orally tested vocabulary
was found to be predictive of eleventh-
grade reading comprehension
(Cunningham & Stanovich 1997).”

              (in Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006)
Did you know …?
“Many teachers turn to the teacher’s editions
that accompany their comprehensive reading
programs. Virtually all of these teacher’s
editions include lists of words deemed
important for each selection in the program,
along with activities for teaching those words.
Based on analyses of such lists, however,
Hiebert (in press) suggests that many of the
recommendations are very rare words – those
that can be expected to occur once or fewer
times in a million words of school texts.”
               (Pacific Resources for Education and Learning,
                               A Focus on Vocabulary, 2004)
Did you know …?
“There is great improvement in
vocabulary when students encounter
vocabulary words often (National
Reading Panel, 2000). According to
Stahl (2005), students probably have to
see a word more than once in different
and multiple contexts to place it firmly
in their long-term memories.”

              (in Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006)
Did you know …?
“Seeing vocabulary in rich contexts
provided by authentic texts, rather than
in isolated vocabulary drills, produces
robust vocabulary learning (National
Reading Panel, 2000).”

              (in Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006)
Did you know …?
“It is often assumed that when students do not
learn new vocabulary words, they simply need
to practice the words some more. Research
has shown, however, that it is often the case
that students simply do not understand the
instructional task involved (National Reading
Panel 2000). Rather than focus only on the
words themselves, teachers should be certain
that students fully understand the instructional
tasks (Schwartz & Raphael,1885).”

                        (Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006)
Did you know …?
“Preliminary evidence…suggests that
as late as Grade 5, about 80 percent of
words are learned as a result of direct
explanation, either as a result of the
child’s request or instruction, usually by
a teacher.”

                           (Biemiller, 1999)
Did you know …?
The National Reading Panel (2000)
identified the components of reading as
phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency,
vocabulary, and comprehension.
Did you know …?
A finding of the National Reading Panel, 2000:
    “Learning in rich contexts is valuable for
     vocabulary learning. Vocabulary words should
     be those that the learner will find useful in many
     contexts. When vocabulary items are derived
     from content learning materials, the learner will
     be better equipped to deal with specific reading
     matter in content areas.”

                                (Hiebert & Kamil, 2005)
Did you know …?
“Intensive or rich vocabulary instruction
requires giving students both
definitional and contextual information
(i.e. what a word means and how it is
used), and providing them with
opportunities to process this
information deeply by applying it in
ways that require creativity and
connections with their existing
knowledge.”

             (Nagy in Hiebert & Kamil, 2005)
Did you know …?
“…a number of instructional
encounters—somewhere between 7
and 12—are necessary if students are
to achieve real ownership of the
instructed words (Stahl, 1986).”

            (Nagy in Hiebert & Kamil, 2005)
  Did you know …?
“A review of the research on learning words
from context indicates that the chances of
learning the meaning of a particular word
after encountering it once in context are
relatively low, somewhere around 15%
(Swanborn & Glopper, 1999). Exposure to
rich language is essential for promoting
vocabulary growth, but the benefits of such
exposure accumulate slowly.”
                  (Nagy in Hiebert & Kamil, 2005)
Did you know …?
  For every 100 unknown words
  encountered, students appear to
  gain enough knowledge of about 15
  words to enhance their scores on
  measures of word knowledge.
            (Scott in Hiebert & Kamil, 2005)
Did you know …?
“Research indicates that it is harder to
learn a word for new concept incidentally
through context than to learn a new word
for a known concept” (Nagy, 1997; Nagy
et al., 1987).

              (Scott in Hiebert & Kamil, 2005)
  Did you know …?
“In a study of sixth-grade students, Swanborn and de Glopper
(2002) found that reading texts for different purposes influences
the amount of incidental word learning that occurs. The
probability of learning a word incidentally was highest when
students read to gain knowledge of the topic (.10) and lowest in a
free reading condition (.06). The low-ability group made no
significant progress in its knowledge of words, regardless of the
reading purpose. The average group made gains only when
asked to learn about the topic, and the high-ability group learned
significantly more words, with probabilities as high as .27 in both
the free reading and the text comprehension conditions.”

                                      (Scott in Hiebert & Kamil, 2005)
Did you know …?
“In a recent study of workplace literacy
demands, Craig (2001) found that over
60% of workers surveyed reported that
at least 30% of their workday was
spent reading for information, equaling
approximately 2 ½ hours in an 8-hour
shift.”

             (Scott in Hiebert & Kamil, 2005)
Did you know …?
“Estimates of how many words are in the
English language vary. The Oxford English
Dictionary, which is the largest compilation of
English words—modern, obsolete, and
archaic—contains upward of one million
words, with new words (such as McJob and
JPEG) constantly being added.”

                     (Stahl in Hiebert & Kamil, 2005)
Did you know …?
“If it is assumed that a child enters grade 1
knowing roughly 6,000 different words, the
child needs to learn 39,000 additional words or
so over the next 12 years. That’s about 3,000
new words per year….But although this may
sound like an impossible goal to achieve,
research suggest that the average child does
learn roughly 3,000 words per year (White,
Graves, & Slater, 1990).

                    (Stahl in Hiebert & Kamil, 2005)
Did you know …?
“… the average child does learn roughly 3,000
words per year (White, Graves, & Slater,
1990).
     This average, however, obscures some
important differences. White and his
colleagues found a range of growth between
1,000 words or low-achieving children and
5,000 for higher achieving children.”

                   (Stahl in Hiebert & Kamil, 2005)
Did you know …?
“In investigating the effects of Semantic
Feature Analysis [involving activation of prior
knowledge and comparing and contrasting
word meanings], Aners, Box, an Filip (1984)
found that learning disabled high school
students learned more vocabulary and better
comprehended a social studies passage
containing the taught vocabulary than did
students who looked up words in the dictionary
and wrote out their definitions.”

                                  (Graves, 2006)
Did you know …?
“Nagy, Anderson, and Herman (1987) have
found that a reader has about a 5 percent
chance of learning a new word fully from
encountering in only once in print. Therefore,
when specific words are key to understanding
a concept, intentional, explicit instruction in
word meanings is efficient and productive.”

                 (Honig, Diamond, & Gutlohn, 2000)
        Did you know…?

   Students achieved a
    12 percentile gain
    with any vocabulary
    instruction (definition
    & sentence).

   Students achieved a
    33 percentile gain
    with systematic,
    robust direct
    instruction of words in
    a passage.
                              (Marzano, 2004)
Did you know …?
“Teaching 350 words each year may
augment learning from context by 10
percent to 30 percent, a significant
amount (Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986).”

       (in Honig, Diamond, & Gutlohn, 2000)
Did you know …?
“Students who were given direct
instruction in word meanings are better
able to discern meanings of untaught
words. (Beck, Perfetti, & McKeown,
1982).”

       (in Honig, Diamond, & Gutlohn, 2000)
Did you know …?
“According to Irvin (1998), people have
four types of vocabulary: listening,
speaking, reading, and writing. The
listening and reading vocabularies are
receptive, and the speaking and writing
vocabularies are expressive.”

         (Honig, Diamond, & Gutlohn, 2000)
Did you know …?
“Vocabulary correlates to comprehension
  .66 to .75 (Just & Carpenter, 1975)”.

              (in Hiebert, 2008, presentation)
Did you know …?
What do we mean by vocabulary?

 “Most often, the term is associated with
 the body of words students must
 understand in order to read text with
 fluency and comprehension.”

           (Honig, Diamond, & Gutlohn, 2000)
Did you know …?
“According to Irvin (1998), people have
four types of vocabulary: listening,
speaking, reading, and writing. The
listening and reading vocabularies are
receptive, and the speaking and writing
vocabularies are expressive.”

         (Honig, Diamond, & Gutlohn, 2000)
Did you know …?
 A morpheme is “a meaningful
 linguistic unit that cannot be divided
 into smaller meaningful elements, as
 the word book, or that is a component
 of a word, as s in books.”

                  (Harris & Hodges, 1995)
Did you know …?

 Generativity refers to the extent to
 which a word’s parts can be used to
 derive new, related words.
    divide, divisor, dividend, undivided,
     individual
Did you know …?

 When children “know” a word, they
 not only know the word’s definition
 and its logical relationship with other
 words, they also know how the word
 functions in different contexts.

       (Stahl & Kapinus, 2001 qtd in Diamond, & Gutlohn, 2006)
Did you know …?

 More than 60% of words that readers
 encounter have relatively transparent
 morphological structure—that is, they
 can be broken down into [meaningful]
 parts.


    (Nagy et al., 1989 in Diamond, & Gutlohn, 2006, p. 91)
Did you know …?

 “For every word a child learns, we
 estimate that there are an average of
 one to three additional related words
 that should also be understandable to
 the child, the exact number
 depending on how well the child is
 able to utilize context and
 morphology to induce meaning.”

  (Nagy & Anderson, 1984 qtd in Diamond, & Gutlohn, 2006, p. 91)

								
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