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East St. Louis In Bloom - Association for Prevention Teaching and

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					East St. Louis
  In Bloom
 An Intervention Project
              Presented By:
      SIUE Students in Public Health
Nursing Community Nursing Service Clinical
    History of East St. Louis
• 1818 Illinoistown (original name of East St.
  Louis) founded located near Piggott’s Ferry
• 1837 First state railroad laid; starts bringing
  goods to Illinoistown to ship across the river
  via Piggott’s ferry
• 1850 Illinoistown becomes a center for
  commercial and industrial commerce
• 1861 Illinoistown officially changes its name
  to East St. Louis
• 1871 The National Stock Yards open
• 1874 Eads Bridge is completed, allowing
  goods to travel across the river via railroad
(Baugher, Timlin, & Child, 1995)
   History of East St. Louis
• 1890s East St. Louis becomes one of the
  fastest growing cities in the Nation
• 1917 Race riots brake out because of
  changing population, corrupt politics, and
  labor issues leaving at least 47 people dead
• 1920 East St. Louis is now the 2nd poorest
  city (population great than 50,000) in the
  Nation
• 1922 Neighboring town of Belleville
  becomes the center for the Ku Klux Klan (the
  Klan’s presence still remains strong in the
  surrounding areas today)

(Baugher, Timlin, & Child, 1995)
    History of East St. Louis
• 1950s East St. Louis starts a gradual decline
• 1957 East St. Louis is named the most
  beautiful city in the Nation
• 1961-1980 13,000 industrial jobs were lost
• 1993 Metrolink established and the Casino
  Queen gambling docks on East St. Louis river
  front
• 1999 Jackie Joyner-Kersee Youth Center built
• 2011 East St. Louis Celebrates 150 years

(Baugher, Timlin, & Child, 1995)
          East St. Louis Now
• Population: 29,448
• Religion: Mainly Christian
• Race: 96.2% African American
• Education:
       High school or higher: 66.3%
       Bachelor's degree: 9.1%
       Graduate degree: 2.8%
• Unemployed: 17.0%
• Average Household Income: $21,070
• Mayor: Alvin Parks Jr.



      (http://www.city-data.com/city/East-St.-Louis-Illinois.html, 2003)
            East St. Louis Now
    East St. Louis Establishments (as of 2002)
          Health (25%)
          Arts (0%)
          Retail (21%)
          Educational (1%)
          Other (11%)
          Administrative (4%)
          Accommodation (11%)
          Information (4%)
          Wholesale (10%)
          Real Estate (6%)
          Professional (6%)

(http://www.city-data.com/city/East-St.-Louis-Illinois.html, 2003)
             East St. Louis In Bloom
East St. Louis In Bloom is a free event held annual, that encourages the
community residents to participate in making their community a
better place to live. The event was held on April 16, 2011 from
10:00am till 1:00pm at the Jones Park Greenhouse. The event consists
of cleaning up the Jones Park Greenhouse, planting, an Easter egg
hunt, painting, construction of raised plant beds, a picnic, and
education on how to plant healthy food choices at home. All of the
supplies for starting a garden at home are provided free of charge to
the residents.
    Why is “East St. Louis In
      Bloom” needed?
• East St. Louis has a high crime rate and current
  research is showing that establishing
  community gardens can help to make the
  neighborhood safer. (Marcus, 2003)
• By cleaning up the park/ greenhouse and
  removing the old paint (possibly lead based
  paint) it will make the park a safer place to be.
• By making the neighborhood safer and cleaner
  its residents will want to spend more time
  outdoors, thus possibly reducing sedentary
  lifestyles.
    Why is “East St. Louis In
      Bloom” needed?
• The residents could start eating healthier, by
  growing their own fruits and vegetables at
  home in a raised bed planting system.
• There is also evidence to show that community
  gardens lead to health promotion and disease
  prevention (Stein, 2008).
• By educating the people of East St. Louis on the
  dangers of gardening with the soil in East St.
  Louis, we can reduce possible exposure to the
  toxins, thus reducing illness.
• The community needs something to take pride
  in.
    Cultural Considerations
• 96.2% African American
• Things to consider:
   – Not uncommon to live with extended family
     members
   – At risk for underutilization of preventative
     care

   – Tend to have strong community ties through
     places like churches
      Cultural Considerations
• Strong family ties
• Generally low income households
• Likely to experience financial strain, economic
  uncertainty, and isolation from beneficial
  institutions
• Many single parent households
• Many work multiple jobs
• Strong ethnic and racial identity
• Positive feelings about the self
• Strong sense of communalism
(Plowden, K., John, W., Vasquez, E., & Kimani, J. 2006)
(Corneille, M., Ashcraft, A., & Belgrave, F. (2005)
      Ethical Considerations
• The population of East St. Louis is a vulnerable
  population that is susceptible to coercion and
  exploitation.
• It is crucial to provide truthful information to
  this population because it may be the only
  source of information they receive about
  healthful living.
• It was important that the community of East St.
  Louis be treated with dignity and respect and
  that assumptions and stereo-types were not
  formed or communicated.
     Ethical Considerations
• Undue persuasion and involuntary participation
  were avoided because we encouraged the
  community to participate in the event, but no
  one was forced or coerced into participating.
• We attempted to reduce the possibility of harm
  by informing everyone about what the event
  would consist of and why the event was being
  held.
• The same quality of service and care was given
  to each and every person regardless of their
  age, race, ethnicity, gender, socio-economic
  status, etc.
    Policies and Procedures
• Receive approval before releasing anything
  associated with SIUE or the School of Nursing
• Do NOT release anything that has a negative
  connotation towards the population you are
  trying to reach
• Check all facts and grammar before releasing
  anything to the population
• Maintain good communication with all
  members involved in project, especially one’s
  direct supervisor
• Be respectful of all members involved in the
  project
 Core Public Health Functions
Assessment: Looking at the overall nutrition level of
  the community. Studying the rate of heart
  disease, diabetes, and obesity. Talking with
  community to see what they feel they needed.
  Also looking at the best way to reach the people of
  East St. Louis.
Policy development: Working with the city of East St.
  Louis to organize the event. Also worked with
  other various organizations to development the
  activities to be done at East St. Louis In Bloom.
Assurance: Educate the population on the
  importance of a healthy well balanced diet.
  Provide them with education about gardening and
  cultivating healthy food choices. Provide the
  residents with all of the tools needed to begin the
  garden.
           East St. Louis In Bloom
             SIUE Interventions
For our part in this event, we help with the distribution of
information and gathering of supplies. We created a cover letter,
press release, and flyer to be used in advertising the event to the
people of East St. Louis. We also made contact with the mayor’s
office, The Monitor, local churches, local stores, and the other
universities involved with the event.
      Cover Letter
When writing our cover letter we actually learned
the style that we wanted was more of a direct
mailing letter. We used an article by Karen
Marchetti (1995) as a guide for organizing our
letter. We also looked at an article that would
give us some idea as to how successful we could
expect our mailing to be (Hurdle, 2007). The
article gave us a couple of really good ideas
(thanking people, mentioning the best parts of
the event, and includinh contact information) of
what we should include in our cover letter to get
the best results.
Cover Letter
    Press Release
We took the same approach when writing the
press release. Everyone was clueless when it can
to writing a press release so we used Yvette
Davis’s (2008) article to guide us about what was
important to include and what was ok to leave
out. We also used “The Power of the Press
Release” to help us understand what type of
response we could expect from our press release
(Paul, 2001).
Press Release
    Flyer and advertising
We used an article by Burton, Lichtenstein, and
Netemeyer (1999) to give us an idea on how
successful we could expect our flyers to be.

To get ideas on how we should advertise, we used
“Market Every Day (in Every Way)” (Market,
2007). It helped us understand who we should
send our cover letter, press release and flyer to
(i.e. radio and TV, newspaper, using the internet,
direct mailings).
Flyer
           East St. Louis In Bloom
 Washington Univeristy & Univeristy of Illinois
Washington University students were in charge of the planting.
They took inventory of the gardening supplies that were
available and let Kathi know what else was needed. They also
helped to clean up the Jones Park Greenhouse and to make
raised planting beds.
University of Illinois student were in charge of organizing the
Easter Egg Hunt and helping clean up the Jones Park
Greenhouse. They also helped to make raised planting beds.
               East St. Louis In Bloom
                  Other Resources
The mayor’s office is helping to spread the word about the event. They
have placed all of the information about the event on the city’s website.

The Monitor is helping by doing a free press release on the event.

Illinois American Water is helping by donating water for the event.
  List of Contacts
• Illinois American Water
   – Phone Number: 1800-422-2782
• University of Illinois
   – Billie Turner (contact Person)
   – Email: billiegt@illinois.edu
• Washington University
   – Jessica F. (contact person)
   – Email: js17@gmail.net
• The Mayor’s Office:
   – Lauren Parks (contact person)
   – Email: Lauren.parks@cesl.us
• The Monitor:
   – Frazier (contact person)
   – Phone Number: 618-271-0468
   – Fax Number: 618-271-8443
  List of Contacts
• Save-A-Lot
   – 2600 State Street, East St. Louis, IL
   – Phone Number: 618-875-5370
• Schnucks
   – 2511 State Street, East St. Louis, IL
   – Phone Number: 618-274-2000
• East St. Louis Supermarket
   – 2439 Bond Avenue, East St. Louis, IL
   – Phone Number: 618-874-0968




   *See packet for full list of contact
   **Val Voss has list of churches
Minnesota
 Model
Minnesota Model
  • Social Marketing
     – This accomplished by creating the cover
       letter, flyer, and press release and then
       distributing them throughout the
       community
  • Outreach
     – This achieved by connecting with the
       churches and mayor’s office to help spread
       the word about the event
  • Community Organizing
     – This was done by bringing the people of
       East St. Louis together and having them
       share a common goal of improving Jones
       Park
Minnesota Model
  • Collaboration
     – This was achieved by working with the
       various other organizations involved
  • Coalition Building
     – This was done by strengthening the
       relationship between CNS and the people of
       East St. Louis. By forming an unofficial
       coalition, they are working together to
       better the community
  • Health Teaching
     – This was accomplished by getting the
       people to the event so that they could be
       educated on how to garden and the dangers
       of East St. Louis soil
            Demographics
            St. Clair County
   DEMOGRAPHIC FACTOR              COUNTY LEVEL   STATE LEVEL

     UNEMPOLYMENT                        6.7%        5.7%

 SINGLE PARENT HOUSEHOLD                13.6%        9.3%

MEDIAN AGE FOR POPULATION                32.0        32.8

  POPULATION IN POVERTY                 17.4%       11.9%

 POPULATION 25+ WHO ARE
    NON-HIGH SCHOOL                     27.6%       23.9%
       GRADUATES


          (http://app.idph.state.il.us/, 2009)
            Biostatistics
          St. Clair County
BIOSTATISTICAL FACTOR          COUNTY LEVEL     STATE LEVEL
                                      9.6          7.4
    Infant Mortality
                                       OR           OR
   (Rates per 1,000)
                                     0.96%        0.74%
 LOW BIRTHWEIGHT
                                      9.2%         8.6%
     (<2,500 gms)
   BREAST CANCER
(FEMALE) MORTALITY
                                      40.4         32.2
        RATES,
 (Rates per 100,000)
  CORONARY HEART
 DISEASE MORTALITY
                                      173.4       149.0
        RATES,
  (Rates per 100,000)
         (http://app.idph.state.il.us/, 2009)
            Behavioral
         St. Clair County
                                  COUNTY LEVEL             STATE LEVEL
   BEHAVIORAL FACTOR



<3 SERVINGS OF FRUITS AND
                                        46.4%                44.9%
       VEGETABLES


     HAVE DIEBETES                      9.7%                  8.2%




              (http://app.idph.state.il.us/brfss/, 2010)
  Healthy People 2020 Objectives
• NWS-2.2, NWS-4, NWS-5.1, NWS-5.2, NWS-8,
  NWS 10, NWS 11, NWS 14, and NWS 15.
       Environmental
       St. Clair County

Environmental FACTOR              COUNTY LEVEL   STATE LEVEL




CRUDE HOMICIDE RATES
                                        46.4%       44.9%
  (Rate per 100,000)



CHILDREN WITH BLOOD
                                        6.5%        6.9%
LEAD LEVELS >15mcg/dl



         (http://app.idph.state.il.us/, 2009)
Health People 2020 Topic

  • Nutrition & Healthy Weight
  •   NWS-2.2, NWS-4, NWS-5.1, NWS-5.2, NWS-8, NWS 10,
      NWS 11 in addition to:


       • Objective: NWS-14 Increase the contribution of
         fruits to the diets of the population aged 2 years
         and older Increase the contribution of fruits to
         the diets of the population aged 2 years and
         older
       • Objective: NWS-15 Increase the variety and
         contribution of vegetables to the diets of the
         population aged 2 years and older

       (HealthyPeople.gov, 2010)
Health People 2020 Topic
• Nutrition and Weight Status
   • Objective: NWS-15.1 Increase the
     contribution of total vegetables to the diets of
     the population aged 2 years and older
     Increase the contribution of total vegetables
     to the diets of the population aged 2 years
     and older
   • Objective: NWS-15.2 Increase the
     contribution of dark green vegetables, orange
     vegetables, and legumes to the diets of the
     population aged 2 years and older Increase
     the contribution of dark green vegetables,
     orange vegetables, and legumes to the diets
     of the population aged 2 years and older
   (HealthyPeople.gov, 2010)
Health People 2020 Topic

 Diabetes
    • Objective: D-16.3 Increase the proportion
       of persons at high risk for diabetes with pre-
       diabetes who report reducing the amount
       of fat or calories in their diet Increase the
       proportion of persons at high risk for
       diabetes with pre-diabetes who report
       reducing the amount of fat or calories in
       their diet

    (HealthyPeople.gov, 2010)
          Health People 2020
            Epidemiology
           St. Clair County
 Weight Status:

 Obesity:
        Underweight/normal:                                 39.1%
        Overweight:                                         32.2%
        Obese:                                              28.6%

 Trying to Lose Weight:                                      47.9%

 Advised about Weight:                                      22.1%

(http://app.idph.state.il.us/, 2009) & (http://app.idph.state.il.us/brfss/, 2010)
          Health People 2020
            Epidemiology
           St. Clair County

Nutrition Status:

Total Servings of Fruits/Vegetables per Day:
        0-2 Servings/day:             46.4%
        3-4 Servings/day:             37.2%
        5 or more Servings/day:       16.4%




(http://app.idph.state.il.us/, 2009) & (http://app.idph.state.il.us/brfss/, 2010)
          Health People 2020
            Epidemiology
           St. Clair County
   Diabetes

   Have Diabetes:                                             9.7%

   Had Blood Glucose
   Test done in the past 12 MO:                               66.1%

   Hospitalized Related To Diabetes:                          0.17%



(http://app.idph.state.il.us/, 2009) & (http://app.idph.state.il.us/brfss/, 2010)
Risk for altered nutrition, less than
    body requirements for the
     residents of East St. Louit
            Related to….
 • Limited access to food as evidenced by the
   scarce number of grocery stores in the city
   limits
 • Limited resources for growing their own fruits
   and vegetables as evidenced by the high
   number of low income households
 • Financial constraint as evidenced by the
   increasing cost of fresh fruits and vegetables
   and low incomes
            Group Dynamics
• Jessica: Cover Letter, research, contacting
  resources, distributing information,
  PowerPoint slides about project background
  and nursing diagnosis
• Bradley: Evaluation tool, research, contacting
  resources, distributing information
  PowerPoint slides about project background
  and references
• Allison: Press Release, research, contacting
  resources, distributing information,
  PowerPoint slides that describing the
  intervention and proposed evaluation
• Amber: Flyer, research, contacting
  resources, distributing information,
  PowerPoint slides about project
  background, PowerPoint template
          Proposed Process
         Evaluation Method
• Survey those involved with the process to see
  what could have been done better and what
  was done well
• Self-reflect on the process to determine what
  you could have done better and what you did
  well
• Ask for suggestions from those involved with
  the process; everyone from those who
  planed the event to those who are evaluating
  the event (including the monitor, mayor’s
  office, etc.)
         Proposed Outcome
         Evaluation Method
• Survey participants of the event to see what
  they liked about the event and what they
  thought needed improvement
• Ask for suggestions about the event
• Self-reflect on the actual outcome; was it the
  expected outcome?
      Possible Methods for
        Collecting Data
• Emailing short surveys to the personal who
  collaborated on East St. Louis In Bloom
• Hand out evaluation forms to the
  participants…have the evaluation forms be
  the ticket for an attendance prize
• Set up a free email account (possibly gmail or
  yahoo) to receive feedback from the
  community. Get the word out about the
  email account the same way the event was
  advertised
• Randomly select participants to ask what
  they liked and didn’t like about the event
• Place a suggestion box at the event
        To Be or Not to Be,
       that is the Question
  (other possible interventions)
• Contacting Local Cable Station
   – This was not done because the numbers that we
     found were no longer in services. Perhaps if there
     was more time we could have found away to
     contact them
• Contacting Local Radio Station
   – This was not done because the numbers that we
     found were no longer in services. Perhaps if there
     was more time we could have found away to
     contact them
• Contacting the Belleville News Democrat
   – This was not done because the newspaper generally
     takes a negative spin on East St. Louis
      To Be or Not to Be,
     that is the Question
(other possible interventions)

• Had more control over the overall project,
  thus producing better results from our
  interventions
   – This was not done because it is only an eight
     week course
• Worked more closely with the other
  Universities involved
   – This was not done because the student from
     Washington University was unreasonable and the
     student from University of Illinois had her part
     under control
 Hindsight is twenty/twenty
 (a reflection on the project)

• Better lines of communication from all of
  those involved with the event
• A better understanding of the location of the
  park and the actual event
• More time to prepare actual handouts for the
  event
• Apply for available grants to help fund the
  event
                             References

Baugher, B., Timlin, D. & Child, M. (1995). A timeline of the east st.
         louis area., 2011, from
         http://proxy.library.siue.edu:2569/la/la437-
         f95/reports/History/timeline.html

Burton, S., Lichtenstein, D. R., & Netemeyer, R. G. (1999). Exposure
          to sales flyers and increased purchases in retail
          supermarkets. Journal of Advertising Research, 39(5), 7-
          14. Retrieved from
          http://proxy.library.siue.edu:2056/login.aspx?direct=true
          &db=bsh&AN=2711787&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Corneille, M., Ashcraft, A., & Belgrave, F. (2005). What's culture
          got to do with it? Prevention programs for African
          American adolescent girls. Journal of Health Care for the
          Poor & Underserved, 16(4), 38-47. Retrieved from
          EBSCOhost

Davis, Y. (2008). How to write a press release. Wenatchee Business
           Journal, 22(1), 34. Retrieved from
           http://proxy.library.siue.edu:2056/login.aspx?direct=true
           &db=f5h&AN=28335079&site=ehost-live&scope=site
East st. louis, illinois. (2010). , 2011, from http://www.city-
           data.com/city/East-St.-Louis-Illinois.html

Hurdle, V. (2007). Direct mail that works as hard as you do.
          Landscape Management, 46(10), 76. Retrieved from
          http://proxy.library.siue.edu:2056/login.aspx?direct=true&
          db=f5h&AN=27332019&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Illinois behavioral risk factor surveillance system. (2010). , 2011, from
           http://app.idph.state.il.us/brfss/

IPLAN. (2009). , 2011, from http://app.idph.state.il.us/

Marchetti, K. J. (1995). How hard can it be to write a direct mail
         letter? Bank Marketing, 27(7), 23. Retrieved from
         http://proxy.library.siue.edu:2056/login.aspx?direct=true&
         db=f5h&AN=9507265945&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Marcus, C. C., 1934-. (2003). 15(2), 32-41. Retrieved from
         http://proxy.library.siue.edu:2056/login.aspx?direct=true&
         db=ach&AN=BART03107421&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Market every day (in every way). (2007). Journal of
         Accountancy, 203(4), 30-30. Retrieved from
         http://proxy.library.siue.edu:2056/login.aspx?direct=t
         rue&db=bsh&AN=25435475&site=ehost-
         live&scope=site

Paul, C. C. (2001). The power of the press release. Civil
           Engineering (08857024), 71(1), 64. Retrieved from
           http://proxy.library.siue.edu:2056/login.aspx?direct=t
           rue&db=bsh&AN=3997730&site=ehost-
           live&scope=site

Plowden, K., John, W., Vasquez, E., & Kimani, J. (2006). Reaching
         African American men: a qualitative analysis. Journal of
         Community Health Nursing, 23(3), 147-158. Retrieved from
         EBSCOhost.

Stein, M. J. (2008). Community gardens for health promotion
          and disease prevention. International Journal for Human
          Caring, 12(3), 47-52. Retrieved from
          http://proxy.library.siue.edu:2056/login.aspx?direct=t
          rue&db=rzh&AN=2010087396&site=ehost-
          live&scope=site
Topics & objectives index - healthy people. (2010). , 2011, from
         http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/
         default.aspx
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