Docstoc

Introduction

Document Sample
Introduction Powered By Docstoc
					        LOW COST SAFETY
         IMPROVEMENTS

Practitioner
 Workshop
Introduction
 – Session #1



                          1-1
              Logistics
• Health and safety (emergency exits,
  procedures for evacuation, etc.)
• Please turn off cell phones/Pagers
• Breaks (when, restrooms, telephones)
• Lunch arrangements
• Other site-specific issues


                                   1-2
Course Instructors

     Name, Company, e-mail
      address, phone #




                             1-3
     Self Introductions

• Who you are
• Who you work for and what you do
• What experience you have with
  safety improvements
• What you want to get out of the
  course


                               1-5
 This is a workshop!
Expect to do some work!
             • Ask your questions
Discussion     as you have them,
               Please!
             • “Parking Lot” for
               Questions to be
               addressed later in
               workshop
             • Work problems and
               exercises (based on
               actual case studies)
             • Facilitated questioning
               and discussions
                                  1-6
           Introduction
Learning Outcomes:

1. Review National Traffic Crash
   Experience

2. Relate Substantive Safety Approach to
   Nominal Safety Applications




                                           1-7
              Introduction
Traffic Safety Facts 2003:
 43,220 Deaths, up 0.9% all-time high since
  1990

   2,891,000 Injuries, down 1.2%

   6.305 million police reported crashes
      A crash every 5 seconds
      An injury every 10 seconds
      A fatality every 13 minutes

                                            1-8
                Introduction
   2002 & 2003 Highway Statistics:
 Exposure                 Year                %
                                            Change
 Measure          2002            2003
Vehicle Miles
Traveled        2,855,756M       2,879,894M* +0.8%
Registered
Vehicles        225,684,815   230,199,000** +2.0%
Population***   287,973,924    290,809,777 +1.0%

                                             1-9
                   Introduction
   2003 Highway Traffic Fatal & Injury Rates:
                              Year
            Role                                 % Change
                       2002          2003
Occupants              2,735,000     2,708,000      -1.0%
 Drivers               1,863,000     1,848,000      -0.8%
 Passengers             873,000       859,000       -1.6%
Motorcyclists            65,000        64,000       -1.5%
Non-Occupants           126,000       119,000       -5.6%
 Pedestrians             71,000        68,000       -4.2%
 Pedalcyclists           48,000        44,000       -8.3%
 Other*                   7,000         8,000       +14%
TOTAL                  2,926,000     2,891,000      -1.2%
                                                      1-10
                           Introduction
   2002 Highway Traffic Fatalities Trend
50,000
                                                                                 43,220
45,000
40,000
35,000
30,000
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
 5,000
    0
         1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
                                                                                  1-11
           Introduction
Cost of All Crashes in U.S. (Year 2003)
$231 Billion
$820 (~₤500 for every person in
 the U.S.)
2.3% of the GDP



                                     1-12
               Introduction
• U.S. Highway System Among World’s Safest
  – Fatality Rate has decreased or remained same (as
    Traffic is Increasing)
  – But over 42,000 Deaths & 2,920,000 Injuries per Year


• US DOT Safety Goals (FHWA, NHTSA, & FMCSA)
  – 20% Reduction in Highway deaths & injuries by 2008
  – 50% Reduction in Large-Vehicle-Related deaths &
    injuries


                                                    1-13
                    Introduction
Substantive Safety Varies Significantly by Type of
 Road, Location and Other Factors
       Representative Accident Rates by Location and Type of Road
                                              Injury         Total
                             Fatal Accidents Accidents       Accidents
                             Number per       Number per     Number per
       RURAL                 MVM              MVM            MVM
       2 Lanes                     0.07             0.94           2.39
       4 or more lanes,
       divided subtotal           0.063             0.77           2.09
       Freeway                    0.025             0.27           0.79
       URBAN
       2 Lanes                    0.045             1.51           4.94
       4 or more lanes,
       undivided                   0.04             2.12           6.65
       4 or more lanes,
       divided                    0.027             1.65           4.86
       Freeway                    0.012              0.4           1.43

                                                                          1-14
                                    Introduction
Rural Road Safety by The Numbers
  4                                                                        Fatality Rate is
3.5                                                                       2.5 times that for
  3
2.5
                                                                          Urban Roads.
  2
1.5
                                                                          40 % of Travel
  1                                                                       and 60% of
0.5                                                                       Fatalities
  0
                                           .


                                                      .
                     .




                                                                     te
          l




                                .


                                         rt


                                                    rt
                   ol
        ca




                              ol




                                                                   ta
                                          A
                    C




                                                     A
                               C
      Lo




                                                                rs
                                       or
                 or




                                                  or
                            or




                                                             te
                                    in
              in




                                               aj
                         aj




                                                          In
                                   M
          M




                                              M
                        M




                                                                                      1-15
         Introduction



 Safety – an absolute
“Safer”- a relative term

                           1-16
Link Between Standards and Safety
How can we make
 highways sufficiently safe?   STANDARDS

Does applying standards
 achieve it?
                                DESIGN
How about cost-benefit?
What can are the
 countermeasures that           CRASHES
 highway professionals can
 use?
                                          1-17
 Introduction – Exercise I

Discussion
               Identify some of
               the Low Cost
               Safety Measure
               that you are aware
               of?

              Let’s list them


                                 1-18
      Introduction – Exercise I
              Low Cost Safety Improvements:
Discussion    ___________________________
              ___________________________
              ___________________________
              ___________________________
              ___________________________
              ___________________________
              ___________________________
              ___________________________
              ___________________________
              ___________________________
              ___________________________
                                       1-19
              Introduction
What is “low cost” ?
  – Agency definition
  – Funding source (capital program, 3R, or Operation
    and Maintenance budget)
  – Developer funded


No “official” definition in this course
  – One agency’s “low cost” is another agency’s “too
    expensive” !
  – Generally < $10,000


                                                  1-20
Is this road ‘less safe’ or ‘more safe’?
               – Exercise II




                                     1-21
Introduction – Exercise II

              What are some Low
Discussion
               Cost Safety Measures
               (i.e., Traffic Control
               Devices, shoulder
               treatments,
               lighting….) that could
               make this road safer?
              Let’s list them


                               1-22
        Introduction – Exercise II
List Low Cost Safety Measures (i.e., Traffic
 Control Devices, shoulder rumble, lighting….)
 that could make this road safer?
  ___________________________________________
  ___________________________________________
  ___________________________________________
  ___________________________________________
  ___________________________________________
  ___________________________________________
  ___________________________________________
  ___________________________________________
  ___________________________________________
                                           1-23
   Is this road ‘safe’ or ‘unsafe’?        –
               Exercise II

 Lighting
Advance Warning
Signs
 Delineators
 Chevrons
 Shoulder Rumble
Strip

Which of these low cost measures are required
        (i.e., nominal requirement)?
                                                1-24
Substantive and Nominal Safety

 • Nominal Safety is examined in
   reference to compliance with
   standards, warrants, guidelines and
   sanctioned design procedures

 • Substantive Safety is the actual
   crash frequency and severity for a
   highway or roadway

                                        1-25
            Nominal Safety




Nominal Safety – Advance
Warning Sign + Advisory
Speed Plaque
                             1-26
Substantive and Nominal Safety
  Nominal Safety
                      • Defines users legal
           1st Step     behaviour
                      • Provides for special
    Complies ?          user needs
                      • Protects
   Yes
   Yes       No         professionals from
                        claims of legal
                        liability
                                          1-27
               Nominal Safety
        1st Step
                            Speed limit = 45 mph
                            Traffic Volume = 2,000
                            - Expect 2 crashes per
                           year at this traffic volume

                           What if this curve
Nominal Safety – Advance   experienced 7 crashes in
Warning Sign + Advisory    the past two years with the
Speed Plaque               Advance Warning Sign?
                                                1-28
Nominal and Substantive Safety
        1st Step                   2nd Step




Nominal Safety – Advance   Advance Warning Sign +
Warning Sign + Advisory    Advisory Speed + Chevrons =
Speed Plaque               “Safer” = Substantive Safety
                                                1-29
                  Introduction
Example:
       1st Step                 2nd Step




  Nominal Safety –      +Oversize +Double-Up
  Advance Warning       +Yellow Flashers = 35% +
  Sign –Conventional    25% reduction in Crashes =
  Road Size             Substantive Safety
                                              1-30
         Introduction

                New approach to
Discussion
                 Geometric Design
                 and Application of
                 Traffic Control
                 Devices and to Safety
                 Improvements is
                 Substantive Safety.
                Why?


                                1-31
           Nominal Safety

Legal Liability and Substantive Safety
   Approach:
1. “Going” beyond the nominal requirements of the
   Green Book/MUTCD demonstrates clear
   satisfaction of Nominal requirements
2. Juries and Judges look favorably upon actions
   by highway agencies which go beyond
   minimums


                                             1-32
            Introduction
New & Proven Technologies




                            1-33
              Introduction
AASHTO Strategic Safety Plan Guidebooks:

        Website for NCHRP
        Report 500
        Guidebooks is:



http://www4.trb.org/trb/crp.nsf/All+Projects/
NCHRP+17-18(3)
                                        1-34
         Introduction

                Countermeasures
Discussion
                 EFFECTS
                Proven
                  Proven

                  Tried
                Tried

                Experimental
                 Experimental



                                  1-35
                Introduction
Example:
 Tried                       Tried

 CRF = -22%                  CRF = -22%
                                   -49 %




Nominal Safety – Advance   + Chevrons = 49% reduction in
Warning Sign –             Crashes = Substantive Safety
Conventional Road Size
                                                  1-36
             Introduction
New & Proven Technologies
Specific Crash   Table of Low Cost Safety Crash Reduction Factors

Modification
                                                                                    Right Angle
                 Countermeasure                    Total Crashes   Injury Crashes     Crashes


Factors/ Crash    Warning Signs and Measures
                 Advance Warning Signs (General)       25%

Reduction        Advance Curve Warning Signs
                 with Advisory Speed Plaques           22%

Factors are in   Advance Curve Warning Signs
                 without Advisory Speed Plaques        18%


the Notebook
                 Advance Intersection Warning
                 Signs - Rural                         40%
                 Advance Intersection Warning

Appendix         Signs - Urban                         30%

                 Increase Size of Warning Sign         15%
                 Double-Up of Warning Signs
                 (Left+Right Sides of Road)            31%




                                                                                    1-37
          Introduction
Review Questions:
  Nominal Safety
     compliance with standards, warrants,
       guidelines and sanctioned design
       procedures

  Substantive Safety
       the expected crash frequency and
         severity for a highway or roadway
                                       1-39
           Introduction
Review Questions:
 What is the relationship of compliance with
the Green Book and the MUTCD to Nominal
Safety? Ordinarily can be expected to result
           in nominal safety performance
  How can you reduce crashes where there is
 a Substantive Safety problem?
        Apply low cost safety improvements
         beyond the nominal (minimal)
         requirements
                                        1-40
           Introduction
Learning Outcomes:

1. Reviewed National Traffic Crash
   Experience

2. Related Substantive Safety Approach to
   Nominal Safety Applications




                                       1-41
Introduction



 Questions?




               1-42

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:0
posted:6/4/2013
language:Latin
pages:40
lanyuehua lanyuehua http://
About