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Differences at Yalta (Stalin, FDR, Churchill) Meeting to discuss the future of Germany (see map for divisions) Roosevelt presses Stalin to declare war on Japan (says he will, once Germany surrenders) Formation of the United Nations April 1945- FDR dies of cerebral hemorrhage Potsdam Conference- Truman and Stalin’s first meeting. Truman tells Stalin about our atom bomb that has been tested (he already knew thanks to Soviet spies). United States wants to spread democracy around Europe and Asia. USSR- lost 17 million people in WWII and want to rebuild in ways that will protect their own interests. Satellite Nations- Countries subject to Soviet domination on the western boarder of Soviet Union that would serve as a buffer zone against attacks. Looked forward to seeing the spread of communism. They refused to cooperated with the World Bank or IMF (intended to help build a strong capitalist economy) Term coined by Churchill Describes the division between communist and non communist life. Term coined by George Kennan (American diplomat) Truman’s foreign policy Kennan recognized that Eastern Europe was already lost to communism. He called for the U.S. to resist soviet attempts to form communist governments elsewhere. 1947 speech before Congress Called for the U.S. to take a leadership role Declared that the U.S. would support nations threatened by communism. George C. Marshall, 1947 AKA: European Recovery Plan Called for nations of Europe to draw up a program for economic recovery from the war. The U.S. would support the program with financial aid. Soviet Union was invited to participate but refused. 17 Western European nations joined. More than $13 billion in grants from U.S. 1948, Western allies announced plans to make the zones they controlled in Germany into a single unit. Britain, France & U.S. make their zones the Republic of Germany (West Germany). Berlin (which is in Eastern Germany) is also divided into two parts and split between the Western allies and the Soviet Union. The Soviets form the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). Thousands of E. Europeans were leaving their homes in communist dominated nations. Stalin wanted to close the escape route by forcing the Western powers to abandon western Berlin. In 1948, the Soviets blocked allied access to Western Berlin. All shipments through east Germany were banned. This blockade threatened the people of West Berlin. Truman decides on an airlift For the next 15 months, British and American military aircraft make more than 200,000 flights to deliver food, fuel and other supplies. May 1949, Soviets give up their blockade (airlift ends in September). By this time the Marshall Plan has helped achieve economic stability in western Europe. North Atlantic Treaty Organization April 1949 Collective security An alliance of nations that agreed to band together in the event of war and to support and protect each nation involved. “An armed attack against one or more of them.. Shall be considered an attack on all”. Soviet Union responds by creating the Warsaw Pact– military alliance with satellite nations in Eastern Europe, in 1955. Two events heightened America’s concerns: Soviet Union successfully tests atomic bomb. ▪ This would lead to the U.S. developing the Hydrogen bomb (1952) ▪ Truman also organized the Federal Civil Defense Administration (defense of nuclear attacks). Communist forces take over China (struggle between Nationalists and Communists that had been going on since 1920) People’s Republic of China created (1949) ▪ Created a greater effort to protect the rest of Asia. During the Great Depression, thousands of Americans joined the Communist party (legal organization). After WWII people started moving away from communism (because of Stalin, and the economy was improving in the U.S.). These things lead to the Second Red Scare (an anti-communist crusade that violated American’s civil liberties) 1947, Truman establishes Federal Employee Loyalty Program which would require federal employees to be investigated for suspicious activity. HUAC- House of Un-American Activities Committee. A committee of the U.S. House, created in 1938 to investigate alleged disloyalty. Hollywood Ten In October 1947, 10 members of the Hollywood film industry publicly denounced the tactics employed by the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), during its probe of alleged communist influence in the American motion picture business. These prominent screenwriters and directors, who became known as the Hollywood Ten, received jail sentences and were banned from working for the major Hollywood studios. Their defiant stands also placed them at center stage in a national debate over the controversial anti-communist crackdown that swept through the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s.. Reaffirmed the quota system for each country (est. in 1924). Discriminated against potential immigrants from Asia and from South and Central Europe. Alger Hiss- High ranking State Dept. official The Times editor, Whittaker Chambers (also a former communist), accused Hiss of being a communist in the 30s. Hiss denied the charge, sued Chambers and then Chambers comes out and says that Hiss was also a Soviet spy. Hiss was convicted of lying to a federal grand jury and was sentenced to four years in prison. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg U.S. citizens, married couple, members of the Communist party. They were accused of passing atomic secrets to the Soviets during WWII (espionage). Convicted and executed in 1953. Ethel may not have been guilty (proven later). In the 1920s the Nationalist party was led by Jiang Jieshi who gained strength in the North. The southeastern part of China was led by Mao Zedong (Communist). These two cooperated during WWII to resist Japan. Mao Zedong- redistributed land to peasants and offered them health care and schooling. This led to support and power by 1949. Jiang Jieshi lost support because of high taxes, harsh treatment and corruption. He and the nationalists eventually fled to Taiwan. Prior to WWI, Japan annexed the Korean Peninsula. Japan’s rule of Korea was harsh. 1945, Korea was divided along the 38th parallel. Communist in the North Pro-American/democratic in the South America’s “forgotten war” June 1950, war broke out when North Korean troops streamed across the 38th parallel (non- communist area). Why? They were determined to reunite Korea by force. 1949, U.S. blocked Communist China’s administration to the U.N. Douglas MacArthur would lead U.N. forces in Korea (starting in 1950) MacArthur wanted the S. Korean nationalists in Taiwan to come to the mainland and help fight. By the end of it, MacArthur was fired for insubordination. Truce in 1953- leaving Korea divided at the same place it was 4 years earlier (38th parallel). 54,000 soldiers killed (103,000 wounded) for limited results. 1948- integration of the Armed Forces (Truman) Huge increase in military spending Military- industrial complex- employed 3.5 million Americans by 1960. Joseph McCarthy- U.S. Senator for Wisconsin Declares that 205 people were communists and currently working for the State Department. McCarthyism was his “claim to fame.” He was re-elected and became Chairman of Investigations Subcommittee. People started fearing McCarthy. He lost many supporters because of his bullying tactics and baseless allegations Like the first Red Scare, this one subsides by 1954. 1953- Eisenhower Eisenhower’s Secretary of State, John Dulles was a harsh anti-communist. He thought Truman’s containment policy was too cautious. He called for a policy to roll back communism where it had already taken hold. Stalin dies in 1953 Vietnam is divided at the 14th parallel- Communist North, anti-communist South. The Cold War competition between the United States and the Soviet Union for primacy in the exploration of outer space. The space race was prompted by the USSR’s launch of the first orbiting space satellite, Sputnik I , in 1957. The Sputnik launch prompted President Eisenhower to form NASA and Kennedy to push for a lunar landing by the end of the 1960s.
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