Cold War PowerPoint - TeacherWeb by wuyyok

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									   Differences at Yalta (Stalin, FDR, Churchill)
     Meeting to discuss the future of Germany (see map
      for divisions)
     Roosevelt presses Stalin to declare war on Japan (says
      he will, once Germany surrenders)
     Formation of the United Nations
   April 1945- FDR dies of cerebral hemorrhage
   Potsdam Conference- Truman and Stalin’s first
    meeting.
     Truman tells Stalin about our atom bomb that has
      been tested (he already knew thanks to Soviet spies).
   United States wants to spread democracy
    around Europe and Asia.
   USSR- lost 17 million people in WWII and want to
    rebuild in ways that will protect their own
    interests.
     Satellite Nations- Countries subject to Soviet
      domination on the western boarder of Soviet Union
      that would serve as a buffer zone against attacks.
     Looked forward to seeing the spread of communism.
      They refused to cooperated with the World Bank or
      IMF (intended to help build a strong capitalist
      economy)
   Term coined by Churchill
   Describes the division between communist
    and non communist life.
   Term coined by George Kennan (American
    diplomat)
   Truman’s foreign policy
   Kennan recognized that Eastern Europe was
    already lost to communism. He called for the
    U.S. to resist soviet attempts to form
    communist governments elsewhere.
   1947 speech before Congress
   Called for the U.S. to take a leadership role
   Declared that the U.S. would support nations
    threatened by communism.
   George C. Marshall, 1947
   AKA: European Recovery Plan
   Called for nations of Europe to draw up a
    program for economic recovery from the war.
    The U.S. would support the program with
    financial aid.
   Soviet Union was invited to participate but
    refused.
   17 Western European nations joined.
   More than $13 billion in grants from U.S.
   1948, Western allies announced plans to
    make the zones they controlled in Germany
    into a single unit.
   Britain, France & U.S. make their zones the
    Republic of Germany (West Germany). Berlin
    (which is in Eastern Germany) is also divided
    into two parts and split between the Western
    allies and the Soviet Union.
   The Soviets form the German Democratic
    Republic (East Germany).
   Thousands of E. Europeans were leaving their homes in
    communist dominated nations.
   Stalin wanted to close the escape route by forcing the
    Western powers to abandon western Berlin. In 1948, the
    Soviets blocked allied access to Western Berlin. All
    shipments through east Germany were banned. This
    blockade threatened the people of West Berlin.
   Truman decides on an airlift
   For the next 15 months, British and American military
    aircraft make more than 200,000 flights to deliver food,
    fuel and other supplies.
   May 1949, Soviets give up their blockade (airlift ends in
    September). By this time the Marshall Plan has helped
    achieve economic stability in western Europe.
   North Atlantic Treaty Organization
   April 1949
   Collective security
   An alliance of nations that agreed to band
    together in the event of war and to support and
    protect each nation involved.
   “An armed attack against one or more of them..
    Shall be considered an attack on all”.
   Soviet Union responds by creating the Warsaw
    Pact– military alliance with satellite nations in
    Eastern Europe, in 1955.
   Two events heightened America’s concerns:
     Soviet Union successfully tests atomic bomb.
      ▪ This would lead to the U.S. developing the Hydrogen
        bomb (1952)
      ▪ Truman also organized the Federal Civil Defense
        Administration (defense of nuclear attacks).
     Communist forces take over China (struggle
      between Nationalists and Communists that had
      been going on since 1920)  People’s Republic of
      China created (1949)
      ▪ Created a greater effort to protect the rest of Asia.
   During the Great Depression, thousands of
    Americans joined the Communist party (legal
    organization). After WWII people started
    moving away from communism (because of
    Stalin, and the economy was improving in the
    U.S.).
   These things lead to the Second Red Scare
    (an anti-communist crusade that violated
    American’s civil liberties)
   1947, Truman establishes Federal Employee
    Loyalty Program which would require federal
    employees to be investigated for suspicious
    activity.
   HUAC- House of Un-American Activities
    Committee. A committee of the U.S. House,
    created in 1938 to investigate alleged
    disloyalty.
     Hollywood Ten
   In October 1947, 10 members of the Hollywood film
    industry publicly denounced the tactics employed by the
    House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), during
    its probe of alleged communist influence in the American
    motion picture business.
   These prominent screenwriters and directors, who
    became known as the Hollywood Ten, received jail
    sentences and were banned from working for the major
    Hollywood studios. Their defiant stands also placed them
    at center stage in a national debate over the controversial
    anti-communist crackdown that swept through the United
    States in the late 1940s and early 1950s..
   Reaffirmed the quota system for each
    country (est. in 1924).
   Discriminated against potential immigrants
    from Asia and from South and Central
    Europe.
   Alger Hiss-
     High ranking State Dept. official
     The Times editor, Whittaker Chambers (also a
      former communist), accused Hiss of being a
      communist in the 30s. Hiss denied the charge,
      sued Chambers and then Chambers comes out
      and says that Hiss was also a Soviet spy.
     Hiss was convicted of lying to a federal grand jury
      and was sentenced to four years in prison.
   Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
   U.S. citizens, married couple, members of the
    Communist party.
   They were accused of passing atomic secrets
    to the Soviets during WWII (espionage).
   Convicted and executed in 1953.
   Ethel may not have been guilty (proven later).
 In the 1920s the Nationalist party was led by
  Jiang Jieshi who gained strength in the North.
  The southeastern part of China was led by Mao
  Zedong (Communist). These two cooperated
  during WWII to resist Japan.
 Mao Zedong- redistributed land to peasants and
  offered them health care and schooling. This led
  to support and power by 1949.
 Jiang Jieshi lost support because of high taxes,
  harsh treatment and corruption. He and the
  nationalists eventually fled to Taiwan.
   Prior to WWI, Japan annexed the Korean
    Peninsula.
   Japan’s rule of Korea was harsh.
   1945, Korea was divided along the 38th
    parallel.
     Communist in the North
     Pro-American/democratic in the South
   America’s “forgotten war”
   June 1950, war broke out when North Korean
    troops streamed across the 38th parallel (non-
    communist area).
   Why? They were determined to reunite Korea
    by force.
 1949, U.S. blocked Communist China’s
  administration to the U.N.
 Douglas MacArthur would lead U.N. forces in
  Korea (starting in 1950)
 MacArthur wanted the S. Korean nationalists in
  Taiwan to come to the mainland and help fight.
 By the end of it, MacArthur was fired for
  insubordination.
 Truce in 1953- leaving Korea divided at the same
  place it was 4 years earlier (38th parallel).
   54,000 soldiers killed (103,000 wounded) for
    limited results.
   1948- integration of the Armed Forces
    (Truman)
   Huge increase in military spending
   Military- industrial complex- employed 3.5
    million Americans by 1960.
 Joseph McCarthy- U.S. Senator for Wisconsin
 Declares that 205 people were communists and
  currently working for the State Department.
 McCarthyism was his “claim to fame.” He was
  re-elected and became Chairman of
  Investigations Subcommittee.
 People started fearing McCarthy. He lost many
  supporters because of his bullying tactics and
  baseless allegations
 Like the first Red Scare, this one subsides by
  1954.
   1953- Eisenhower
   Eisenhower’s Secretary of State, John Dulles
    was a harsh anti-communist. He thought
    Truman’s containment policy was too
    cautious. He called for a policy to roll back
    communism where it had already taken hold.
   Stalin dies in 1953
   Vietnam is divided at the 14th parallel-
    Communist North, anti-communist South.
   The Cold War competition between the
    United States and the Soviet Union for
    primacy in the exploration of outer space. The
    space race was prompted by the USSR’s
    launch of the first orbiting space satellite,
    Sputnik I , in 1957. The Sputnik launch
    prompted President Eisenhower to form
    NASA and Kennedy to push for a lunar
    landing by the end of the 1960s.

								
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