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					Bayerische Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg Institut f. Anglistik und Amerikanistik Einführung in die Englische Literaturwissenschaft Dr. Birgit Däwes, M.A.

Etymology: * Lat. 'litteratura'; 'littera' = "letter" Webster definition: 1. the profession of an author; production of writings [. . . ] 2. a) all writings in prose or verse, esp. those of an imaginative or critical character, without regard to their excellence: often distinguished from scientific writing, news reporting, etc. b) all of such writings considered as having permanent value, excellence of form, great emotional effect, etc. c) all the writings of a particular time, country, region, etc., specif. those regarded as having lasting value because of their beauty, imagination, etc. [American literature] d) all the writings dealing with a particular subject [the medical literature] [. . . ] 3. [Colloq.] printed matter of any kind, as advertising, campaign leaflets, etc. FUNCTIONS OF LITERATURE  entertainment / pleasure  information  education / guidance / instruction - universal experience - moral guidelines  political: support / criticism of ideologies  change (personal, social, political, etc.)  self-sufficient , self-reflexive (l'art pour l'art)

SEMIOTICS (theory of the sign) Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) Cours de Linguistique Générale Model of the sign:

letters / sound: (c-a-t) image :




etymology: definition: 'metrical feet' 1. forms (feet):
iambus (iambic) trochee (trochaic) dactyl (dactylic) – – 

Gk, "metron" = "measure" the pattern of stressed (–) and unstressed () syllables in verse. = elements that compose a metrical line examples:
avoid; now I don't know why you are here

happen; there you / are, my / dearest

–   merrily; just for a / handful of / silver

anapest (anapestic)   – underneath: and the light / on their feet spondee (spondaic) –– "help, help!"; "as much as three men"

2. numbers of feet
1 2 3 4 5 Monometer Dimeter Trimeter Tetrameter Pentameter 6 Hexameter 7 Heptameter 8 Octameter (9 Nonameter) (10 Decameter)

Trochee  trips from  long to short. From long  to long  in solemn sort. Slow spondee stalks;  strong foot  yet illable Ever to  come up with the  dactyl trisyllable Iambics march from short  to long. With a leap and a bound  the swift anapaest's throng.
(by Samuel Taylor Coleridge)


rhyme (patterns) etymology: definition: OF "rime" = series "the exact repetition of sounds (or letters)" a structural device in poetry

patterns: a) internal rhyme (within a line):

alliteration (consonants) assonance (vowels) abab aabb abba

b) end rhyme 1. Crossed rhyme 2. Consecutive / parallel rhyme 3. Embracing rhyme c) eye rhyme (same letters, different sound)

e.g. rate - moderate Blake: worm – storm

d) slant rhyme / half rhyme


1. etymology: Italian "sonetto" = little sound / song 2. definition: a traditional form of lyric poetry with 14 lines 3. history: origin  13th century (Italy) development  Petrarcha (1304-1374) in England:  introduced by Sir Thomas Wyatt (16th c.) Forms: I. Italian / Petrarchan sonnet 2 parts, no rhyming couplet: 8+6 octave + sestet abbabba + cde cde or: cdcdcd II. English forms: a) Spenserian sonnet 3x4 +2 3 quatrains + couplet, crossed rhyme: abab / bcbc / cdcd / ee

b) Shakespearean sonnet 3x4 +2 3 quatrains + couplet: abab / cdcd / efef / gg conclusion application final comment (on preceding lines)

function of couplet :


1. etymology: 2. definition: Gk. "ode" = song a long lyric poem, elaborate and formal, originally intended to be sung

3. Characteristics:  elaborate structure  formal style  large amount of decorum  solemn language public ode  ceremonial occasions (funerals, birthdays, state events) private ode  subjective or personal occasions 4. History origin: development:

Greek antiquity, c. 600 BC (Sappho) Pindar (Pindaric ode), Horace (Horatian ode) Italian Renaissance 17th c.: introduced to England (Spenser) Romanticism! (Irregular ode)

5. Themes:  commemoration  celebration of an object, an occasion, a quality, a person e.g. on God, truth, religion, state, nature, art, friendship 6. Famous Examples: Shelley, "Ode to the West Wind" (1819) Keats, "Ode to a Nightingale" (1819)

1. etymology: Lat./ Italian "ballare" = to dance 2. definition: a narrative song or poem, originally intended as accompaniment to dance

3. history: origin development

Greek antiquity, in Europe: Middle Ages 16th / 17th centuries

4. characteristics * abrupt beginning * simple language * story told through dialogue and action * (often) tragic theme * (often) refrain * mostly short stanzas 5. types: a) folk ballad (traditional): anonymous oral tradition  many variations rural background b) popular ballad : similar to folk ballad but: urban background not anonymous (written by one poet)

c) literary ballad:

example: Samuel Taylor Coleridge, "Rime of the Ancient Mariner"

1. etymology: 2. definition: an Gk, 'lament', 'song of mourning' a lyric poem of lamentation for the dead, individual, or a tragic event 3. history origin Greek antiquity (on various subjects) since 16th century: in present meaning 4. characteristics:  ubi sunt motif ("where are they?")  transience  general reflections on life and death  often ending with consolation (renewal, joy, hope) 5. forms: pastoral elegy (shepherds, nature) dirge (sung at a funeral service) 6. famous examples:  Edmund Spenser, "Elegy for Sir Philip Sidney" (1586)  Milton, Lycidas (pastoral elegy, 1637)  Thomas Gray, "Elegy Written in A Country Churchyard" (1750)  W. H. Auden "Funeral Blues" (1980s)


STYLISTIC DEVICES Simile Lat. "similis" = a direct / explicit comparison ("like"; "as") e.g.: "My love is like a red red rose"

Metaphor [substitution]
Origin: Gk. "carrying from one place to another" Def.: * figure of speech in which one thing is described in terms of another * implicit comparison of unlike terms e.g. "that woman is a cat" daffodils "dancing" in the breeze

Metonymy [association]
Origin: Gk "name change" Def.: * the name of an attribute is substituted for the thing itself (designates sth. by sth. associated with it) * implicit comparison of like terms e.g. "The Stage" = theatrical profession "The Crown" = monarchy "The White House" = US govt. "reading Shakespeare" = reading his works

TENOR & VEHICLE: tenor: keeps its meaning (primary term) vehicle: takes on a figurative meaning (secondary term) "love is a rose" (tenor) (vehicle) the road of life (vehicle) (tenor)

origin: Gk, "taking up together" definition: a part stands for the whole (pars pro toto) or vice versa (totum pro parte)  something else is understood within the thing mentioned. forms / examples: a) pars pro toto: using a narrower term e.g. "longhorn" = cattle, "hands" = sailors ("All hands on deck!") b) totum pro parte: using a broader term e.g. "England" = the English football team ("England wins against Denmark") c) genus representing species (or vice versa) e.g. genus = "steel" stands for "sword" (= species)

origin: Gk. "symballein" = to throw together "symbolon" = token, sign (in antiquity: of a contract) definition: an object (something concrete) or image that stands for a concept (something abstract) public symbol: universally understood e.g. "dove"  peace; "ring"  marriage; "heart" or "rose"  love (also colors: "white"  innocence) private symbol: created by one person

origin: Gk. litós = "single, simple" litotes = meagreness definition: - a figure of speech by which an affirmation is made indirectly by denying its opposite - a positive (emphatic) statement made by denying something negative (double negation)  effect: emphasis, understatement (more polite) examples: not bad = very good in no small measure = large


DRAMA: Origins and Theory Drama:
Gk, "an action" > dran = to do: "A literary composition that tells a story, usually of human conflict, by means of dialogue and action, to be performed by actors; a play" (Webster's) "the art of representing for the pleasure of others events that happened or that we imagine happening." (Jacobus, Lee. Bedford Introduction to Drama. Boston: St. Martin's, 1997)

Elements of Drama:
1. Figures / Figure Constellations - number of figures and interrelations - static or dynamic? (do they change?) - protagonist / antagonist / (recurrent) oppositions (young/old, male/female etc.)  Configurations: which figures on stage together? 2. Communication - communication patterns (inner and outer system of communication) - Dialogue on stage: power relations: symmetrical (equal speakers) or asymmetrical? - non-verbal communication: pantomime, symbolic setting, music, lights, use of media, etc. 3. Action / Plot - plot = the pattern of cause and effect; story = the events as they can be retold - direct (visual, acting) or indirect (verbal, dialogue, reporting, "inner" developments) - conflict: inner (inside characters) or outer (between figures) 4. Setting a) Space - visual (stage design, props, costumes, pantomime) (Nebentext) - verbal (spoken): a character says "open the door" (Haupttext) b) Time - acting time (how long does the play take to act)/ acted time (fictional time) - historical time? - time structure: simultaneity of events? flashbacks? or linear / chronological?

Aristotle (384-322 BC): Poetics
functions of tragedy:  mimesis (imitation of life and/or of a serious action)  effect on audience: catharsis (purification) of eleos (pity) and phobos (fear)  the play arouses these feelings in the audience to 'purify' them from them criteria of tragedy: 3 unities - place (same place) - time (24 hrs) - action (a single continuous story with a coherent cast)


The structure of a tragedy

subdivisions: acts, scenes (I/3)

DEVELOPMENT: Aristotle: no acts, but 3 necessary elements: peripeteia = the turning point (tragic moment) reversal of the protagonist's fortunes (usually from good to bad) anagnorisis = the recognition of a change or of the real relationships / backgrounds (e.g. two men realize they are brothers) catastrophe = final downfall or suffering Horace (65-8BC)  first to insist on 5-act structure

Freytag's Pyramid:
19th century: Gustav Freytag (1816-1895), Die Technik des Dramas (1863) applied Aristotle's elements to a 5-act structure: III) climax * peripeteia (turning point) II) complication IV) falling action

rising action I) exposition

falling action *moment of last suspense

*inciting moment

V) catastrophe

Dramatic Irony
 a situation in which the audience understands the meaning & implications but the characters do not; (Pfister: a discrepancy of knowledge between the inner and outer systems of communication) effects: - double perspective on action - tragic and comic effects are reinforced - tension is heightened


Hamlet (written ~ 1600, first performed ~ 1602)
sources: - Sir Thomas Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy (1585) - Saxo Grammaticus, Historiae Danicae (13th century Danish history) Quarto I (1603)  illegal print, heavily reduced Quarto II (1605) basis for today's editions First Folio (1623) 5-Act-Structure was introduced later (~1676)

Revenge Tragedy
- a tragedy in which someone tries to right a wrong - antique tradition: e.g. Aischylos, Oresteia - established in England by Sir Thomas Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy (1585)  sensational, popular  Hamlet largely based on Kyd's play


origin: comic = Lat. "comicus", Gk. "komikos" < komos = merry-making (term "comic relief": ~1810s) definition: "An amusing scene, incident, or speech introduced into serious, tragic or suspenseful drama to provide temporary relief from tension" a comic episode or interlude aim:  to relieve dramatic tension (audience)  to heighten the tragic effect by contrast  emphasis example: e.g. Independence Day, after the spaceship chase: Will Smith "argues" with an alien

1. Communication / Providing information on stage: a) Dialogue several figures communicating with each other  the most common situation on stage

b) Monologue (dt. "Monolog") origin: Gk. "monologos" = "one is speaking" or "speaking alone" definition:  a scene in a play in which a character speaks by himself or herself  a solo address (to the audience, to other characters or to nobody in particular) during which other characters are present on stage and usually listening!) n.b.: do not confuse with dramatic monologue: = a poem in which one imaginary speaker is addressing an imaginary audience - depiction of a plot / situation only through the eyes of the speaker - e.g.: Browning "Fra Lippo Lippi"

c) Soliloquy (dt. "Selbstgespräch") origin: Lat. "solus" = alone + "loqui" = to speak definition: a speech (of some length) in which the character utters thoughts and feelings aloud  the character is alone on stage!  the revelation of inner processes / feelings / thoughts is only to the audience! effect:


- information of the audience - self-revelation of motive - putting inner conflict into words  realization (character him/herself + audience)

d) aside monologic aside: a few words heard only by the audience (with other figures present) usual stage direction: "aside" dialogic aside: a few words spoken from one figure to another (several figures present) usual stage direction: "aside to x" aside ad spectatores: a few words in which a figure addresses the audience directly usual stage direction: "to the audience" or "addressing the audience" 2. Mediation of action and information a) simultaneous dialogue and action e.g.: V/2/ 277 ff.: Ham. Come on, sir. Laer. Come, my lord. They play. Ham. One. Laer. No. Ham. Judgment. Osr. A hit, a very palpable hit. Laer. Well, again. ... Ham. Come. They play again. Another hit. What say you? b) messenger report definition: a figure reports what happened before or elsewhere (a messenger, TV or radio) c) teichoscopy (dt. "Mauerschau") origin: Gk "teichos" = wall + Gk "skopein" = to look definition: one figure is on stage (in an elevated position) and reports what is simultaneously happening elsewhere (e.g. looking out of a window, on the phone, etc.)



England around 1600
1. Political system: monarchy Elizabeth I (1558-1603) / Tudor  Protestant, moderate James I (1603-1625) / Stuart  Catholic courtiers (e.g. Sir Walter Raleigh) clergy: still very powerful population of London in 1605: 224,000 2. Chronology: 1559 Act of Supremacy: Unity of church and government! 1571 Thirty-Nine Articles: Elizabeth connects conventional Catholic rites / administration with Protestant beliefs 1584 first colony in America (Roanoke island) 1588 victory of English fleet over Spanish Armada (England as dominant sea power) 1600 East Indian Company  trade! 1603 First Stuart King (James I), personal union of England & Scotland 1620 Pilgrim Fathers (New England)

Elizabeth I

James I

1625 Charles I (-1649, executed by Oliver Cromwell) 1628 Petition of Rights (no taxes without approval of Parliament) 1642 beginning of Civil War (1642-1649); Roundheads (Puritans) vs. Cavaliers (Royalists)

Charles I

3. Themes: - moderate Protestantism = "middle of the road" between Catholics & Puritans  internally: peaceful times - Restoration = 1603 until 1689 (Glorious Revolution) - expansion!  England as dominant sea power (1588 defeat of the Spanish Armada)  settlement of the "New World"  economy: trade rivals: France, Spain (also Portugal & Netherlands)



the Renaissance
Renaissance: rise (1500-1558)

height (1558-1603)

decline (1603-49)

- revival of Greek and Roman art forms - humanism (the human figure and reason at the center) - golden age of drama!

  only 10 % of the people were literate!
plays: widespread and popular always seen as a political commentary other writers at the time: Christopher Marlowe Ben Jonson Francis Bacon Sir Walter Raleigh the Queen herself

Elizabethan Theatre (~1560-1610)
Medieval Theatre (15th century): mainly outdoors or at court * Mystery Plays, Morality Plays * amateurs * mobile (on moving platforms with wheels) Now: 1570s: The Rose, The Theatre (1576)  the first buildings for the purpose! Elizabethan Theatre:  movie Shakespeare in Love (authenticity)  a separate institution!  development of professional actors (but not a well-respected profession)  public entertainment for the masses, across all classes  still: open air (daylight!)  no roof on the theater (performances mainly at 2 p.m.)  circular or octogonal buildings, stage in the middle of the audience  room for 1500-3000 people  concrete situation: actors in touch with audience (no curtain)  "Companies": 10-15 full members, no women allowed!  usually sponsored by a patron of aristocratic rank


Plays:  after Greek / Latin models; function: to mirror life (mimesis)  all plays performed in London had to be approved by the Queen  history plays (out of mystery play: secular, national, but still in light of religion)  morality plays (allegories on the struggle between good and evil)  parodies / carnivalesque (the world order is turned upside down)  humanistic educational ideals  strong appeal to imagination 1642 Puritans closed all theaters

The Globe (a.k.a. "The Wooden O") (Henry V)
Name: because it was round but also: emblematic for the mimetic purpose: to show the world Chronology: 1576 J. Burbage built "The Theatre" dispute between Burbage and owner of estate: building taken down again 1599 "The Globe" erected south of Thames (out of wood of "The Theatre") 1613 Burned down (during performance of Henry VIII) Rebuilt in the same location (completed in 1614) 1642 Puritans closed all theatres 1644 "The Globe" finally pulled down New Globe: 1990s reconstructed in London!  virtual tour! The Building: - round - three-story structure - room for ~ 3000 spectators stage = a platform (with trap doors), extended into audience, 2 large doors on either side various levels: galleries, ground floor, upper stage, top floor, etc. close contact between audience and actors  audience actively involved!


Lat. "narrare" = to tell Webster: 1. a person who relates a story 2. a person who reads narrative passages in a play


Lat. "augere" = to increase > auctor = enlarger Webster: 1. a person who makes/ originates sth. 2. a writer of a book / article etc.

narrator = a constructed voice!

author = a historical person

Narrative Perspectives / Narrative Situations
the position / point of view from which the events of a story are observed and presented. narration: "who speaks?" focalization: "who perceives?"  Gerard Genette, Narrative Discourse (1980)  S. Rimmon-Kenan, Narrative Fiction (1983) 2. determining narrative situations / points of view / perspectives: - Are events narrated in the first, second, or third person? - Is the narrator / voice covert (hidden) or overt (linked to a persona)? (are there personal pronouns referring to the narrator / addresses to the reader?) - Is the narrator part of or above the characters' world? - How much does the narrator know? 3. Franz Stanzel's model: - a) authorial narrator (usually: omniscient) Lat. "omni + sciens" = knowing all - narrator above the plot; beyond the characters' world - knows everything (or more than characters can know) - free to move in time and place and among characters (reports their thoughts, motives, etc.) - overt: intrusive comments, reader addresses -

b) personal narrator (3rd person limited)
narrator as part of the plot (usually invisible, implicit) tells the story in 3rd person, confined to what one (or a limited number of) character(s) experience(s), including thoughts, feelings, etc. Henry James: this character as "the center of consciousness" in the novel

- c) I-narrator (1st person limited)
- narrator as part of the plot, usually a character - the point of view is limited to the experience of one character ("Erzählerfigur) different forms: I-as-protagonist (central character): e.g. Twain, Huck Finn Patrick Bateman in B.E. Ellis's American Psycho I-as-witness: (observer) e.g. Marlow in Heart of Darkness; Nick Carraway in Fitzgerald's Great Gatsby; or Ishmael in Moby-Dick


story time (narrated time)
erzählte Zeit the time in the story, covered by the plot

discourse time (narration time)
Erzählzeit the time it takes to tell, read, or watch a story

the relationship between story time and discourse time (between the duration of that which is narrated and the length of the narrative) longer time covered by: - time lapse (Zeitraffung) / fast motion - omissions (leaving out parts)  Zeitsprünge 1. in classis novels: much shorter than narrated time (e.g. Entwicklungsroman)  summary 2. in modernism: as long as narrated time (e.g. Mrs. Dalloway) stream of consciousness  scene 3. longer than narrated time: several versions of the same incident are told (e.g.Dos Passos, Manhattan Transfer)  stretch




structural devices in fiction used when narrative is not linear element from the past - is inserted to explain present events element from the future -later events are prepared / indicated before they happen  creation of suspense form: entire plot lines or just suggestions, symbols, colors, etc. e.g. Hamlet: Ophelia's death or Poe, "House of Usher" "with the first glimpse of the building, a sense of insufferable gloom pervaded my spirit"

- form: entire plot lines or just brief thoughts (or words) e.g. Bierce, "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge"

 Literature for Narratology: Genette, Gérard. Narrative Discourse: An Essay in Method. Oxford: Blackwell, 1980. Holman, Clarence. A Handbook to Literature. New York: Odyssey Press, 1960. Nünning, Ansgar und Vera Nünning. Grundkurs anglistisch-amerikanistische Literaturwissenschaft. Stuttgart: Klett, 2001. (Kapitel 5: Einführung in die Erzähltextanalyse). Prince, Gerald. Dictionary of Narratology. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1987.


Rimmon-Kenan, Shlomith. Narrative Discourse. London: Methuen, 1983.

BACKGROUND TO HAWTHORNE'S Scarlet Letter Puritan beliefs
1. origin: Puritanism = movement against the Anglican Church, end of 16th century  based on Calvinist beliefs  aims: reformation of Anglican Church  correspondence of society with divine commandments (e.g. no work or sports on Sundays)  until 1660 (Restoration of Stuarts): Puritanism played a major role in England (Oliver Cromwell!)  1642-1649: Civil War between Puritans & Royalists; 1649 Charles I executed Oliver Cromwell "Lord Protector" 1654-1658, then death) 2. beliefs: name: to purify a) the Anglican church from popish elements (i.e.,Catholic influence) b) their own lives and beliefs

key principles: - absolute sovereignty of God  the universe is God-centered - total depravity of humankind  humans are inherently sinful and can only be rescued by grace - relationship between God and humanity:  Man is duty-bound to God's will  humans have to study the Bible to find out God's will - predestination  humans are chosen ("elected") for salvation or damnation before birth  there is no way of knowing  but: urge to find out (read "signs" such as wealth and success)! concept of history: things repeat themselves  typology there is a "type" for everything in the old testament; this is repeated  Puritans in America believed they were analogous to the New Jerusalem! - sense of mission - "errand into the wilderness" - "city upon a hill"  model function!


Puritanism in New England: Settlements and History
1492 15th and 16th centuries: 1585 1607 Columbus lands on Hispaniola English, French, Spanish and Portuguese expeditions Lost Colony (Roanoke Island), Sir Walter Raleigh Jamestown, Va. (John Smith): first permanent settlement (non-religious!)

PURITAN VENTURES: 1) the separatists: 1609 "Scrooby Group" (Scrooby = town in East Anglia): A group of Puritan separatists flee England for the Netherlands (to escape religious prosecution) 1620 September: they join a group of merchants with a land grant in America  102 people embark on the Mayflower, half of them Puritans  "Pilgrim Fathers" November: landing at the shore of Cape Cod (Mayflower Compact) December: begin to settle down at Plymouth Plantation governor: (from 1621): William Bradford 2) the non-separatists: 1630 flagship Arbella leader: John Winthrop (later governor) Massachusetts Bay Colony founded settlers mostly Puritans  great migration: 700 people / 17 ships founded Boston (largest colony!)

Life in early New England:
- conflicts with Native Americans (wars) - cold winters; often periods of hunger - disputes and power struggles within the communities 1692 Salem Witchcraft Trials over 150 people accused of witchcraft (14 women and 5 men hanged, 1 man pressed to death) judge involved: John Hathorne (ancestor of Nathaniel Hawthorne)




Italian "novella" = tale, piece of news < Lat. novus = "new" "long work of written fiction" "complex story and characters" popular: rise in Italy / Spain (14th c.) in England: end of 16th century then: beginning of 18th century! * minute fidelity (more narrow) * realistic ("the probable") * the present * obviously didactic * outward life (human experience)

<ME < OF "romanz" = to write in Roman "a medieval tale in verse or prose" "knights, chivalry, courtly love"  most popular in 13th century

according to Hawthorne ("Preface", House of the Seven Gables, 1851): * latitude (form + content) * fantastic (more artistic freedom) * the past * subtly didactic * inner life: "truth of the human heart"

The American Renaissance (a.k.a. "New England Renaissance")
when? what? where? who? ~ 1830-1860 the classical age and first period of fame of American Literature"  America's expression of cultural independence from Europe writers based in New England (mainly Boston and New York) philosophy and nature writing: Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nature (1836) Henry David Thoreau, Walden, or, Life in the Woods (1845) fiction: Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter (1850) Herman Melville, Moby-Dick (1851) Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass (poetry; 1855) term: coined by F. O. Mathiessen, American Renaissance (1941) why "Renaissance"?  not narrowly a rebirth but "that was how the writers themselves judged it"  no rebirth of antiquity or older values but America's coming to a first maturity, (comparable to that in Europe around 1500)  America affirming its own heritage in art and culture philosophy: Transcendentalism  pantheism (influence of Asian religions) counterculture:  movement against capitalism, exploitation, manifest destiny, industrialization, etc.) QUESTION: Why can The Scarlet Letter be considered a work of the American Renaissance?


Short Story Theory and Related Terms
short story
definition "a fictional text shorter than the novel or novelette, characteristically developing one single theme, limited in scope and number of characters" problem: classification by length often subjective  difficult

history a very old genre "forefathers": fairytale, fable, myth, legend, parable (e.g. Bible), anecdote, novella, essay development: 14th century: 18th century

19th century

1866 1885

Boccaccio, Decameron (1349-51) Chaucer, Canterbury Tales (1385-1400) Heinrich v. Kleist E.T.A. Hoffmann  influence on British writers USA: Washington Irving, Sketch Book (1819) Nathaniel Hawthorne, Twice-Told Tales (1837) Edgar Allan Poe:  perfected the genre (though he was not the first)  first theory of the short story! short story as first "distinctly" American genre  very popular William G. Simms first uses the term "short story" Brander Matthew, "The Philosophy of the Short-Story"

Further Reading: Short Story Ahrends, Günter. Die amerikanische Kurzgeschichte: Theorie und Entwicklung. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1980. Boynton, Robert W., and Maynard Mack. Introduction to the Short Story. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton / Cook, 1998. Kaylor, Noel Harold, ed. Creative and Critical Approaches to the Short Story. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 1997. Lubbers, Klaus. Typologie der Short Story. 1977. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1989. May, Charles E. The New Short Story Theories. Athens: Ohio UP, 1997.


Gothic Fiction
origin / term: "gothic" = Germanic tribe, 'medieval', later 'macabre' original definition: style of architecture (12th-16th centuries) (pointed arches, very steep roofs  e.g. Cathedral of Cologne) Gothic Fiction when? 1760s- 1820s what? - tales of the macabre, fantastic, strong element of the supernatural - tales of mystery and horror - enclosed and haunted settings: e.g. haunted castles, graveyards, ruins, wild landscapes, dark forests - themes: ruin, decay, imprisonment, cruelty, etc.  mostly: a form of romance! who? first: Tobias Smollett, Ferdinand Count Fathom (1753) Horace Walpole, The Castle of Otranto (1764) Mary Shelley, Frankenstein (1818) Edgar Allan Poe, Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque

stream of consciousness
term: coined by William James (psychologist, brother of Henry, 1842-1910) in Principles of Psychology (1890) = the flow of inner experience in fiction: definition: - technique of depicting the thoughts and feelings that pass through the human mind - a mode of representation of human consciousness focusing on the random flow of thoughts, which attempts "to give a direct quotation of the mind" e.g. by interior monologue [n.b.: distinction in German: innerer Monolog ("ich muss in den Garten") / erlebte Rede (Mußte sie in den Garten?)] textual indicators / markers: - absence of or scarce punctuation - no quotation marks - syntax more or less free ("stream"- like)


Example (stream of consciousness): For heaven's sake, leave your knife alone! she cried to herself in irrepressible irritation; it was his silly unconventionality, his weakness; his lack of the ghost of a notion what any one else was feeling that annoyed her, had always annoyed her; and now at his age, how silly! (from V. Woolf, Mrs. Dalloway) other examples: Arthur Schnitzler, "Leutnant Gustl" (1901) James Joyce, Ulysses (1922) Virginia Woolf, Mrs. Dalloway (1925) all: modernism! William Faulkner, The Sound and the Fury (1931) why in modernism? - away from realism and outward reality - turn of interest toward psychology and the inner life of humans

"I have called a narrator reliable when he speaks for or acts in accordance with the norms of the work (which is to say, the implied author's norms), unreliable when he does not." (Wayne Booth, 1961) Background: Communicational Model of Narration A) Reliable Narration – Narrator –– Story (reliable) set of norms A Story  Narratee Implied  Reader ( (set of norms A)

Implied Author –– (set of norms A)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------B) Unreliable Narration Implied Author –– (set of norms A) – Narrator –– Story (unreliable) Story set of norms B  Narratee Implied  Reader (set of norms A)



problems with definition:  "implied author" hard to identify, vague concept  based on moral norms only  not an objective category  no differentiation of narrator's motivation NÜNNING's redefinition: unreliability but:     semantic characteristic (narrator) text-immanent relational /interactive interpretational strategy (recipient)

 unreliability develops in the process of reception, depending on the reader!  unreliable narration = dramatic irony in prose: (discrepancy between narrator's knowledge & intentions and reader's knowledge & norms) distinction: UNRELIABLE NARRATION * untrustworthy ( implies narrator's intention) * unreliable ( implies narrator's unawareness) Model of Unreliable Narration (based on Nünning): * textual information [Implied Author] –– Story – Narrator –– Story (unreliable) information A r Narratee  actual Reader (knowledge B)

----------------------------------------* external frame of reference-------------------------------------------Motives / Reasons for Unreliable Narration 1. conscious / intentional (untrustworthy) a) cupidity / greed b) psychological / moral deficiency c) strategy of deception 2. sub- or unconscious / unintentional (unreliable) a) mental deficiency b) gullibility c) psychological and moral dullness d) perplexity / lack of information e) innocence 3. combinations of the above


Signals of Unreliability
1.) Textual Indicators 1.1 discrepancies between: - narrator's statements (explicit contradictions) - narrator's statements / actions - self-characterization / external characterization - narrator's statements / unintentional self-exposure - narrated events / narrator's comments - story / discourse (linear events in time sequence / events as narrated) 1.2 accumulations of: - perspectives (contrasting versions) - self-reflexive statements (high degree of subjectivity) - addresses to the narratee (reader) - stylistic signals / emotionally involved (exclamations, ellipses, repetitions) - affirmations of trustworthiness 1.3 admissions of: - untrustworthiness - lack of memory - cognitive limits - bias of opinion 1.4 correctional elements - other characters' statements - body language 1.5 paratextual signals - title, subtitle, preface, etc. 2. Contextual Frames of Reference ("reliable compared to..."): 2.1 Reality - general knowledge on the world - historical model of reality - theories of personality - moral and ethical values of society - individual values of the reader 2.2 Literary Conventions - general literary conventions - genre conventions - intertextuality (references to pretexts) - literary stereotypes and conventional figures