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					Writing in AMA
     Style
               Presented by
          Michael Frizell, Director
            the Writing Center
            AMA                      The skinny…
Manual of Style, 10th Edition   n   Cost: $50 to $60
                                n   Weighs 4.2 lbs
                                n   1,032 pages
                                n   Amazon.com Reviews:
                                    n “Style manuals are written either for editors 
                                      or for authors, rarely for both. The AMA 
                                      manual is a text only editors could love, it 
                                      serves the interests of authors mostly as 
                                      an afterthought.”       – Dr. Abel Scribe
                                    n “…it never seems to fail that what I am 
                                      looking for, I can't find. The Index could 
                                      use quite a bit of work. In addition, this text 
                                      is quite expensive, in my humble opinion. 
                                      ..this text is "A Necessary Evil."  -- David 
                                      Wexler, “Edit Ink”
    A review from “Doc
    Scribe”…
n From the preface: "I never cease to be amazed by the general 
  inability of physicians, other health professionals, and scientists to 
  communicate through the written word. Their scholarly and creative 
  ideas and insightful data interpretation of them seem to get lost in 
  the translation from brain to page" (p. v). 
n The quality of medical writing has dramatically improved since a 
  young Dr. Michael Crichton (Jurassic Park, tv's ER) wrote in the 
  pages of the New England Journal that "medical writing is bad, but 
  its functions are perfectly understandable as a display of scientific 
  [editorial?] profundity, not as an attempt to communicate 
  experience" (December 11, 1975;293:1257-1259). 
n Apparently this malaise, and foot-in-mouth disease to boot, now 
  afflicts the AMA's editors. 
n Curmudgeoning aside, is the 1000-page text usable? …if you are 
  looking for guidance on the most common problems confronted by 
  a writer, you have a monumental task before you.
     Final
   Manuscripts
       GOAL:
nt a paper in a format familiar to persons
    who read medical literature.
               Text page format of essays
n Fonts
   n 12-point or 10-point font. There is no requirement for the typeface. A serif font is commonly 
      used in publication (eg, times roman). 
n Indents
   n One-half inch
n Spacing
   n Double space throughout unless instructed otherwise, such as: 
   n Single space within the abstract, notes, titles and headings, block quotes, tables and figures, 
      and references (everything but the main text), double space before and after each single 
      spaced block. 
   n Block paragraph spacing is recommended for final manuscripts. 
n Page numbers 
   n Every page of a research paper is numbered consecutively starting with the title page. Do 
      not change numbering systems through the text, even with lengthy data sets or appendixes.
n Emphasis
   n Italics
         Style of Essay Titles, Headings and
         Subheadings Format
                         Title and Major Section
                             Centered or Flush Left
                              Title Case Applies

FIRST LEVEL HEADING
                                   Flush Left
                                   Full Caps

Second Level Heading
                                   Flush Left
                                   Title Case

      Third Level Heading
                                     Indent
                                   Title Case

         NOTE: The third level heading is a run-in or paragraph heading
          In the text…

                                             Important:
n Reference authors with superscripts 
  numbered consecutively. 
n Reference authors in the text each 
  time they are mentioned. Use the             Give only the surname(s) of the
  same number for a given author as            author(s) when mentioning the
  the first time that author was cited.       author(s). If a reference has more
                                                than two authors, use only the

   EXAMPLE:                                  surname of the first author followed
                                            by "et al." If a reference has only two
                                                       authors, list both.
Jones,1 Smith2(p.315) and Garcia                           Writing Tip:
and Zabihi3                                 Journal requirements may vary according
                                            to the journal. Departments may also vary
                                            in their requirements. JADA, for example,
  n Consecutive #’s                          omits page numbers and superscript and
  n Superscripts                           places the reference number in parentheses.
                                                            Example: (2)
            In the text…
n If a reference is cited more than once, and separate parts of the reference are 
  used, place the page number in parenthesis following the superscript citation. 
  Always give the page number when using a direct quote. 
    n EXAMPLE:
    n Jones and her colleagues base the treatment approach on more conservative and traditional 
      norms.2(p.95),4-7
multi
of a 
parts 
other 
rate 
sepa
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and 
s 
ence
refer
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ecuti
cons
rate 
sepa
ens 
Hyph
ns. 
colo
semi
and 
ns 
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   O
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                                              • In text references 
                    Journal                     often use the 
                                                reference number 
                   Variation                    and omit the page(s)
          Direct Quotes in the Paper
   Direct quotes (in ? marks) must be cited with the
               appropriate reference #
n EXAMPLE:                          n EXAMPLE:
n The report further cited          n He points out that although 
  "lingering confusion about          these works are at risk for 
  the vaccination program's           "traumatic injuries, noise-
  aims."22(p5-6)                      induced hearing loss, needle 
                                      sticks, hydrogen sulfide and 
n NOTE:                               carbon monoxide poisonings, 
   n Superscript                      and infectious diseases,"16(p586) 
   n Lack of spacing between          respiratory illness is the most 
     citation and text                recognized occupational risk.
   n Reuse original number when     n Note:
     citing the same source more        n Space AFTER the citation when it 
                                          interrupts text.
     than once
       In the text….personal
       communication…
                                                         D !
n …is only cited within 
  the text, not the 
                                                  SE
                                          EXAMPLE ONE:
                                               IA
                                 In a thought-provoking conversation
  reference list.                          B
                                 with P. Jafari, MD (June 2005)…
  n It’s unpublished!                     EXAMPLE TWO:
  n It’s unrecoverable data!     According to the drug manufacturer
                                 (P. Jafari, President, Pharmacorp;
          • Highest


          • Mode of


          • Date of

                                 oral communication; January, 2005),
            • Establishes 
            Recommended
            Academic Degree

            • Written, Oral
            communication

            • Month, Year
            communication
              reliability 
              credibility and 




                                 news reports of unethical drug
For
ma




                                 trials…
 t




                                           REMEMBER:
                                  No Citation Number is Necessary!
More personal
communication formats.
          n In a conversation with Dr. Awilda 
            Haskins, PT, EdD (August 2005). 
            . .
          n According to a letter from Dr. 
            Awilda Haskins, PT, EdD in 
            August 2005. . . 
          n Similar findings have been noted 
            by Dr. Awilda Haskins, PT, EdD 
            (written communication, August 
            2005). . .
          n According to the author (Dr. 
            Awilda Haskins, PT, EdD, oral 
            communication, August 2005). . 
            . 
       Reference List Basics
n Present references in 
  the order cited in the 
                                   NOTE:
  paper on a separate       n Works with no more than six (6) 
                              authors: include all authors' 
  page…                       surnames and first and middle 
                              name initials separated by 
n at the end of the           commas. Do not use periods for 
  manuscript…                 initials (e.g. Garcia EF, Zabihi 
                              GH. Transmission …).
n labeled “References”…
                            n Works with seven (7) or more 
n including only those        authors: list only the first three 
  cited in the text.          (3) names followed by "et al" (e.g. 
                              Haskins AR, Himburg SP, 
 Remember: Some Journals      George V, et al. Daring to be…).
      Vary in their
              EXAMPLE: Reference List
                                        References  

1.      Jones AB. Modes of treatment: A traditional approach.  Phys Ther. 1999;80:20-26. 
2.      Smith CD. Transmission modes and treatment approaches. 3rd ed. Miami (FL): 
Florida   
         University Presses; 1999. 
3.      Garcia EF, Zabihi GH. Transmission modes. New York (NY): NYU Press; 
1999:308-338. 
4.      Mohamed IJ. Principles of treatment. In: Needles DD, Thread OE, editors. What
it's all
         about? Putnam (NY): Happy Days Press; 1998:29-39. 
5.      Haskins AR, Himburg SP, George V, et al. Daring to be different: A less traditional 
         style.  Clin Mgmt in Educ. 2000;26(1):9-19. 
6.      Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an 
advisory 
         role. Am J Nurs [serial on the Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 
3 p.]. 
        Available at: http://www.nursingworld.org/AJN/2002/june/Wawatch.htm. Accessed 
January 
       References: BOOKS

                 FORMULA:
n Author(s). Title of book and subtitle (if any). Volume number and
  volume title (when there is more than 1 volume). Edition number
  (do not indicate first edition). Place of publication: Name of
  publisher; Year of copyright.


 Author’s last name and initials
 Chapter titles are included
                                                 NOTE
 Book Title NOT in Title Case (Like This!)
 Volume only if there is more than one
 Punctuation in cite is specific
              Examples: BOOKS
                            BOOK WITH ONE AUTHOR/EDITOR
 n Davis NM. Medical Abbreviations: 26,000 Conveniences at the expense of
   communications and cafety. 12th ed. Huntingdon Valley, PA: Neil M.Davis 
   Associates; 2005:173.
 n McEvoy GK, ed in chief, Snow ED, ed. AHFS: Drug information. Bethesda, MD: 
   American Society of Health-System Pharmacists; 2008:1125-1126.
                     BOOK WITH TWO OR MORE AUTHORS/EDITORS
Aronoff GR, Berns JS, Brier ME, et al. Drug prescribing in renal failure. 4th ed. Philadelphia,
PA: American College of Physicians; 1999:39.

                                   CHAPTER IN A BOOK
Johannsen EC, Madoff LC. Infections of the liver and biliary system. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JC,
Dolin R, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s: Principles and practice of infectious disease. Vol
1. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2005:951-952.
        References: PRINT JOURNALS

                  FORMULA:
n Author(s). Article title. Journal Name. Year;volume:inclusive
  page numbers.
n Use the AMA accepted Journal Abbreviations for the journal’s title

  Article title not in title case (except Proper Nouns), but…
  Journal Name is in Title Case
  Issue month or number
  Page numbers
  Each element is followed by a period
  No spaces between the year, volume, pages
                                                       NO TE
  Pages separated by an en-dash
              Examples: PRINT JOURNALS
                        TYPICAL JOURNAL ARTICLE REFERENCE
      Smith J, Canton EM. Weight-based administration of dalteparin in obese patients. 
     Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2003;60(7):683-687.
         Note: If the journal does not have a volume or issue number, use the issue date.

                                   6 OR MORE AUTHORS
Hunter DJ, Hankinson SE Jr, Laden F, et al. Plasma organochlorine levels and the risk of breast
cancer. N Engl J Med. 1997;337(18):1253-1258.
                         If more than 6 authors, list first 3, then et al

                  COMMITTEE/GROUP/ORGANIZATION AS AUTHO
Council on Scientific Affairs. Scientific issues in drug testing. JAMA. 1987;257(22):3110-3114.
                                         NO AUTHOR
The choice of antibacterial drugs. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 1998;40(1023):33-42.
               References: OTHER
               PUBLISHED MATERIAL
                                      PACKAGE INSERT
Lamasil [package insert]. East Hanover, NJ: Sandoz Pharmaceuticals Corp; 1993.

                                     NEWSPAPERS
Steinmetz G. Kafka is a symbol of Prague today; also, he’s a T-shirt. Wall Street Journal.
October 10, 1996:A1, A6.

                                       SOFTWARE
Clinical Pharmacology [computer program]. Version 2.07. Tampa, FL: Gold Standard
Multimedia; 2003.

          Note: Dates associated with various software may be updates or file dates.

       WRITING TIP: Mind the capitalization rules for sources!
              References: ONLINE SOURCES

                          FORMULA:
Author(s), if give and many times there are none; title of the specific item cited, if any;
name of the Web site; URL; published and/or update, if any; accessed date.


    n Same as other sources (in a sense)
    n Always include the web address (URL) and the date accessed

     No underlines! Remove the hyperlink

                                                                         TE
     Include as much info as possible
     Make sure your source is credible
     Use the words Available at: before the http://...                NO
     Use the word Accessed before the date
               Example: ONLINE SOURCES
                                GENERAL INTERNET SOURCE
FDA/CEDR resources page. Food and Drug Administration Web site. Available at:
http://www.fda.gov/cder/approval/index.htm. Accessed April 7, 2007.
Clinical Pharmacology Web site. Available at: http://cpip.gsm.com.ezproxy.samford.edu/.
Accessed June 23, 2006.
                                        DATABASE
PDQ® - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute; 2007.
Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cancerdatabase.Updated June 9, 2006.
Accessed April 16, 2007.
                      ONLINE JOURNAL W/VOLUME & PAGE INFO.
Simon JA, Hudes ES. Relationship of ascorbic acid to blood lead levels. JAMA. 1999;281:2289-
2293. Available at: http://url. Accessed July 11, 2009.
                 ONLINE JOURNAL WITHOUT VOLUME & PAGE IN
Mast CT, DeMuro-Mercon C, Kelly CM, Floyd LE, Ealter EB. The impact of rotavirus
gastroenteritis on the family. BMC Pediatrics. 2009;9:11. doi:10.1186/1471-2431-9-11
           The DOI: Digital Object Identifier
§ The DOI is like a social security number for a source. It is meant to 
  help readers find the exact source you are referencing.
§ You can type a DOI into Google and get the exact source.
§ All DOI numbers begin with a 10 and contain a prefix and a suffix 
  separated by a slash.
§ Not all sources have DOIs.
§ If the source has a DOI, cite it after the rest of the citation is finished:


                       EXAMPLE
        Brownlie, D. Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated
        bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41(11/12), 1245-
        1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161
             Helpful Websites and
             Sources
AMA Style:

http://www.liunet.edu/cwis/cwp/library/workshop/citama.htm (very basic)
http://healthlinks.washington.edu/hsl/styleguides/ama.html (more detailed)
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html (very detailed)

Cites Used to Create this Presentation:

http://chua2.fiu.edu/faculty/haskins/PHT6970/AMA%20Style.htm (all the basics)
http://www4.samford.edu/schools/pharmacy/dic/amaquickref07.pdf (comprehensive)
http://www.ajph.org/misc/ama_references.shtml (one of my favorites)
http://www.custom-essays.org/essay_format/AMA_Style_Essay_Format.html (style)
     JADA


                       Home Page:
              http://www.adajournal.org/home
                   Information for Authors:
http://www.adajournal.org/article/S0002-8223(95)00007-0/abstract
               THANK YOU!
  Contact Information
§ Michael Frizell, Writing Center Director
   § michaelfrizell@missouristate.edu
   § Phone number 417-836-5006
   § Office: Meyer Library 112
§ Writing Center
   § First floor Meyer Library – The Bear Claw
   § Phone Number 417-836-6398
   § http://writingcenter.missouristate.edu
§ Supplemental Instruction
   § http://si.missouristate.edu

				
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