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Heralds and Heraldry in Elizabethan England
John Neitz

Origins and development of Armory and the Office of Herald

  Armory: the art and science of the hereditary system of symbols centered around the shield.

  Heraldry: all that which pertains to the office of herald, including the recording, granting, and
regulation of armory as well as precedence, state ceremonial, tournaments, diplomacy, genealogy
and pedigree, etc.

The early histories of heralds and armory are roughly contemporary but separate stories. Heralds
were originally free-lancers who specialized in the running and scoring of tournaments. Early
(12th and 13th century) payment records lump them in with minstrels (i.e. they were considered a
specialist "sub-class" of minstrels). Heralds were migratory, going from tournament to tournament
and had an unsavory reputation in this period (medieval "carnies"). Period romances refer to them
as lazy (i.e. "get a real job!").

Armory originated in the 12th century in the Anglo-Norman lands and quickly spread to much of
Europe. At that time the full face helm came into vogue making it difficult to identify armored
men in battle and in tournaments (which were free-for-all melees in this period, far different from
the formalized jousts of Elizabethan times). Great lords (and soon thereafter all knights) decorated
their shields and surcoats ("coats of arms") with distinctive designs--their "arms".

Heralds became experts at identifying knights by their arms since that was part of the herald�s job
as a tourney officiant. The next step was for heralds to start recording arms; they developed
armorials-a reference book or roll picturing or describing (blazoning) arms. Since heralds were
familiar with arms they were consulted by knights wishing to assume arms. The herald could tell
the knight if their desired design conflicted with an established one ("Certes, sir, a red shield with
three gold lions passant would look smashing but those arms are already taken by the king of

A Herald in His Tabard and Coronet By the fourteenth century, lords began hiring their own
private heralds, who added to the lord�s prestige by announcing his name, titles, and boasts as he
entered the tournament field. The herald would be given a title derived from his employer�s titles,
badges, or mottoes. It became fashionable for the lords to have their heralds wear the lord�s coat
of arms (perhaps originally the lord�s own discarded surcoat). By the fifteenth century tabards
replaced surcoats as the fashionable garment to wear over armor and correspondingly became the
heralds official wear. By the sixteenth century tabards were now out of style for knights (it is said
that Henry VII was the last monarch to wear one) but the heralds have retained that garment as the
distinctive uniform of their office to this day.

By the fourteenth century there were three levels of herald: king of arms, herald of arms, and
pursuivant of arms. A king of arms was the ranking herald for a kingdom or province and are the
only people besides royalty and peers who actually get to wear a coronet (only at the sovereign�s

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coronation, of course). They were originally called kings of heralds, after the medieval custom of
naming a "king" for any group, even a "king of beggars" for the senior beggar of a town.

A pursuivant was a junior or apprentice grade of herald. They had (until the late seventeenth
century) to wear their tabards "colley-westonward" (i.e. sideways with the sleeves in back and
front and the large part draped over the sleeves). There is at least one case during Elizabeth�s
reign of a pursuivant being censured for wearing his tabard above his station (i.e. not sideways).

Heralds and The College of Arms

In 1484 Richard III gave the royal heralds a charter incorporating them as the College of Arms and
granted them Coldharbour House in London as their headquarters. There was, of course,
something of a change of administration a few month�s later and Henry VII gave Coldharbour to
someone else, so the College was without an official home until they were granted Derby House in
1555 (the College is still located on this site).

There was some shuffling of positions making up the College for several decades after 1485 but by
the Elizabethan period there were 13 officers in ordinary: Garter Principal King of Arms and two
provincial kings: Clarenceaux and Norroy (in charge of the south and north halves of England
respectively); six heralds: Chester, Lancaster, Richmond, Somerset, Windsor, and York; and four
pursuivants: Bluemantle, Portcullis, Rouge Croix, and Rouge Dragon. In addition, there were at
various times "officers extraordinary" (i.e. appointed for a special occasion and not on the college
roster) such as Rose Pursuivant. There was also Ulster King of Arms for Ireland, but he was not
considered part of the College. By the end of Henry VIII�s reign there were no longer any
noblemen�s (i.e. non-royal) heralds.

What did heralds do? Trumpet playing was not, and never has been, part of their duties (an
inaccurate notion which seems to have originated with Alice in Wonderland illustrations and
perpetuated in the movie Anne of a Thousand Days among other sources). When Shakespeare has
a line in one his plays such as "Herald, take a trumpet to the top of yon hill..." he intends "trumpet"
to mean trumpeter.

Heralds have been messengers since the early days of their existence. When a lord planned to host
a tournament, he would send his herald(s) throughout the kingdom (or even throughout
Christendom) to put forth a challenge (i.e. invitation). Princes would have their heralds accompany
them in battle to help them identify men of both sides by their arms and banners, as well as to
parley with the enemy as seen in Henry V.

Yeoman of the Guard In heraldry the shield of arms is personal to its owner so he would not have
his servants wear it. That is the purpose of badges (a famous example being the crowned tudor rose
worn by the Yeomen of the Guard). Heralds are the exception to this rule. They took on the
sovereigns identity by wearing the royal coat of arms (it was treason to harm a herald in his tabard)
and were considered the voice of the crown. Royal proclamations were proclaimed by the heralds.
Henry VIII often employed heralds to parley with rebels or foreign princes but by Elizabeth�s
reign this duty was rarely assigned to heralds. The primary ambassadorial duty during this period
was a ceremonial one: that of conferring the Order of the Garter on foreign rulers.

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Heralds in the Age of Elizabeth

When an officer died his replacement was usually chosen from the rank below him. So, for
instance, if Garter died (being the most senior herald in dignity he was often, but not always, the
oldest) his successor would probably be one of the two provincial kings, who in turn would be
replaced in his former office by one of the heralds, who would be replaced by a pursuivant (note
that the six herald titles were equal in dignity; precedence between their holders was based on their
seniority in office. The same holds true between the four pursuivants). The vacant pursuivant
office would be an entry level position into the College, which was under the leadership of the Earl
Marshal, so officers were usually recommended by him and if acceptable to the crown, appointed
by letters patent under the great seal.

There were, of course, exceptions to the typical career path of pursuivant, herald, king of arms.
Most officers never became kings of arms because there were only three positions at that level.
When Sir Gilbert Dethick died in 1584 there seems to have been some dispute as to who should
succeed him as Garter. Robert Cooke, Clarenceaux, was acting Garter for 18 months but Sir
Gilbert�s son William (who had been York Herald) was promoted over the provincial kings�
heads to succeed his father (heraldic offices have never been hereditary but there are some cases of
heraldic dynasties, probably due to nepotism; a notable example being the Wriothesleys, ancestors
of the earls of Southampton).

William Camden was in such high esteem as an antiquary that he entered the College in 1597 as
Clarenceaux King of Arms (he was made Richmond Herald for one day for the sake of formality
before his appointment as Clarenceaux). This caused some resentment among some of the other

Biographies of the period heralds show some backgrounds they had before being appointed: many
had been retainers of either Leicester or Burleigh, which seems to reflect the influence these two
had in procuring royal positions for their men. Others had been royal clerks or messengers. Some
had been members of the painter-stainers company.

Several heralds were members of the Society of Antiquaries, which often met in Garter�s
chambers at the College of Arms. Their genealogical work and collection of old manuscripts went
well with the work of the society. Some heralds were able scholars and industrious writers on
diverse subjects and had works published in the period, among them John Hart (Chester Herald)
who had two books on orthography (spelling) published, William Segar (Norroy, later Garter, and
also credited as the painter of some famous portraits of the Queen) whose Booke of Honor and
Armes was published in 1590 and Honor, Ciuil and Militarie in 1602, and William Camden, who
was highly regarded for his Britannia (although he wrote that before he was made a herald).

Heraldry and the Age of Elizabeth
Tournament officiating, as we have seen, was the primary job of heralds in the early period of
heraldry but by Elizabeth�s reign jousting was in its twilight. There were few tournaments outside
the annual ones celebrating the Queen�s accession day (jousting checks--the scorecards kept by
heralds--are very simplified compared to those from the previous century, which supports the
thinking that Elizabethan jousters were not as practiced as their pre-gunpowder ancestors since
jousting was no longer a practical skill for war). The heralds, however, zealously kept records of

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the fees and perquisites due to them on these occasions, such as clouage: ("nailing fee") money due
from each jouster for putting his arms up on his lodgings, or gifts and money which a first time
jouster had to give them upon his entry to the field. Among the more interesting customs was that
any armor dropped on the field belonged to the heralds present, who usually sold it back to the
knight who had dropped it (for more on tournaments I highly recommend the book Tudor and
Jacobean Tournaments by Paul Young).

Cecil During the Elizabethan age, there was an increased emphasis on genealogy in the heralds�
work as the gentry class rose in importance. Wealthy "new men" were eager to prove their gentility
and be granted arms. Only persons of gentry class or higher could bear arms so anyone with arms
was by definition gentle (the period Latin word for gentleman was "armigero" i.e. one who bears
arms) so the heralds were effectively the gatekeepers to the gentry class.

This was of course a great money-making opportunity.

Many spurious pedigrees were produced for a fee and heralds were on occasion censured or even
imprisoned for granting arms to " base-born" individuals. William Dethick was criticized for
making grants to persons who were thought to be too inferior, including Stratford glover John
Shakespeare (whose son William had worked with Dethick to obtain the grant for his father and
thus become born of gentry).

One of the primary means through which heralds accomplished their task of recording, granting,
and correction of arms in the sixteenth century was through "visitations." Starting in 1530, the
provincial kings were authorized and commissioned to make visitations of counties in their
provinces. They would typically travel to a county in summer (an "heraldic progress" if you will)
and it took many years to cover England and Wales (the "home counties" near London were visited
more often than the far north or west). The king of arms (or his deputized herald) would set up in
an inn or a gentleman�s home and all those in the area who claimed arms were summoned to
present proof of gentle status. The herald would record the pedigree and arms for a fee or, if the
claimant was found to be not up to standards he was disclaimed: required to sign a statement that
he was "no gentleman" and forbidden to bear arms. This was proclaimed throughout the shire-- a
harsh fate in this class conscious era.
The importance of maintaining a style appropriate to one�s station continued even unto death. It
was de rigeur for the funeral ceremonial of nobles and greater gentry to be arranged by a herald
(sort of like a modern wedding consultant). This of course was a great opportunity for income for
the heralds, who had to take turns. There was often dispute and even violence between them over
funeral turns.

Under the direction of the earl marshal, the heralds arranged (and still arrange) state ceremonial
such as coronations and state funerals (Sir Phillip Sydney was given one--a rare honor). Pictures of
processions from these events usually portray the heralds taking part (easy to identify by their
tabards) bearing the achievements of the deceased: banner, standard, sword, spurs, target (a little
shield painted with the arms), gauntlets, helm with crest, etc. Throughout the Sixteenth century,
there was an increasing trend on the part of the gentry to copy these great occasions on a smaller
scale which led to the hiring of heralds for funerals as described earlier.
Badges and Livery

Stafford Knot Badges such as the Dudleys� bear and/or ragged staff, the Percys� crescent, the
Stanleys� eagle or eagle�s foot, or the Stafford knot (pictured) were also favorite decorative

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elements. Remember that arms are personal to the bearer ("this is me") while badges can identify
anything or anyone belonging to the bearer ("this is mine"). Badges might decorate any possession
and, most importantly, the liveries of the badge owner�s retainers. Note that some large magnates
might have many different badges, perhaps used in association with their different manors or
maybe arbitrarily. Badges could be a charge from the arms or crest or can be completely different.

Royal badges in the period include the rose, the double (now called Tudor) rose, the fleur de lys of
France, the harp of Ireland, the "ER" cypher, and the portcullis, any of which might be "ensigned"
(topped) with the crown, as well as the crown itself, and several of the beasts which had served as
supporters to the royal arms such as the crowned lion, the dragon, or the greyhound (see the
masthead illustration). The crowned falcon on a woodstock (stump) had belonged to Ann Boleyn
and was used by Elizabeth to decorate many of her personal possessions. The phoenix and pelican
were also symbolically associated with Elizabeth. Although the unicorn might have had some
symbolic association with Elizabeth (the Virgin thing), it was the supporter of the Scottish royal
arms and so brought to the royal arms of England with the Stuarts, not before.
The Royal Arms

A word on livery colors: just as badges are not necessarily from the shield, livery colors do not
have to match the colors on someone�s shield or even be heraldic colors at all (heraldic colors
being, with very few exceptions limited to yellow/gold, white/silver, black, blue, red, green, and,
rarely, purple).

There was a trend toward turning badges into crests during this period. Most gentlemen had
adopted badges since they were useful identifying marks, but relatively few had crests (a crest is
what sits on top of the helmet displayed above the shield on a coat of arms; a crest is not a coat of
arms although the word has been mistakenly used in this way in recent years) because their
forbearers had never participated in tournaments (crests originally were actually worn on helms at
these events). During visitations heralds commonly granted crests to gentlemen who already had
shields and usually adapted the gentleman�s existing badge.

Use of Arms in Recreation

Every armigerous character should be familiar with their arms and be able to recite their blazon
(description in heraldic language). (See Blazons of the Ancient Paternal Arms of the Peers of

During the Elizabethan period armigers were eager to display their arms which were a visible sign
of their gentle status whether those arms were centuries old or had just been granted. The shield
(being the central, most important element of the arms) might be pictured alone or with the other
elements of the complete armorial achievement: helmet, crest, mantling, motto (and, for peers,
supporters). Armorial decoration would be used in as many places as possible and in every
conceivable medium. Arms were displayed on or inside houses in stone, carved wood, or stained
glass. Burial monuments often displayed the arms of the deceased. They were placed in the upper
corner of their portraits (often the means by which we are able to identify the portraits� subjects
centuries later).

Marshalled Arms The shape of shield on which arms were displayed varied widely from the classic
medieval shape to ornate renaissance cartouches. The shape of shield usually has no heraldic

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significance (i.e. Lord Scrope�s blue field with a gold bend is the same coat no matter what shape
it�s painted on). It is a convention, however, for unmarried ladies to display their arms on lozenge
(diamond shape) since they did not bear shields in battle (not that men did anymore, either). The
Queen was an exception to this as her arms (the arms of England) were never displayed on a

A woman did not have arms in her own right (with very few exceptions) but used her father's arms
until she was married, at which point she could display her husband�s arms on the dexter half of a
shield "impaled" with her paternal arms on the sinister half, as shown in the portrait of Mary Hill,
Mistress Mackwilliam, above. (Note that dexter is the left as you look at it; in heraldic terms the
dexter is the right side of the knight holding the shield.) This combining of arms is called

Another use for marshaling arms by impalement was to show official arms impaled with the
office-holder�s personal arms, such as the arms of the See of Canterbury (dexter) impaled with
Matthew Parker�s arms in sinister.

A woman�s paternal arms would not be passed down to her descendants unless she had no
brothers. In this case she and all her sisters are heraldic co-heiresses and their children would
quarter their mother�s arms with their father�s. The most famous quartered arms have a different
story. The royal arms quarter France and England because Edward III wanted to illustrate his
dynastic claim to the French throne. The French arms occupy the 1st and 4th quarters (i.e. where
the father�s arms would be quartered) because France was considered the more ancient kingdom.

Over many generations some coats could collect many quarterings through marriages to heiresses
(each individual coat is still called a quartering even if there are more than four). Even if one is
entitled to display a shield with enough quarterings to make it look like an intricate patchwork
quilt it is not always advantageous to show them all. Arms are for identification, and patchwork
arms are difficult to distinguish from others, especially at a distance. So, the first quartering (the
original arms passed down in direct male descent) would often be displayed alone on banners or
painted shields used as decorations.

Edited by John Neitz
Designed by Paula Kate Marmor
Site Credits
9 January 2000

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           · A Visual Introduction to Heraldry ·

                             Paula Katherine Marmor

The Colors and Metals

             Argent Or Gules Azure Vert Sable
             Silver Gold Red Blue Green Black

The Furs

                              Ermine Ermines Vair

The Ordinaries

           Pale   Fess   Chief Bend Cross         Pile Chevron Saltire

                  Pallets        Bars       Bendlets Chevronels

                            Pale Endorsed Fess Cotised

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Partitioning the Field

                    Parti        Parti         Parti         Quarterly       Parti
                   per Pale     per Fess     per Bend                    per Chevron

Patterning the Field

                                 Paly      Barry Bendy Checky
                                of Six     of Six of Eight   or


                      A Fess A Fess A Fess A Fess A Fess      A Fess
                     Dancetty Nebuly Indented Wavy Embattled Engrailed

Blazoning the Arms

Per Pale argent and vert    Per Pale argent and         Per Pale argent and      Per Pale argent and
                           vert, a chevron sable       vert, a chevron sable    vert, a chevron sable;
                                                       beneath a chief gules   on a chief gules, a lion
                                                                                 passant guardant or

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Some Common Charges

                     Lion          Lion        Lion   Gryphon             Dragon
                    Passant   Passant Gardant Rampant Segreant            Passant

                         Maunch   Bouget             Garb     Fleur-de-Lys
                         Sleeve Water Budget         Sheaf

                                      Dolphin Luce Escallop

                                    Pheon   Hunting Clarion
                                 Broad Arrow Horn Pan Pipe

                        Cinquefoil   Rose       Rose Gules     Double
                                             Barbed and Seeded Rose

Roundels (disks) of various tinctures have specific names of their own:

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                   Bezant Torteau Plate      Hurt Pellet Pome Fountain
                   A Coin                   Bruise   or   Apple

Stars and Such

                               Estoile Mullet Mullet Crescent
                                Star Rowel Pierced


        Cross              Cross             Cross           Cross             Cross
       Crosslet       Crosslet Fitchée      Boutony          Fleury            Moline

More Common Divisions of the Field

           Quarterly per fess Quarterly per pale Barry-wavy of Ten Gyronny of Eight
               dancetty          embattled


   Bordure          Orle     Inescutcheon   Lozenge       Fusil       Mascle          Canton

Positioning the Charges

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                     In base In pale In chief In bend In bend In fess In orle

When the field is divided into two colors and the charges on it are colored in the opposite color,
they are said to be counter-changed or counter-coloured:

           Per pale argent and vert, Per pale vert and argent,      Quarterly argent and
           a bend counter-changed three chevronels counter-        azure, a cross counter-
                                             changed                      changed

 Per fess gules and argent, three fleur-    Per pale argent and purpure, a lion
        de-lys counter-changed                  rampant counter-changed

    Blazons of the Ancient Paternal Arms of the Peers of
   England and Members of the Gentry as Portrayed in the
                   Guild of Saint George

                         Compiled by John Neitz
                    Arms Drawn by Paula Kate Marmor

Editor�s Introduction: These are the blazons, or descriptions, of the arms of
all the peers of Elizabethan England as well as gentry portrayed in the
Guilds of St. George [California, Bristol]. Note that for the sake of simplicity
only the first quartering is depicted.

Heraldry uses its own specialized language, as it has done since the 14th
century. For an introduction to the colors, ordinaries, and charges, see A
Primer of Blazonry. For more advanced information, consult Pimbley's
Dictionary of Heraldry.

        Higher Nobility | Viscounts and Barons | Gentry and Others

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Arms of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth

           AND of the Kingdom of England: quarterly 1 & 4: azure, three fleur-de-lys
           or (France) 2 & 3: gules, three lions passant guardant in pale or armed &
           langued azure (England).

           Norfolk (Howard): gules, on a bend between six crosses crosslet fitchée
           argent; an escutcheon charged or, a demi-lion rampant its mouth impaled with
           an arrow within a double tressure fleury counter fleury gules.


           Northampton (Parr): argent, two bars azure within a bordure engrailed sable.

           Winchester (Paulet): sable, three swords in pile conjoined at the points
           argent, hilted or. (motto: Aymez loyaulté: love loyalty)

           Arundel (FitzAlan): gules, a lion rampant or.

           Oxford (deVere): quarterly gules & or, in dexter chief a mullet argent.

           Northumberland (Percy): 1&4: or a lion rampant azure; 2&3: gules, three
           luces haurient argent.

           Westmoreland (Neville): gules, a saltire argent.

           Shrewsbury (Talbot): gules, a lion rampant within a bordure engrailed or.

           Kent (Grey): barry of six argent & azure, in chief three torteaux.

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           Derby (Stanley): argent, on a bend azure three stags heads cabossed or.

           Worcester (Somerset): Argent a fess charged with Beaufort (Quarterly
           England and France within a bordure compony argent and azure). Revised.

           Rutland (Manners): or, two bars azure a chief quarterly azure & gules in the
           first & fourth quarters two fleur-de-lys or; in the second & third quarters a lion
           passant guardant or.
           Cumberland (Clifford): checky or and azure, a fess gules. (Motto:

           Sussex (Radcliffe): argent, a bend engrailed sable.

           Huntingdon (Hastings): argent, a maunch sable.

           Bath (Bouchier): argent, a cross engrailed gules between four water bougets

           Lennox (Stewart): or, a fess checky azure & argent within a double tressure
           flory-counter-flory gules.

           Warwick (Dudley): or, a lion rampant double-queued vert.

           Southampton (Wriothesley): azure, a cross or between four falcons close
           argent. (Motto: ung par tout, tou par ung: one for all, all for one [honest!] )

           Bedford (Russell): argent, a lion rampant gules armed & langued azure; on a
           chief sable, three escallops argent.

           Pembroke (Herbert): per pale azure & gules, three lions rampant argent.

           Hertford (Seymour): gules, two wings conjoined in lure or.

           Leicester (Dudley): or, a lion rampant double queued vert, a crescent gules
           for difference.

           Essex (Devereaux): argent, a fess gules in chief three torteaux.

           Lincoln (Clinton): argent, six crosses crosslet fitchée sable; on a chief azure,
           two mullets pierced or.

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           Hereford (Devereaux): see earl of Essex.

           Montague (Browne): sable, three lions passant in bend between two double
           cottises argent . (Motto: Suivez raison: Follow reason)

           Howard of Bindon (Howard): As for Duke of Norfolk with a crescent on
           bend for difference.

           Many baronial titles are the same as the family surname. Where they are
           different, the name is shown in parentheses.
           de Roos (Manners): or, two bars azure a chief gules.

           Grey de Wilton: barry of six argent & azure, a label of five points gules.

           Clinton: as for Earl of Lincoln.

           Zouche (Le Zouche): gules, ten bezants a canton ermine.

           Cobham (Brooke): gules, on a chevron argent a lion rampant sable.

           Audley (Tuchet): ermine, a chevron gules. (?)

           Willoughby D'Eresby (Bertie): argent, three battering rams barwise in pale
           proper headed & garnished azure

           Morley (Parker): argent, between two bars sable a lion passant gules in chief
           three bucks� heads cabossed sable.

           Scrope (Le Scrope): azure, a bend or.

           Stourton: sable, a bend or between six fountains.

           Lumley: argent, a fess gules between three popinjays vert collared gules.

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           Berkeley: gules, a chevron between ten crosses pat�e argent.

           Latimer (Neville): gules, on a saltire argent an annulet sable for difference.

           Dudley (Sutton): or, a lion rampant queue forché vert

           Bergavenny (Neville): gules, on a saltire argent a rose gules barbed & seeded
           proper for difference.

           Ogle: argent, a fess between three crescents gules.

           Mountjoy (Blount): barry, nebuly of six or and sable.

           Dacre of Gillisland and Greystock (Dacre): gules, three escallops or.

           Dacre of the South (Fiennes): azure, three lions rampant or.

           Willoughby de Brooke (Willoughby/Greville): or, fretty azure.

           Conyers: azure, a maunch or with a crescent or, surmounted by a crescent
           gules for difference.

           Mounteagle (Stanley): argent, on a bend azure three stags heads cabossed or,
           a crescent for difference.

           Sandys: argent, a cross raguly sable.

           Vaux: checky azure and or.

           Windsor: gules, a saltire argent between twelve crosses crosslet or

           Wentworth: sable, a chevron between three leopards' faces or

           Burgh: azure, three fleur-de-lys ermine

           Mordaunt: argent, a chevron between three estoiles sable

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           Cromwell: quarterly per fess indented or and azure, four lions passant

           Eure (or Evers): quarterly or and gules, on a bend sable three escallops

           Stafford : or, a chevron gules

           Rich: gules, a chevron between three crosses boton�e or. (Per pale or and
           azure a chevron between three rondels charged with lions rampant all
           counterchanged of the field.)
           Willoughby de Parham: or, fretty azure.

           Sheffield: argent, a chevron between three garbs gules

           Darcy of Aston: azure, crusily and three cinquefoils argent.

           Paget: sable, on a cross engrailed between four eagles displayed argent five
           lions passant guardant sable.

           Howard of Effingham (Howard): as for Duke of Norfolk with a mullet sable
           for difference.

           North: azure, a lion passant or between three fleur-de-lys argent.

           Chandos (Brydges): argent, on a cross sable a leopard's face or.

           Darcy of Chiche: argent, three cinquefoils gules.

           Hastings of Loughborough: as Earl of Huntingdon.

           Hunsdon (Carey): argent, on a bend sable three roses argent.

           St. John of Bledsoe (St. John): argent , on a chief gules two mullets argent.

           Buckhurst (Sackville): quarterly or and gules, a bend vair.

           De la Warre (West): argent, a fess dancet�e sable.

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           Burghley (Cecil): barry of ten argent and azure, six escutcheons sable each
           charged with a lion rampant argent.

           Compton: sable, a lion passant guardant or between three esquires' helms

           Norreys of Rycote: quarterly argent & gules, in the second & third quarters a
           fret or, overall a fess azure

           Cheney: ermine, on a bend sable three martlets or.

           Wharton: sable, a maunch argent; on a bordure or, eight pairs of lions gambs
           saltire wise erased gules

           Vavasour: or, a fess dancet�e sable

           Berners (Knyvett): argent, a bend and a bordure engrailed sable.

           Ughtred: gules, on a cross moline or five mullets gules

Heraldry                                         17

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