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					Europe: High Middle Ages
  By David, Natalie and Terry
Magna Carta
                                  First introduced in England in 1215
                                  John Lackland, son of King Henry II
                                  and Eleanor of Aquitane, became
                                  King John in 1199
                                  John’s rule was considered
                                  unsuccessful:
                                      Lost territory to the French and
                                      tried unsuccessfully to regain it
                                      Involved in a conflict with the
                                      Roman Catholic Church and
                                      was excommunicated (banned
                                      from participating in the Church)
                                      Overtaxed his barons to fund
Imaginary portrait of King John       his failing military campaigns
Magna Carta
 In 1215, angry nobles stormed London
 and forced King John to sign and place
 his seal on the Great Charter, or Magna
 Carta
 It first limited the power of the king – he
 had to abide to the same laws as his
 subjects
 Stated that all free men were to be judged
 by their peers – foundations of trial by
 jury
 Was declared as law of England and its
 colonies in 1297 by King Edward I
 One of the most important documents in
 English law – formed the basis of English
 constitution and law for years to come        Magna Carta
Magna Carta
                                    Additionally, the
                                    Charter promised
                                    equal justice, no
                                    unreasonable
                                    imprisonment and
                                    no taxation without
                                    representation
                                    The Magna Carta is
                                    part of the
                                    Canadian
                                    Constitution and
                                    inspired the United
King John signing the Magna Carta
                                    States Constitution
The Crusades
 Christian Crusades lasted from 1095 to
 1291
 In 1100 AD, the conquering urges of
 Germanic and Viking warriors were
 unleashed on Islam with Christian moral
 authorization
 Crusaders pillaged the East, bringing
 back wealth to Western Europe
 Shippers became wealthy transporting
 Crusaders back and forth
 Since Constantine I, Christians went on
 pilgrimages to the Holy Land of Palestine,
 where Jesus came from
 Although Jerusalem was ruled by the
 Muslims since 638, Christians were
 allowed to visit until the 11th century – the
 Seljuk Turks took over and pilgrimages
 were banned                                  Fighting during the Crusades
The Crusades
                  The First Crusade was authorized
                  by Pope Urban II (1088 – 1099)
                  He helped Byzantine Emperor
                  Alexus I in launching the first
                  Crusade
                  In his 1095 speech to the Council
                  of Clermont in France, Pope Urban
                  II urged Christian princes to
                  embark on a crusade to save the
                  Holy Land from the Turks. He
                  combined the ideas of pilgrimage
                  with waging a holy war against
                  infidels (non believers)
                  He granted Crusaders indulgence
                  – a special religious pardon where
                  Crusaders would be forgiven for
                  their sins for fighting the Holy War,
                  and would go directly to heaven for
  Pope Urban II   dying in battle
The Crusades
 The first group of Crusaders were peasant,
 and attacked Jews and other Christians as
 well as infidels. They were killed by the
 Turks when they reached the Holy Land
 5000 priests, workers, knights, prostitutes
 and lords dressed as Crusaders and seized
 the cities of Antioch and Jerusalem, setting
 up three kingdoms: the Principality of
 Antioch, the County of Tripoli and the
 Kingdom of Jerusalem
 7 more Crusades followed, but were
 unsuccessful
 In 1291, the Crusaders surrendered and         Siege of
 returned home                                  Antioch
The Crusades
       Led to the creation of powerful groups
       of knights such as the Knights
       Templar and the Teutonic Knights
       Europeans adapted parts of Muslim
       civilization:
          Learned to bathe regularly
          Acquired tastes for other foods
          Began to learn Arabic language
          and Muslim ideas
          Replaced the Roman numerals
          with the Arabic numerals, making
          math simpler and easier to learn
Sources
 Britannia.com, LLC. Monarchs of Britian: John Lackland. 19 Dec. 2006
       <http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon28.html>.
 Newman, Garfield. Echoes from the Past: World History to the 16th Century.
       Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001.
 The Baronial Order of Magna Charta. Magna Carta. 19 Dec. 2006
       <http://www.magnacharta.com/articles/magna.htm>.
 The British Library. Magna Carta - the Basics. 18 Dec. 2006
       <http://www.bl.uk/treasures/magnacarta/basics.html>.
 The British Monarchy. The Angevins - John Lackland. 19 Dec. 2006
       <http://www.qmmemorial.gov.uk/output/Page64.asp>.
 Unknown Author. The Christian Crusades. 18 Dec. 2006
       <http://gbgm-umc.org/UMW/bible/crusades.stm>.

				
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