Commerce international_ 1998

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Commerce international_ 1998 Powered By Docstoc
					Devoir du Samedi 22 mai 1999

Commerce International Durée : 3 h ; coefficient : 1,5 Document :

Epreuve de communication écrite en langue étrangère : anglais

L'usage d'un dictionnaire bilingue est autorisé. Les calculatrices sont interdites.

Foreign beer in Russia
Have Russians finally discovered a taste for good beer ? In the first half of this year, beer imports were double what they had been in the first half of 1995 - enough to give foreign brands about 10% of the market, by official reckonings. Some think the true share, allowing for smuggled imports, may be closer to 30%. Set against slumping demand for watery domestic beers - many of which are unpasteurised and have bits floating in them - the Russian boom has delighted western exporters, such as Carlsberg and Heineken. It has also offered them something of a challenge. If Russian drinkers are now thirsty for well-made beer, then the western brewers could satisfy and encourage that taste more readily by investing directly in local production. So far they have not. Russia, they reckon, is difficult, expensive and dangerous. The country grew only 25% of the hops its brewing industry needed last year, and half the barley; worse, anything to do with alcohol in Russia is criminalised extensively, even by local standards. The performance of two smallish foreign brewers, though, suggests it might be time for the big western firms to change their minds. Sun Brewing, owned by India's Khemka family, has assembled a chain of local breweries - many bought at knock-down prices - in half a dozen depressed provincial cities. Its annual capacity of 3.3 m hectolitres is almost a fifth of Russian production last year. Sun's flagship brand, Viking, carries an English-language label, but appears in a solidly Russian half-litre bottle. It has a hoppy Russian flavour, but is less potent than most traditional domestic beers. That suits younger Russians, keener on social drinking than stupefaction. Pasteurisation - relatively new to Russia - makes distribution easier and keeps retailers happy. Baltic Beverages Holding is jointly owned by two Scandinavian firms. […] In 1993 it bought a 65% stake in St Petersburg's Baltika brewery, the largest in Russia. The factory produced 1.1. m hectolitres of beer last year, enough to dominate beer sales around St Petersburg. Output is up 10% this year, unlike the national trend. In July, Baltic invested in a factory in Yaroslavl, 280 km (175 miles) to the north-east of Moscow. It is looking for other Russian breweries willing to become Baltika's subsidiaries, and for partners to build Baltika pubs. The message from Sun and Baltic is that foreign direct investment can work - if breweries have good local managers, and if the product has the right hybrid image : the beers must have enough of a western air to attract new drinkers, but not so much that they put off conservative ones. Once established, a local subsidiary has several advantages over an importer - not least that it does not have to get its product past Russia's capricious tariffs and officials. The success of Sun and Baltic is encouraging others to follow. […] Will Heineken and other big brewers follow?
Adapted from The Economist, September 14, 1996.
- Smuggled goods : marchandises passées en contrebande. - A brewer: un brasseur. - Hops: le houblon. - Barley : l'orge. (20 points)







Après avoir lu ce texte attentivement, faites-en un compte rendu en français en faisant apparaître les idées essentielles (230 mots, ± 10 %).

Lettre à élaborer et à rédiger en anglais. Vous écrivez une lettre de réclamation en date du 12 février 1997. Expéditeur :

(20 points)

Christopher Walton, directeur des achats de World Furniture, société spécialisée dans les meubles de bureau ; adresse postale : 125 Brighton Avenue, Londres SE3 2L, Royaume-Uni. Page 1 / 2

Destinataire :

Bill Adams, directeur des ventes de la société Chesapeake Exports ; adresse postale : 2880 Independence Road, Baltimore, MD 6321, USA.

Corps de la lettre: - Confirmation d'un message envoyé la veille par télécopie. - Accusé de réception de la commande CW/BA 238 datée du 5 janvier 1997 portant sur 75 bureaux pour ordinateur et 80 fauteuils de bureau. - Marchandises bien arrivées à bord du bateau la Mermaid qui a été déchargé dès son arrivée au port. - Mais deux caisses manquantes. - Envoi: CAF; expertise des dégâts prévue; rapport attendu sous 48 heures. - Besoin urgent des articles de remplacement : chiffre d'affaires et réputation en jeu. - Paiement prévu par crédit documentaire, votre fournisseur doit contacter sa banque. - Vous espérez qu'un tel incident ne se reproduira pas et attendez une réponse très rapide. Pièces jointes : - Une photocopie du connaissement. - Une photocopie de la liste de colisage.

Présentation et formules d'usage.

Répondre en anglais aux deux questions suivantes :

(20 points)

1. Why do so many exporters consider that investing in Russia is “difficult, expensive and dangerous” ?
(150 - 200 mots) [10 points]

2. For a potential host country, what are the possible advantages and drawbacks of attracting direct foreign investment ? Give examples. (150 - 200 mots) [10 points]

Commerce international, sujet national, juin 1998

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De 10 à 30 % des bières consommées aujourd'hui en Russie sont des produits d'importation. L'engouement de la population russe pour les labels étrangers va croissant, ce qui devrait inciter les brasseurs occidentaux à investir directement dans la production locale pour mieux s'assurer des parts de marché. Mais nombre d'obstacles les rebutent: les difficultés d'approvisionnement en matières premières dans le pays et le fait que tout ce qui touche à l'alcool dans la société russe sente le souffre. Certains brasseurs étrangers ont pourtant franchi le pas. Sun Brewing, par exemple, a monté toute une chaîne de brasseries et produit des bières qui connaissent de plus en plus de succès auprès du consommateur. Des bières qui arborent un label étranger tout en conservant certaines caractéristiques des bières russes. Seule innovation de taille qui révolutionne la distribution du produit: la pasteurisation. Baltic Beverages s'est également taillé une part non négligeable du marché russe. Devenue actionnaire majoritaire du plus grand brasseur russe, cette société entend bien établir toute une chaîne de filiales et de pubs. Le secret de la réussite sur ce nouveau marché, c'est un produit hybride qui flatte chez le consommateur son attrait pour les produits occidentaux sans toutefois choquer son conservatisme et l'alliance avec des partenaires locaux fiables, seule façon de s'affranchir des tracasseries administratives et des taxes arbitraires qui frappent les importateurs. Les grands brasseurs vont-ils, eux aussi, s'aventurer sur ce marché ? 215 mots

Ref.: CW/BA World Furniture 125 Brighton Avenue London SE3 2L United Kingdom

Mr. Bill Adams Sales Manager Chesapeake Exports 288 Independence Road Baltimore, MD 6321 USA 12th February 1997 Dear Mr. Adams, Our order No.CW/BA 238 Further to the fax I sent you yesterday, I am writing with reference to the above order. We were to have received 75 computer desks and 80 office chairs which we had ordered on January 5th, 1997. However close inspection of the shipment on arrival of the Mermaid at the port of entry revealed that two crates were missing. We expect the expert's report concerning the damage within two days and will forward a copy of it to you. We would be obliged if you would kindly take up the matter with the underwriters on our behalf as you hold the policy, since the shipment was CIF paid to our warehouse in Brighton. In the meantime we will be glad if you will send us replacements for the missing articles as soon as possible as I am sure you will appreciate both the inconvenience and the financial loss this delay means to us. As agreed, payment be made by documentary credit. Please notify your bank. I look forward to a prompt reply. Yours faithfully, C. Walton Chief Buyer Encl.: Bill of lading (one copy). Packing list (one copy).

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RÉDACTION EN ANGLAIS 1. Investing in Russia might turn out to be a real nightmare for foreign businessmen. The collapse of the old Communist régime has disorganised the economy and public services, so that it is difficult to know how to get hold of the right person. At the same time red tape for which the Soviet Union was notorious is still the norm. It takes months before petty officials condescend to give your projects the go-ahead. Another problem is widespread corruption and crime. You might have to pay protection money to the local Mafia or to bribe officials to set up shop in Russia. But most of the problems arise from the poor state of the country. Unskilled labour, unmotivated employees and workers, alcoholism, absenteeism, resistance to change, in addition to poor communication and transportation networks, not forgetting exchange rate fluctuations, heavy taxes and insolvency, can actually spell disaster, as illustrated by today’s crisis in Russia with the collapsed rouble (US : ruble). Businessmen must make sure that they have found the right local partners before they can venture onto the Russian market. Only thus will they have a chance to survive in this particularly difficult environment. 192 mots 2. Foreign direct investments usually involve the establishment of plants or distribution networks abroad. Investors may acquire part or all of the equity of an existing foreign company so as to share control over production, research and development, and sales. Foreign direct investment is often considered a godsend by host countries, who offer incentives to attract potential investors to help modernise or revitalise some industrial or agricultural sectors. It can also benefit the population and help improve people's living conditions, as well as create, or at least save, jobs. However, a country cannot rely on foreign investment alone. Firstly, should the market turn out to be less profitable, foreign investors will not hesitate to put their money into other sectors in other countries . Secondly, it is not a good thing for a country to be dependant on decisions made by foreign shareholders and financiers, especially dealing with strategic sectors. The interests of the host country may be incompatible with their only goal: profit-making. Last but not least, foreign investors all too often behave like a state within a state, dictating to local or government authorities. In short, foreign investors all too often control the state, not the other way around. 199 mots

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