Virtualization - PDF by ericmachang

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Author : Eric M.A. Chang

What is Virtualization ?


Why Virtualization ?
• • • • • Maximize resources Test and development optimization Quickly respond to business needs Reduce business continuity costs Solve security concerns
2007, David Marshall


Why Virtualization ? (cnt.)
Virtualization Objectives*
(Base: Imp/plan Virt.)
52% 53% 52% 53% 48% 51% 47% 48% 44% 32% 33% 31% 28% 26% 29% 14% 15% 20% 13% 16% 13% 13% 14% 13% 13% 10% 9%

Increase server utilization

Consolidate Server Lower Datacenter Costs Improve Backups Lower IT Administration Costs Testing Environments React to Change Improve Server Uptime Improve SLAs Reduce Software Costs Improve Data Security Find Skilled Staff 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%

Reduce costs Simplify IT infrastructure & admin Enhance resilience & reliability Increase scalability of infrastructure Improve app performance

Automate IT operations Improve flexibility to business goals and cycles Accelerate App Development & deployment

Why implement server virtualization ?
1H07 4Q06 3Q06

(Source : Network World, January 7, 2008)

IBM Systems Directions 1H07


Why Virtualization ? (cnt.)
• Approaches to green computing
– Algorithmic efficiency

– Virtualization
– – – – – – – – Terminal Servers Power management Power supply Storage Video Card Display Operating system issues Materials recycling

IDC believes that the high-volume consolidation opportunities – the low hanging fruit in the x86 server virtualization market – is starting to dry up. This is, in turn, resulting in smaller deals overall.“
16 Oct 2008, Brett Waldman, IDC


Virtualization-Ware Market Share

VMWare’s market share is 44% Microsoft’s market share is 23% IDC (2008 Q2)

Why Microsoft’s Hyper-V ?
• Six Reasons Why Microsoft’s Hyper-V Will Overtake VMware to Become the Major Player in the x86 Server Virtualization Marketplace (© 2008 Clabby Analytics )
– – – – – – Price Packaging Depth Reach Control/integration Installed base

• VMware and Microsoft will go head to head. (2008, Bill Bauman, IBM)

Why IBM Power VM ?
• Unix Server Market Share

• Power Systems + PowerVM = Higher utilization / Few processors


Server Virtualization & Consolidation
• IDC and Gartner agree that the virtualization of servers is driving the sale of more expensive boxes and server consolidation is pushing lots of new iron into data centers(Timothy Prickett Morgan, 2007) • Server consolidation will be a top priority for many IT departments in the coming year(Bill Hammond, 2008)


Business Value of Virtualization


Virtualization for Decision Makers
• Cost effective handling of peak workloads • Mixed testing and production environments • Server consolidation requiring data or application • • • •

independence Support of applications requiring different operating system versions Support of applications requiring different time zone settings Minimization of planned system downtime Better utilization of scarce or expensive resources

What is Virtualization ?

What is Virtualization ?
In ”computing”, virtualization is a broad term that refers to the abstraction of computer resources : •Platform Virtualization •Resource Virtualization •“Computer clusters” and ”grid computing”
the combination of multiple discrete computers into larger metacomputers

•Application Virtualization •Desktop Virtualization


Terminology (cnt.)
• Hypervisor (cnt.)
– Type 2, or hosted :
Hypervisors are software applications running within a conventional operating system environment, guest operating systems thus run at the third level above the hardware. Such as VMWare Server(GSX), VMWare workstation, VMWare Fusion, QENU, Microsoft Virtual PC, Sun’s (formerly InnoTek) VirutalBox, Parallel Workstation, Parallels Desktop.

Platform Virtualization
Which separates an operating system from the underlying platform resources. • • • • • Full virtualization Paravirtualization (Para-, alongside) Hardware-assisted Virtualization Partial Virtualization Operating system-level Virtualization

Platform Virtualization

Full Virtualization
The virtual machine simulates enough hardware to allow an unmodified "guest" OS (one designed for the same CPU) to be run in isolation. Virtualization Ware : • Vmware • Hyper-V • VirtualBox • QEMU • Win4Lin The binary translation approach to x86 • XEN/Virtual Iron virtualization

Platform Virtualization

The virtual machine does not necessarily simulate hardware, but instead (or in addition) offers a special API that can only be used by modifying the "guest" OS. Virtualization Ware : •VMWare •Xen •KVM
(Not available on Windows) (Xen-Linux, VMI-Linux)

The Paravirtualization approach to x86 Virtualization

Platform Virtualization

Hardware-assisted Virtualization
Simulate a complete hardware environment, in which an unmodified guest OS (using the same instruction set as the host machine) executes in complete isolation. Hardware-assisted virtualization was recently (2006) added to x86 processors (Intel VT or AMD-V). Virtualization Ware : • VMWare • Hyper-V • Xen • Parallel The hardware assist approach to x86 virtualizationa

Platform Virtualization

Partial virtualization
The virtual machine simulates multiple instances of much (but not all) of an underlying hardware environment, particularly address spaces.


Platform Virtualization

Operating system-level virtualization
Virtualized a physical server at the operating system level, enabling multiple isolated and secure virtualized servers to run on a single physical server. Virtualization Ware : •chroot –Parallels Workstation –Linux-VServer, Virtuozzo –OpenVZ, Solaris Containers –FreeBSD Jails


Platform Virtualization

In Multi-Tier Environment

Server Virtualization

Network Virtualization

Storage Virtualization


Platform Virtualization-In Multi-Tier Environment

Server Virtualization
• CISC (x86) Virtualization-Ware
– – – – VMWare (Windows, Linux, Netware, Solaris) Hyper-V (Windows, Linux) Xen(FreeBSD, NetBSD, Linux, Solaris, Windows ) Parallels(Windows, Linux, FreeBSD, OS/2,MS-DOS, Solaris)

• RISC Virtualization-Ware
– PowerVM(AIX) – Integrity Virtual Machines(HP-UX)


Platform Virtualization-In Multi-Tier Environment

Network Virtualization
• Component
– Network hardware
• Switches • Network adapters(NIC)

– Networks
• virtual LANs (VLANs)

– Network storage devices – Network media
• Ethernet • Fiber

• Type
– External network virtualization – Internal network virtualization – Combined internal and external network virtualization

Platform Virtualization-In Multi-Tier Environment

Storage Virtualization
• Benefits
– Non-disruptive data migration – Improved utilization – Fewer points of management

• Type
– In-band Appliance (IBM SVC) – Array Based (HDS, UPS Series) – Intelligent Switch (EMC)

Resource Virtualization
The virtualization of specific system resources, such as storage volumes, name spaces, and network resources • • • • Virtual memory Storage virtualization (RAID、Disk partitioning、Logical volume management) Network virtualization Channel bonding
As “Ethernet bonding”, is a computer networking arrangement in which two or more network
interfaces on a host computer are combined for redundancy or increased throughput

• •

I/O virtualization e.g. vNICs, vHBAsz Memory virtualization (Aggregates RAM resources from networked systems into virtualized memory pool, such as SSD)

Application virtualization
The hosting of individual applications on alien hardware/software • Portable application • Cross-platform virtualization
allows software compiled for a specific CPU and operating system to run unmodified on computers with different CPUs and/or operating systems, through a combination of dynamic binary translation and operating system call mapping.

• Emulation or simulation • Server Hosted Virtual Desktop Infrastructure Such as Microsoft Soft-Grid, Citrix XenApp


Server-Hosted Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI)


Server-Hosted Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) (cnt.)

Server-Hosted Virtual Desktop using for
– Call Center – Outsourced staff – R&D Staff – Hospital – ……… not for everyone.


Behind virtualization
• What will be change ?
– Infrastructure – IT Management
Gartner Says Virtualization Will Be the HighestImpact Trend in Infrastructure and Operations Market Through 2012 (2008, Christy Pettey, Gartner)

History of virtualization development
• • • • • • • • • • • • •
1965 IBM M44/44X paging system 1965 IBM System/360-67 virtual memory hardware 1967 IBM CP-40 (January) and CP-67 (April) time-sharing 1972 IBM VM/370 run VM under VM 1997 Connectix First version of Virtual PC 1998 VMWare U.S. Patent 6,397,242 1999 VMware Virtual Platform for the Intel IA-32 architecture 2000 IBM z/VM 2001 Connectix Virtual PC for Windows 2003 Microsoft acquired Connectix 2003 EMC acquired Vmware 2003 VERITAS acquired Ejascent 2005 HP Integrity Virtual Machines 31

        

2005 Intel VT 2006 AMD VT 2005 XEN 2006 VMWare Server 2006 Virtual PC 2006 2006 HP IVM Version 2.0 2006 Virtual Iron 3.1 2007 InnoTek VirtualBox 2007 KVM in Linux Kernel 2007 XEN in Linux Kernel

• • • • • • • • • • • Virtualization, A Beginner’s Guide(2009, Danielle Ruest, Nelson Ruest) Virtualization Continues to See Strong Growth in Second Quarter, According to IDC(2008, Brett Waldman) Gartner Says Virtualization Will Be the Highest-Impact Trend in Infrastructure and Operations Market Through 2012(2008, Christy Pettey) Storage, The New Virtualization Frontier(2008, Drue Reeves) Virtualization, what is it? And why do I need it? (2007, David Marshall) A Brief Introduction To Virtualization Technologies (2007, Yin Yunqiao, HP) Understanding Full Virtualization, Paravirtualization, and Hardware Assist(VMWare Inc.) Server-Hosted Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VirtualIron Inc.) Virtualization ( Comparison of virtual machines (


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