Seasonal Normalization and Bark Beetle Damage ... - My WebSpace by haoqianaw

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									Bark Beetle Damage Detection in
Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
        Vegetation Indexes
• Disturbance Index: (Bn-Gn-Wn)
• Wetness
• Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII
  or NDMI): (TM4-TM5)/(TM4+TM5)
• Moisture Stress Index: TM5/TM4
    Radiometric Normalization
• When?                           Atmospheric

Mosaic                            Topography
                                  Phenology
Cloud Gap Fill
                                  Sun & View angle
Change Detection
• How?
Absolute Radiometric Correction
Relative Radiometric Correction
   Date      DOY
                      Sun
                   Elevation                           Seasonal Trend of
7/18/1998   199    58.34
8/14/1999
8/22/1999
            226
            234
                   54.7
                   50.8
                                                        Landsat Bands
9/15/1999   258    45.2
7/15/2000   197    60.44
                                               70
8/16/2000   229    53.76
                                               65
 7/2/2001   183    61.74
                                                                          y = -0.2419x + 107.43
9/20/2001   263    42.96                       60
                                                                              R2 = 0.9648

                               Sun Elevation
 7/5/2002   186    61.35
                                               55
7/29/2002   210    55.93
                                               50
9/23/2002   266    41.97
 8/1/2003   213    55.67                       45

10/6/2004   280    37.1
                                               40
7/21/2005   202    59.06
                                               35
 8/9/2006   221    55.92
6/25/2007   176    62.87                       30
                                                 160    180   200   220        240     260        280   300
7/11/2007   192    61.4
                                                                    Day of Year
8/12/2007   224    55.24
8/28/2007   240    50.88
        50
                                                                                                             40
                                                                                                                                                                                   y = -0.0584x + 2350.7
                     y = -0.0226x + 932.45                   y = -0.0169x + 700.91                                                                                                         2
                              2                                                                                                                                                          R = 0.582
        45                  R = 0.1055                                   2
                                                                    R = 0.0862                               35
                                                              y = -0.0088x + 376.43                                                                                               y = -0.0419x + 1684.8
                                                                         2                                   30




                                                                                                     Band2
        40                                                           R = 0.0186                                                                                                         R2 = 0.4648
Band1




                                                                                                             25
        35
                                                                                                                                                                                   y = -0.0482x + 1935.9
                                                                                                             20                                                                          R2 = 0.5944
        30

                                                                                                             15
        25                                                                                                        1-Jun 21-Jun 11-Jul 31-Jul        20-       9-Sep 29-Sep 19-Oct
         1-Jun            21-Jun     11-Jul     31-Jul     20-Aug        9-Sep   29-Sep   19-Oct                                                    Aug

                                                                                                                             young             middle           Old
                                              young      middle    Old



                                                                                                           85
                     40
                                                                                                           80
                                                                                                                                                                                y = -0.1921x + 7688.9
                                                                                                                y = -0.0496x + 2002.2
                                                                                                                       2
                                                                                                                                                                                    R2 = 0.8866
                     35                                                                                    75         R = 0.458
                                                                                                           70
                     30                                                                                         y = -0.0386x + 1551.2
             Band3




                                                                                                   Band4

                                                                                                           65
                                                                                                                     R2 = 0.5162                                                y = -0.1642x + 6570.9
                                                                                                           60                                                                       R2 = 0.9101
                     25
                                                                                                           55
                                                                                                             y = -0.0517x + 2072.2
                     20                                                                                    50
                                                                                                                    R2 = 0.7116
                                                                                                                                                                                y = -0.1323x + 5299.5
                                                                                                           45
                     15                                                                                                                                                              R2 = 0.9208
                                                                                                           40
                      1-Jun        21-Jun     11-Jul      31-Jul     20-Aug      9-Sep    29-Sep   19-Oct
                                                                                                            1-Jun   21-Jun   11-Jul   31-Jul   20-Aug   9-Sep   29-Sep 19-Oct

                                                                    young        middle     old                               young        middle       old
        100
                                                                              y = -0.1564x + 6284.8
        90                                                                         R2 = 0.5959

        80

                                                                              y = -0.1862x + 7428.7
Band5




        70
                                                                              80   R2 = 0.9086                                                     y = -0.1568x + 6282.8
        60
                                                                              70                                                                       R2 = 0.7137
        50                                                                    y = -0.2041x + 8145.3
                                                                              60
                                                                                   R2 = 0.9131
        40                                                                    50
                                                                                                                                                   y = -0.1418x + 5650.6




                                                                      Band7
        30                                                               40
                                                                                                                                                       R2 = 0.8892
         1-Jun   21-Jun   11-Jul   31-Jul   20-Aug   9-Sep   29-Sep 19-Oct
                                                                         30
                                   young       middle        old
                                                                              20                                                                   y = -0.1687x + 6725.4
                                                                              10                                                                       R2 = 0.8753
                                                                     130
                                                                               0
                                                                     120       1-Jun   21-Jun   11-Jul   31-Jul   20-Aug   9-Sep   29-Sep 19-Oct
                                                                                                                                                   y = 0.0889x - 3410.4

                                                                                                    young         middle     old
                                                                                                                                                        R2 = 0.1542
                                                                     110

                                                                     100                                                                       y = -0.1221x + 4921.4
                                                               MSI




                                                                     90                                                                                R2 = 0.7647
                                                                     80

                                                                     70                                                                        y = -0.1713x + 6883.8
                                                                                                                                                       R2 = 0.8193
                                                                     60
                                                                      1-Jun 21-Jun 11-Jul 31-Jul 20-Aug 9-Sep 29-Sep 19-Oct


                                                                                                young         middle          old
      Normalization Method
• Constant value: difference between two
  dates on undamaged mature coniferous
  forest stands
                                                                    Dark and Bright Objects
                                                                         Normalization
                                 39                                                                                                                                     45
                                                                                                  y = 0.0133x - 491.85                                                                                                   y = 0.0016x - 30.736
Band1_DBCorrectedd




                                                                                                                                                                        40




                                                                                                                                                    Band2_DBCorrected
                                 37                                                                        2                                                                                                                      2
                                                                                                          R = 0.1413                                                    35
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              R = 0.0017
                                 35
                                                                                                                                                                        30
                                 33                                                               y = 0.0106x - 392.01                                                                                                   y = -0.0236x + 958.6
                                                                                                                                                                        25
                                                                                                           2                                                                                                                      2
                                 31                                                                       R = 0.0713                                                    20                                                    R = 0.0317
                                                                                                                                                                        15
                                 29
                                                                                                  y = 0.0022x - 60.159                                                  10                                              y = -0.0293x + 1186.7
                                 27
                                                                                                          R2 = 0.0021                                                    5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              R2 = 0.0505
                                 25                                                                                                                                      0
                                  1-Jun 21-Jun 11-Jul 31-Jul 20-Aug 9-Sep 29-Sep 19-Oct                                                                                  1-Jun 21-Jun 11-Jul 31-Jul   20-   9-Sep    29- 19-Oct
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Aug            Sep


                                                           young         middle       Old                                                                                           young       middle         Old

                                                                                                                                               80
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             y = -0.0673x + 2737.7
                                         35                                                                                                    75                                                                                      2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      R = 0.3053
                                         33
                                                                                                    y = 0.0117x - 433.36



                                                                                                                           Band4_DBCorrected
                                                                                                                                               70
                                         31                                                             R2 = 0.0693
                     Band3_DBCorrected




                                         29
                                                                                                                                               65
                                         27                                                                                                                                                                                  y = -0.0558x + 2267.7
                                                                                                    y = 0.0113x - 433.68
                                         25                                                                                                    60                                                                                     R2 = 0.2529
                                                                                                        R2 = 0.1252
                                         23
                                         21                                                                                                    55
                                         19                                                        y = -0.0017x + 83.428
                                         17
                                                                                                        R2 = 0.0024                            50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             y = -0.0267x + 1107.3
                                         15
                                                                                                                                               45                                                                                  R2 = 0.1072
                                          1-Jun   21-Jun   11-Jul   31-Jul 20-Aug 9-Sep   29-Sep 19-Oct

                                                                                                                                               40
                                                                       young     middle     old
                                                                                                                                                1-Jun                   21-Jun   11-Jul   31-Jul 20-Aug     9-Sep   29-Sep 19-Oct


                                                                                                                                                                                    young      middle         old
                    100

                    90
                                                                                                               y = -0.0288x + 1222
Band5_DBCorrected

                                                                                                                     R2 = 0.0354
                    80

                    70
                                                                                            y = -0.0978x + 3923.2
                    60                                                                                                2
                                                                   80
                                                                                                                     R = 0.5353
                                                                                                                                          y = 0.0195x - 718.37
                    50                                             70
                                                                                                                                                2
                                                                                                        y = -0.113x + 4528.2R                       = 0.0142

                                               Band7_DBCorrected
                                                                   60
                    40
                                                                   50
                                                                                                                     R2 = 0.6182
                                                                                                                                        y = -0.0415x + 1671.5
                    30
                                                  40                                                                                          R2 = 0.261
                     1-Jun 21-Jun 11-Jul 31-Jul 20-Aug 9-Sep 29-Sep 19-Oct
                                                                   30
                                                                                                                                        y = -0.0592x + 2375.2
                                     young                         middle
                                                                   20             old
                                                                                                               140                            R2 = 0.4023
                                                                   10                                          130                                                         y = 0.0717x - 2725.4

                                                                                             MSI_DBCorrected
                                                                                                               120                                                             R2 = 0.1023
                                                                   0
                                                                   1-Jun 21-Jun 11-Jul            110
                                                                                         31-Jul 20-Aug 9-Sep 29-Sep 19-Oct
                                                                                                               100                                                     y = -0.1179x + 4757.5
                                                                                   young               middle             old
                                                                                                                90                                                             R2 = 0.74
                                                                                                                80

                                                                                                                70
                                                                                                                                                                       y = -0.1841x + 7394.2
                                                                                                                60
                                                                                                                                                                              R2 = 0.8376
                                                                                                                 1-Jun 21-Jun 11-Jul   31-Jul 20-Aug 9-Sep 29-Sep 19-Oct


                                                                                                                                young       middle      old
Ba
  nd
     1_
Ba      DB                         R-Square
  nd       C




                             0.2
                                   0.4
                                         0.6
                                               0.8




                         0
                                                     1
     2 _ o rre
Ba      DB       ct
  nd       Co ed
     3_      rr
Ba      DB e ct
  nd       Co ed
     4_      rr
Ba      DB e ct
  nd       Co ed
     5_      rr
Ba      DB e ct
  nd       Co ed
     7_      rr
        DB e ct
  M        Co ed
    SI
      _D rre c
         BC       te
            or      d
              re
                ct
                   ed
             Ba
                 nd
                    1
             Ba
    Young




                 nd
                    2
             Ba
                 nd
                    3
    Middle




             Ba
                 nd
                    4
    Old




             Ba
                 nd
                    5
             Ba
                 nd
                    7
                M
                    SI
                          160                                                            y = -0.0412x + 1754.1
MSI_DBdirectlycorrected




                          140                                                                    R2 = 0.0134
                          120
                          100                                                            y = -0.0328x + 1374.7
                          80
                                                                                                 R2 = 0.0216

                          60                                                             y = -0.1757x + 7059.3
                          40                                                                     R2 = 0.4181
                          20
                           0
                           1-Jun   21-Jun   11-Jul   31-Jul   20-Aug   9-Sep   29-Sep   19-Oct

                                                      Young      Middle    Old
Example-Cloud Gap




  20080828
20070828-20070711_Conifdiff
B432: 20070828-20070711
20070828-20070711_DBCorrected
      Change Detection-P-value
•   MSI calculation
•   Radiometric normalization
•   Difference of MSI normalization (Z-Score)
•   P-value calculation
•   Smooth
Change Detection-MSI Difference
                                           20060809-19990915_MSI-Diff-Z-P

                                                100
                            y = 51.607x + 22.073
                                R2 = 0.5964
                                                 80
   Beetle Damage_BA%




                                                 60


                                                 40


                                                 20


                                                   0
                       -1           -0.5               0             0.5    1   1.5

                                                 -20
                                                           P-Value
                                        20070828-19990915_MSI-Diff-Z-P

                                             100
                         y = 52.498x + 21.71
                            R2 = 0.7524        80
Beetle Damage_BA%




                                               60


                                               40


                                               20


                                               0
                    -1           -0.5               0             0.5    1   1.5

                                              -20
                                                        P-Value




                                   137 field points
                                      DB6BCorrected: 20070828-19990915_MSI-Diff-Z-P

                                                     100
                           y = 54.999x + 21.478
                               R2 = 0.7642           80
Beetle Damage_BA%




                                                     60


                                                     40


                                                     20


                                                      0
                    -0.8      -0.6    -0.4    -0.2         0     0.2     0.4   0.6   0.8   1   1.2
                                                     -20


                                                     -40
                                                               P-Value
                                               DBDCorrected: 20070828-19990915

                                                100
                           y = 59.147x + 22.794
Beetle Damage_BA%




                                 2
                               R = 0.7933         80

                                                  60

                                                  40

                                                  20

                                                  0
                    -0.6       -0.4     -0.2           0   0.2     0.4   0.6     0.8   1   1.2
                                                -20
                                                             P-Value



                                            93 field points
           0.9
           0.8
           0.7
           0.6
R-Square




           0.5
           0.4
           0.3
           0.2
           0.1
            0
                 20070828   20070812       20070711        20070625   20060809

                                   MSI   MSI_DB6B     MSI_DBD
                                       MSI_diff

               Damage%>=50       Damage%>=20        Damage%>=1       Damage%=0

150


140


130


120


110


100


90
      20010702 20020729 20020923 20030801 20041006 20050721 20060809 20070625 20080828
                                   MSI_diff_dbcorr

              Damage%>=50        Damage%>=20         Damage%>=1       Damage%=0

150


140


130


120


110


100


90
      20010702 20020729 20020923 20030801 20041006 20050721 20060809 20070625 20080828
                                  MSI_diff_conifcorr

                Damage%>=50       Damage%>=20          Damage>=1    Damage%=0

150


140


130


120


110


100


90
      20010702 20020729 20020923 20030801 20041006 20050721 20060809 20070625 20080828
       Conclusion and Discussion
•   MSI was the best vegetation index for detecting beetle damage
•   The variation of Band 1 value for coniferous stands by season was mainly affected by
    atmosphere,
•   Band 2 and Band 3 were affected by confounded effects from atmosphere and sun elevation,
•   Band 4, 5,7 and MSI were highly linearly related with season (Julian day), mainly caused by sun
    elevation. Phenology had little effects.
•   The sun elevation effect interacts with forest stand succession stage.
•   There is no significant difference between the slopes of middle age and old age stands with sun
    elevation. However there is a trend that old age stands were affected more by sun elevation.
•   For the young stands (regeneration), MSI slightly increase with the season, opposite from the
    mature stands. MSI wouldn’t be a good index to detect the regeneration change
•   Band 5 and Band 7 can separate young regeneration stands from mature stands.
•   The normalization method of using constant value for cloud gap filling showed almost seamless
    edge,
•   The normalization method of using constant value seemed to minimize the difference of two dates
    MSI over undamaged mature stands, it would help define the threshold value of continuous
    damage mapping without the aid of field data. however it won’t improve the relationship between
    the P-value and beetle damage severity.
•   For most images except 20070711, dark and bright objects corrected images have slightly higher
    R-square of the relationship between the P-value and beetle damage severity. Why?
•   Why 20070828 image worked best, 20070625 worked worst, and 20070812 and 20070711
    worked between?
•   Application of constant value normalization method

								
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