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A comparative study of the effectiveness of Advertising on different social networking ? The cases of Facebook, Orkut,Twitter & LinkedIn

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					                             A
           DISSERTATION PROJECT REPORT ON

    “A comparative study of the effectiveness of
Advertising on different social networking ? The cases
     of Facebook, Orkut,Twitter & LinkedIn”
        A dissertation project report submitted to

    Accurate Institute of Management and Technology,

    Greater Noida as mandatory part of PGDM course.



   Submitted By:-                          Submitted To:-

  Deepak kumar patel                     Prof. Pradeep verma

 AIMTDM 1113132



                       Batch 2011-2013

ACCURATE INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY

        49, Knowledge Park – III, Greater Noida-201306


                              0
                   TABLE OF CONTENTS

   Declaration ………………………………………………………………………...2

   Acknowledgements…………………………..…………………………………… 3

   Executive Summary………………………………………...……………………..4

   Chapter 1: Project Details……………………………………..……………….....6

            1.1 Introduction

            1.2 Purpose & Scope of study

            1.3 Methodology

   Chapter 2: Data and Data Analysis…………………..…………………………51

            2.1 Data Collection

            2.2 Data Analysis

   Chapter 3: Findings/Conclusions and Recommendations……………………...69

            3.1 Conclusion

            3.2 Constraints & Limitations

            3.3 Recommendations

   Chapter 4: Annexure & Bibliography…………………………………………73
   Bibliography…………………………………………………………………......73
   Annexure…………………………………………………………………….......74




                                   1
                                  DECLARATION
This is to declare that the Report titled “A comparative study of the effectiveness of Advertising
on different social networking ? The cases of Facebook, Orkut,Twitter & LinkedIn” has been
made for the partial fulfillment of the PGDM Course under the guidance of Prof.PradeepVerma.

I confirm that this Report truly represents my work undertaken as a part of my Dissertation Topic
This work is not a replication of work done previously by any other person. I also confirm that
the contents of the report and the views contained therein have been discussed and deliberated
with the faculty guide.




Signature of the Student                     :

Name of the Student (in Capital Letters)     :       DEEPAK KUMAR PATEL

Registration No                              :       AIMTDM-1113132

Date                                         :

Place                                        :       GREATER NOIDA :




                                                 2
                                ACKNOWLEDGEMENT



    Apart from the efforts of our, the success of this project depends largely on the
encouragement and guidelines of many others. I take this opportunity to express my gratitude to
the people who have been instrumental in the successful completion of this project.

I take immense pleasure in thanks to those people who give their valuable time to me for filling
my research questionnaire and all my friends for support and providing me all the necessary
aspects throughout this research has been successfully completed.

I also express my sincere thanks Mr. Pradeep verma for his valuable guidance and support at
all time.

Finally, yet important, I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to My parents for their
blessings, and I am also very thankful to my all friends and colleagues who had been helping me
whole heartedly throughout the project, for their help and wishes for the successful completion
of this project and without whom I would never think to complete the project on time.



DEEPAK KUMAR PATEL

AIMTDM 111 31 32




                                                3
                                   Executive Summary


Internet is the emerging information technology with the credibility of immediacy and fastness,
thus, it brings globalization in every aspects of communication. Communication through internet
is more specified, with effective interactive strategy among its users. In recent days, internet
advertising has taken new forms which have more advantages over the traditional mediums like
print media, television and radio. Marketing communication is becoming precise, personal,
interesting, interactive and social. Different strategies of communication are followed in various
social networking sites like Face book, Twitter and Orkut. They not only create impact over the
audience but also make them interact with the marketing statistics created. People get attached to
brand communication in social networking sites than usual banner and pop up ads. These
networking sites bring more interactive communication with advertising. Social networking sites
will become the primary arena for highly targeted marketing and advertising. Therefore, it is
necessary to study the effectiveness of brand communication strategy followed in social
networking sites which are mainly accessed by Indian users. This research attempts to find the
effectiveness of brand communication strategy in promoting and advertising their brand in social
networking sites. The effectiveness is determined with the help of survey from people who use
these sites, and the content of three social networking sites is analyzed.




The proposed study includes the perspective of the consumers. It attempts to answer the
following questions:
1. Is social network advertising effective in sales for companies or is it simply ending up in
attracting junk traffic?
2. Which is the most preferred Social Network advertising approach?
3. Does a customer like being approached on social networking sites?




                                                  4
1.INTRODUCTION
  1.1 Project Details




           5
SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES (Social Networking Sites)
We define social networking sites as web based services that allow individuals to construct a
public profile within a bounded system, articulate a list of other users with whom they share a
connection, and view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the
system. The nature and nomenclature of these connections may vary from site to site. Other way
of defining Social networking sites is that it is a place where people can use networks of online
friends and group memberships to keep in touch with current friends, reconnect with old friends
or create real–life friendships through similar interests or groups.
Besides establishing important social relationships, social networking members can share their
interests with other like–minded members by joining groups and forums. Some networking can
also help members find a job or establish business contacts. Social networking sites include
Facebook, twitter, LinkedIn, orkut and so on. Most social networking websites also offer
additional features. In addition to blogs and forums, members can express themselves by
designing their profile page to reflect their personality. The most popular extra features include
music and video sections. Members can read bios of their favorite music artists from the artist's
profile page as well as listen to their favorite songs and watch music videos. The video section
can include everything from member–generated videos from hundreds of subjects to TV clips
and movie trailers.
What makes social network sites unique is not that they allow individuals to meet strangers, but
rather that they enable users to articulate and make visible their social networks. On many of the
large sites, participants are not necessarily “networking” or looking to meet new people instead,
they are primarily communicating with people who are already a part of their extended social
network. While SNS have implemented a wide variety of technical features, their backbone
consists of visible profiles that display an articulated list of friends who are also users of the
system. Profiles are unique pages where one can “type oneself into being”. After joining an SNS,
an individual is asked to fill out forms containing a series of questions. The profile is generated
using the answers to these questions, which typically include descriptions such as age, location,
interests, and an “about me” Section. Most sites also encourage users to upload a profile photo.
Some sites allow users to enhance their profiles by adding multimedia content or modifying their
profile‟s look and feel. Others, such as Facebook, allow users to add modules (“Applications”)
that enhance their profile.

                                                  6
After joining a social network site, users are prompted to identify others in the system with
whom they have a relationship. The label for these relationships differs depending on the site –
popular terms include “Friends,” “Contacts” and “Fans”. Most Social Networking Sites require
bi-directional confirmation for Friendship, but some do not. These one – directional ties are
sometimes labeled
as “Fans” or “Followers”.
The public display of connections is a crucial component of Social Networking Sites. The friends
list contains links to each friend‟s profile, enabling viewers to traverse the network graph by
clicking through the Friends lists. On most sites, the list of Friends is visible to anyone who is
permitted to view the profile, although there are exceptions. Many Social Networking Sites also
provide a mechanism for in users to leave messages on their Friends‟ profiles. This feature
typically involves leaving “comments,” Although sites employ various labels for this feature. In
addition, Social Networking Sites often have a private messaging feature similar to webmail.
While both private messages and comments are popular most of the major Social Networking
Sites, they are not universally available.
Beyond profiles, Friends, comments, and private messaging, Social Networking Sites vary
greatly in their features and user base. Some have photo – sharing or video sharing capabilities
others have built – blogging and instant messaging technology.
While Social Networking Sites are often designed to be widely accessible, many attract
homogeneous populations
initially, so it is not uncommon to find groups using sites to segregate themselves by nationality,
age, educational level, or other factors that typically segment society even if that was not the
intention of the designers.




                                                 7
Some Top Social Networking Sites :
Facebook.com




Homepage of Facebook.com

Facebook is a social networking service launched in February 2004, owned and operated
by Facebook, Inc. As of September 2012, Facebook has over one billion active users, more than
half of whom use Facebook on a mobile device. Users must register before using the site, after
which they may create a personal profile, add other users as friends, and exchange messages,
including automatic notifications when they update their profile. Additionally, users may join
common-interest user groups, organized by workplace, school or college, or other characteristics,
and categorize their friends into lists such as "People From Work" or "Close Friends".

Facebook was founded by Mark Zuckerberg with his college roommates and fellow Harvard
University students Eduardo     Saverin, Andrew      McCollum,Dustin        Moskovitz    and Chris
Hughes. The website's membership was initially limited by the founders to Harvard students, but
was expanded to other colleges in the Boston area, the Ivy League, and Stanford University. It
gradually added support for students at various other universities before opening to high school
students, and eventually to anyone aged 13 and over. Facebook now allows any users who
declare themselves to be at least 13 years old to become registered users of the site.

In May 2005, Accel partners invested $12.7 million in Facebook, and Jim Breyer added $1
million of his own money to the pot.

                                                 8
According to a May 2011 Consumer Reports survey, there are 7.5 million children under 13 with
accounts and 5 million under 10, violating the site's terms of service.

A January 2009 Compete.com study ranked Facebook as the most used social networking service
by worldwide monthly active users.Entertainment Weekly included the site on its end-of-the-
decade "best-of" list, saying, "How on earth did we stalk our exes, remember our co-workers'
birthdays, bug our friends, and play a rousing game of Scrabulous before Facebook?" Critics,
such as Facebook Detox, state that Facebook has turned into a national obsession in the United
States, resulting in vast amounts of time lost and encouraging narcissism. Quantcast estimates
Facebook has 138.9 million monthly unique U.S. visitors in May 2011. According to Social
Media Today, in April 2010 an estimated 41.6% (129.5 million) of the U.S. population had a
Facebook account. Nevertheless, Facebook's market growth started to stall in some regions, with
the site losing 7 million active users in the United States and Canada in May 2011.



Offices of Facebook Inc.
Menlo Park Headquarters

Facebook Ireland Ltd.

Facebook Hyderabad


Revenue of Facebook.com
 Year           2006                2007      2008          2009          2010          2011

 Revenue        $52                 $150      $280          $775          $2,000        $4,270

 Growth          ----------------   188%      87%           177%          158%          114%



Facebook generally has a lower clickthrough rate (CTR) for advertisements than most major
Web sites. According to BusinessWeek.com, banner advertisements on Facebook have generally
received one-fifth the number of clicks compared to those on the Web as a whole, although
specific comparisons can reveal a much larger disparity. For example, while Google users click
on the first advertisement for search results an average of 8% of the time (80,000 clicks for every
one million searches), Facebook's users click on advertisements an average of 0.04% of the time
(400 clicks for every one million pages).
                                                 9
Orkut




Home Page of Orkut.com

Orkut is a social networking website that is owned and operated by Google. The service is
designed to help users meet new and old friends and maintain existing relationships. The website
is named after its creator, Google employee Orkut Büyükkökten. Although Orkut is less popular
in the United States than competitors Facebook and MySpace, it is one of the most visited
websites in India and Brazil. As of October 2011, 59.1% of Orkut's users are from Brazil,
followed by India with 27.1% and Japan with 6.7%.

Originally hosted in California, in August 2008 Google announced that Orkut would be fully
managed and operated in Brazil, by Google Brazil, in the city of Belo Horizonte. This was
decided due to the large Brazilian user base and growth of legal issues.

As of October 2012, Alexa traffic ranked Orkut.com 746th and Orkut.com.br 738th in the world;
the web site currently has over 33 million active users worldwide.

Orkut was quietly launched on January 22, 2004 by Google, the search engine company. Orkut
Büyükökten, a Turkish software engineer, developed it as an independent project while working
at Google. This project was made mainly due to the objective of finding a girl friend and not at
all with the objective of making a social networking website for all others to enjoy and that is
                                                10
why it was updated afterwards. While previously working for Affinity Engines, he had
developed a similar system, In Circle, intended for use by university alumni groups. In late June
2004, Affinity Engines filed suit against Google, claiming that Büyükkökten and Google based
Orkut on in Circle code. The allegation is based on the presence of 9 identical bugs in Orkut that
also exist in In Circle.

LinkedIn




Home Page of LinkedIn.com

LinkedIn Corporation is a social networking website for people in professional occupations.
Founded in December 2002 and launched on May 5, 2003, it is mainly used for professional
networking. As of January 2013, LinkedIn reports more than 200 million acquired users in more
than 200 countries and territories.

The site is available in English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, Swedish,
Romanian, Russian, Turkish, Japanese, Czech,Polish, Korean, Indonesian, and Malay. Quantcast

                                               11
reports LinkedIn has 21.4 million monthly unique U.S. visitors and 47.6 million globally. In June
2011, LinkedIn had 33.9 million unique visitors, up 63 percent from a year earlier and surpassing
MySpace. LinkedIn filed for an initial public offering in January 2011 and traded its first shares
on May 19, 2011, under the NYSE symbol "LNKD".

LinkedIn's CEO is Jeff Weiner, previously a Yahoo! Inc. executive. The company was founded
by Reid Hoffman and founding team members from PayPal and Socialnet.com (Allen Blue, Eric
Ly, Jean-Luc Vaillant, Lee Hower, Konstantin Guericke, Stephen Beitzel, David Eves, Ian
McNish, Yan Pujante, and Chris Saccheri).

Founder Reid Hoffman, previously CEO of LinkedIn, is now Chairman of the Board. Deep
Nishar is Vice President of Products.LinkedIn is headquartered in Mountain View, California,
with offices in Omaha, Chicago, New York, London and Dublin. It is funded by Sequoia Capital,
Greylock, Bain Capital Ventures, Bessemer Venture Partners and the European Founders Fund.
LinkedIn reached profitability in March 2006. Through January 2011, the company had received
a total of $103 million of investment.

In late 2003, Sequoia Capital led the Series A investment in the company.In June 2008, Sequoia
Capital, Greylock Partners, and other venture capital firms purchased a 5% stake in the company
for $53 million, giving the company a post-money valuation of approximately $1 billion.

In 2010, LinkedIn opened a European headquarters in Dublin, Ireland,[received a $20 million
investment from Tiger Global Management LLC at a valuation of approximately $2 billion, and
announced its first acquisition, Mspoke, and improved its 1% premium subscription ratio. In
October of that year Silicon Valley Insider ranked the company No. 10 on its Top 100 List of
most valuable start ups. By December, the company was valued at $1.575 billion in private
markets.




                                               12
Revenue Model of LinkedIn.com

The main revenue model of LinkedIn.com is Google adsense. Through which its shows different
types of advertisement and generate revenue.




Some Facts About LinkedIn




                                               13
Twitter.com




Home Page of Twitter.com

Twitter is an online social networking service and microblogging service that enables its users to
send and read text-based messages of up to 140characters, known as "tweets".

Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey and by July, the social networking site was
launched. The service rapidly gained worldwide popularity, with over 500 million registered
users as of 2012, generating over 340 million tweets daily and handling over 1.6 billion search
queries per day. Since its launch, Twitter has become one of the ten most visited websites on the
Internet, and has been described as "the SMS of theInternet." Unregistered users can read tweets,
while registered users can post tweets through the website interface, SMS, or a range of apps for
mobile devices.

Twitter Inc. is based in San Francisco, with additional servers and offices in New York City,
Boston, and San Antonio




                                               14
Facts about Twitter


Area served    Worldwide                     Employees        900+ (2012)

Founder(s)                                   Website          twitter.com

Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass,                     Written in     JavaScript,Ruby,Scala,Java

Evan Williams, Biz Stone                     Alexa rank 10 (February 2013)

Key people     Jack Dorsey (Chairman)        Type of site   Social              network

Dick Costolo (CEO)                           service,microblogging

IndustryI nternet                            Registration   Required to post, follow, or
                                             be followed Users 200 million (active

Revenue US$140 million (2010 est.)           February 2013)
                                             Available in   Multilingual


                                             Launched       July 15, 2006[9]




                                        15
What is Online Advertising

On line advertising is similar to other forms of communication except for one critical difference
that is Internet. Consumer behavior follows a model radically different from traditional
advertising media. This model can be explained as the progression 'Awareness - Interest - Desire
- Action'. All these activities occur simultaneously in Internet advertising. Online advertising
entails, placing of electronic messages on a web site or email platform which achieves the
following purpose-

    Generates awareness for the brand.
    Stimulates interest /preference for a product or service.
    Provides the means to contact the advertiser for information orto make a purchase.
History of Internet Advertising

Advertising has faithfully served the print industry for 200 years, and was applied to the Internet
with every expectation of success. Web advertising

began with Center and Siegel‟s in famous Green Card Lottery message on

the Usenet site in April 1994 and was followed in October by advertising placements for AT&T,
MCI, Sprint, and Volvo on Hot-wired and finally the idea caught on. The Advertisement grew in
sophistication, and today there are Static, rotating, scrolling, animated, flash and interstitial
banner ads a which are designed to generate traffic, increase brand awareness and generate leads
and sales. Internet companies were founded on advertising revenues, and for some years the
companies prospered. Rate depended on: -

i. The Type of advertisement.

ii. Where it appeared on the WebPages.

iii. How it integrated with content.

iv. How well it matched the advertiser‟s target audience




                                                16
Online advertising has to offer:

   1. Scalability

Like television commercials, it doesn't cost very much to increase the reach of an online ad
campaign. There is no need to print additional copies of a magazine, or to create and mail direct-
mail pieces.

   2. Hot demographics

The online community is more affluent, better educated, and younger and more willing to spend
than the population at large. More and more people go online and the number is ever increasing.

   3. Targeted messages
Unlike broadcast and print media, the Internet allows advertisers to target exactly who will see
their ads, and in what context. Web publications serve every conceivable audience, from the
mass-market obscure niche groups. Beyond that, the technology leads target customers by their
computing platform (PCs or Macintoshes), Web browser(specific versions of Netscape
Navigator or Microsoft Internet Explorer),domain type (. com, .edu, .gov, .mil, or .net) or
individual domains (America Online, IBM, Prodigy).

   4. Broad and flexible reach
While the Net cannot yet match television's market penetration, the size of the online audience is
growing very quickly. More importantly, because you buy online ads by the impression, you can
buy as much or as little of that audience as you desire. And that's true no matter how popular or
specialized the site on which your ads run- as a rule, advertising costs depend on how many
impressions you buy, not on the size of a site's audience.

   5. Cost-effective
Partly because you pay only for exactly what you're getting, online advertising can be extremely
competitive with other forms of advertising. If you buy 1,000 ad impressions, for example, you
know that exactly 1,000 people will see your ad.




                                                17
   6. Detailed tracking and measurement
Compared to online advertising, traditional media advertising is like shooting in the dark. The
Web allows advertisers to gather detailed information on who saw an ad, when, in what context,
how many times and so on. Better still; you get this information instantly, not weeks later when
it's too late to adjust your campaign. Of course, not every site currently provides this level of
feedback, and not every advertiser knows what to do with it. Over a period of time, however, this
is likely to become one of Web advertising's most important competitive advantages.

   7. The ability to extend the transaction
Traditionally, advertising was a one-way mechanism. Apart from techniques like toll-free
numbers pitched in infomercials and mail-in coupons in print publications, there was no way for
customers to act on the information in the ads. On the Web, though, interested customers can
click, learn more, and actually buy on the spot. There's simply nothing more powerful.8.

   8. Good Creativity
Creative Design of Home page is very important for the surfer to get hooked on to the site.
Within seconds the user should get an idea about the site and where to go within it. If the
opportunity is missed the user many never return.

   9. Hence Content is King
Content is the most important element of a site. Content rich Web pages lure users. The value on
the web is information. The beauty and challenge of the Web is that it gives the user, the ability
to personalize non-static information and choose exactly what she sees.

Unlike commercials or print ads, a Web ad banner is only the beginning of the process. While
your banner may present only your branding message, interested prospects can always click on it
to go directly to your Web site. Once there, they can access as much material on your company
and products as you care to present. Graphics & the visual elements also play an important role
in the users decision to stay or leave. Use of creative concepts, colors, movement &sound
enhance the chances of the user staying longer on the site. In addition to all this the creators of
web sites & on line advertising must take into consideration the factors like :-




                                                 18
a) How fast does the site download,

b) How easily navigable the site is,

c) What is the domain name,

d) What are the other publicity & advertising activities which building traffic to the site?

If all such parameters are considered while selecting the web sites for online advertising, the
impact of such advertising will definitely be felt. Online advertising is one medium, which helps
to generate awareness about the brand being advertised, it can help in creating an image, it helps
in educating the audience and also builds interactivity & direct response. No other traditional
medium has the ability to give all of this. We are still at the experimental stage but many clients
have already started allocating a budget towards online advertising & web is being considered
not only as an advertising medium but also as a marketing tool. Hence online advertising, though
slow to take off, will definitely be a medium of the future.

Internet Users Population Chart




                                                 19
Advantages of Online Advertisement

1. Target Marketing

A major advantage of the web is the ability to target very specific groups of individuals with a
minimum of waste coverage.

In the consumer market. Through personalization and other targeting techniques, sites are
becoming more tailored to meet once need and want.




2. Message Tailoring

As a result of precise targeting, messages can be designed to appeal to the specific needs and
wants of the target audience. The interactive capability of the net makes it possible to carry on
one-to-one marketing with increased success in both the business and the consumer markets.




3. Interactive Capabilities

The interactive nature of the web leads to a degree of customer involvement. Site visitors are
already interested enough in the company and/ or products to visit.




4. Information access

Perhaps the greatest advantage of the Internet is its availability as an information source.
Internet users can find a plethora of information about almost any topic of merely by conducting
search through one of the search engines. Once they have visited a particular site, uses can garner
a wealth of information regarding product specification, costs, purchase information, and so on.
Links will direct them to even more information if it is desired.




                                                20
5. Creativity

Creatively design sites can enhance company's image leading to repeat visits, and positively
position the company or organization in the consumer's mind.

6.Exposure

For many seller companies with limited budget the www (world wide web) enables them to gain
exposure to potential customers that heretofore would have been impossible. For a function of
the investment that would be required using traditional media, companies can gain national and
even international exposure in a timely manner.

7. Speed

For those requiring information on a company, its products, and /or its service offerings, the
Internet is the quickest means of acquiring this information.




Disadvantages of Internet

   1. Measurement problem
One the greatest disadvantage of the net is the lack of reliability of the research numbers
generate. A Quick review of forecasts, audience profiles, and other statistics offered by research
providers will demonstrate a great deal of variance leading to a serious lack of validity and
reliability. One of the industry's largest and most sited trade publication has written an expose of
a heavily sited Internet research company, referring to the number it provides as "scary" feathers
have stressed concern over the fact that most sites figures or not audited, which mainly to
rampant cheating in the respect of the number reported.2.

   2. Audience characteristic
Due imparts to the accelerating growth of the net, audience characteristic change quickly.
Numbers reported may be completed quickly and are often vary from one provided to the next.




                                                21
   3. Web Snarl
At times, downloading information from the net takes a long time. When there are a number of
users, the time increasing and some Sites may be inaccessible due to too many visitors. For many
users who expect speed, this is a major disadvantage.

   4. Costs
The cost of doing business on the MAT continues to increase. While it is possible to establish a
site in expensively, establishing a good side and maintaining it is becoming more and more
costly. As noted earlier , Levi‟s for the cost of maintaining a site is considered "world-Class "
was prohibitive and one of the reason for abandoning its E-commerce efforts.

   5. Limited production quality
Although it is improving, net advertising does not offer the capability of many competitive
media for a production standpoint. While the advent of advanced technologies and rich medium
is narrowing the gap, the net still lags behind some areas.

   6. Poor reach
While the Internet numbers are growing in leaps and bounds, its six is still far behind that of
television. As a result, interest companies have turned to traditional medium to achieve reach and
awareness goals. In addition statistics says that only a small percentage of sites on the Internet
are captured and that the top 50 sites listed account for 95 percent of the site visited.

   7. Language
If I am selling the goods through the media the buyer prefer to get the information of the
products or services with his own language but the advertiser has no option than to advertise in
one single language which is a major disadvantage.

Given below is the comparison between Traditional and Web Advertising that will signify the
importance of in today's world.




                                                  22
Traditional Advertisement                                       Online Adverisements
Bound by geography and location                                 The Web market is borderless
Advertisement costs are relativelyhigh                          Web Advertisement rates are
                                                                relatively low

Lead times for implementation are substantial              Lead times are virtually
                                                            non-existent
Limited interactivity exists.                              Web marketing is based on high
                                                            level of interactivity
Getting customer feedback is a painful process             Customer feedback is immediate
Tracking the effectiveness of the Advertisement efforts is Effectiveness can be easily
relatively difficult                                        monitored On the internet
Marketing efforts are restricted bytime and space          Advertisement can becarried out
                                                           24 hours a day, 365 days a year
Traditional marketing is static                            Web advertising is dynamic and
                                                            multimedia supported
Traditional advertising does not invoke immediate action   Web advertising requires the user
                                                            To take immediate action - like
                                                           Clicking on the banner ad and
                                                            thus going to your site to know
                                                            more of company
Advertisements are passively received                      The user has a high attention level
                                                           while he is on the net. Thus
                                                           advertisements get noticed,
                                                           remembered, and acted upon
Advertisements are ubiquitous                              Here, while searching for travel
                                                           sites, ads related to travel agencies
                                                           are displayed
Advertising does not target a focuse daudience             Advertisements are very focused.
                                                           PC software can be displayed to
                                                            PC users, while MAC users are
                                                            Not shown those ads




                                                23
WHY SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES ARE USED AS AN ADVERTISING TOOL?
From the last decade, social networking is on the rise for business reasons and also for personal
use. With its popularity increasing day by day, the need for business tables to go social is
indispensable.
There are four main reasons for social networks used as advertising tools.
1. Cost efficiency- Advertising on social networks is relatively cheap compared to other
Traditional media, it usually has a similar or expanded reach at much lower costs. In Addition, it
is possible for companies to generate free publicity through creative Advertising techniques.
There have been a number of successful viral marketing Campaigns in YouTube and Facebook
in the recent years. Creating a page for a brand in facebook is free which is cost efficiency and
also creates a large number of active followers.
2. Large reach- Since social networking websites has millions of active users, it has become
more popular and acts as a good medium for sharing their SOCIAL EXPERIENCE and helps in
building relationships. The impact for a social network is the reach of an advertisement on a
large scale. With its demand for advertisement is on the rise, displaying an advertisement is
significant in such networks is essential for its improvement in potential. The reach by a social
network is greater than any other mass media of its kind.
3. Targeted advertising- Advertisers have access to a great deal of information about Users and
their interests, allowing them to customize and target their advertisements to a degree not yet
seen in any other advertising medium. For example, if a user lists “pro Wrestling” as an interest
on their Facebook profile, the websites advertising system Will generate advertisements based on
that particular interest. However, this can raise Privacy issues: Facebook‟s Beacon targeted
advertising system suffered a great deal of backlash and had to be modified heavily to appease its
users.
4. Time spent online- People are spending increasing amounts of time online, especially on
social networking websites, at the expense of traditional advertising media such as television and
newspapers. This can be viewed as a result of many of the traditional functions – news,
television shows – of the old advertising Media being shifted online to social networks such as
Digg and YouTube. As a result, Advertisers are increasingly looking for ways to reach out to
consumers who are Spending more and more time online.



                                                   24
Types of Online Advertising
Google AdWords (Pay-per-click Advertising)




Pay per click advertising is an excellent alternative for companies who have the financial
resources and can make an investment in order to bring targeted traffic to their websites. Like
SEO traffic, AdWords is considered targeted because people are actually typing in keyword
phrases that are relevant to your products and services before clicking on your advertisement.
This can bring a flood of traffic to your online business very quickly, and this is an excellent
choice as long as you‟re able to turn a profit.
That‟s where the problem usually lies for small companies who are inexperienced with this form
of advertising. There is a lot of competition in pay per click campaigns these days, and it is very
easy to waste a great deal of money if you don‟t have the experience. Many e-commerce stores
get wrapped up in bidding wars that cost product margins to drop substantially. Therefore, if
you‟re going to give this form of advertising a try, just make sure that you take an excellent
training course and be ready to invest some money in the beginning while you figure out the
entire process.
                                                  25
Banner Advertising




This form of online advertising is even older than the search engines themselves, and the concept
is pretty simple. You simply put some sort of banner (usually with a catchy image and headline)
on a relevant website. Users who choose to click the banners will end up on your website and
hopefully will make a purchase. The problem is that these days, web users have developed
“banner blindness” so only a small percentage will actually click on your ad. With this in mind,
you need to make sure that you‟re not paying very much for your advertising, especially if you
are paying a certain amount per impressions (impressions means that your ad would show up a
certain number of times and you will get charged regardless of whether anyone actually clicks on
your advertisement).




                                               26
Newsletter Advertising




You can contact webmasters and email programs to ask them if they are willing to sell ad space
in their newsletter or e-zine. This way you will have access to their subscribers and be able to
reach them with a simple low cost advertisement. The ad can be something as simple as a text
link that states your website is a sponsor of that publication. Generous newsletter publishers may
allow you to have an entire page space on their sent publications to give you maximize exposure.
This makes it much simpler to reach an audience that wants to read the email with your website
content information included.




                                               27
Affiliate Marketing




Whether you specialize in physical products or in digital information products like e-books and
other courses, affiliate marketing is a great form of online advertising. The major advantage is
that you don‟t actually have to pay your affiliates a commission until the sale is made. If you do
a good job of promoting your affiliate program in the appropriate marketplaces, then these
affiliates can do most of the legwork for you like writing articles, using pay per click advertising
themselves, and ultimately driving traffic to your product in any number of ways.


Unfortunately, there are still many website owners outside of traditional Internet marketing who
are not familiar with the concept of affiliate commissions and may think there is something
shady going on. So you simply have to be a salesperson and convince people that your affiliate
program is legitimate and profitable. You also have to make sure to choose an excellent network
such as Clickbank or Paydotcom.




                                                28
Social Media


Have you heard of Facebook? Of course you have. What you may not realize is that social media
can be used as a form of online advertising, and Facebook ads are excellent examples. At the
same time, however, you have to realize that most people are simply using these social networks
to hang out with their friends and engaging in entertainment and conversations. Major companies
are already expressing doubts about the efficacy of social media marketing campaigns. There are
now entire books being written about social media ROI (return on investment), so this tells you
that you need to be careful not to waste a lot of time in busy work without evaluating the results.


However Facebook does have its advantages as it uses an advertising system that is very simple
to implement and offers a wide scope of coverage in the Facebook website. Only Facebook users
that are within the specific demographic you choose will be able to see the advertising. This
helps to narrow down who sees advertising so you are not wasting your money on people who
are not going to be interested in what your website has to offer.


Some Other Ad Format

Inline text links




                                                29
Inline text links are ads that appear as a brief text description in boxes with clear call-to-actions,
prompting users to learn more information from partners' websites. These ads only appear when
the mouse pointer is moved over certain words and is perfectly relevant to the content.

Inline text links are great when you want to save valuable space on your Web pages, they are
also similar to newspaper headlines that raise interest for a distinctive topic. With the possibility
of frequent format changes, very few restrictions and no spending for the development of
graphical ad formats, inline text links are a pure, yet effective option to advertise cross the
Internet.




Text ads




Advertisements displayed as simple, text-based hyperlinks are known as Text Ads. As their
name suggests, text ads they do not include graphic images. Text ads are sold on non-search
websites and can be served either by individual websites, or a publisher‟s own ad servers.




                                                 30
Display Ads




Graphical advertisements featured on websites are known as Display Ads. Display ads are often
available in many standard shapes and sizes, including: banners, leader boards, skyscrapers, large
boxes, and other sized graphical ads. Display ads use eye-catching visuals to quickly grab catch
the attention of website visitors browsing the pages on which they are featured. Display ads are
sold on non-search websites and can be served either by individual websites, or a publisher‟s
own ad servers.




                                               31
Pop-Up Ads




Advertisements that appear to “pop up” in a new window as users browse a website are known
as Pop-Up Ads. Hover ads, floating ads and slide-in ads ads are all considered pop-up ads.
(Sometimes these ads are also known as Pop-Under Ads, depending on whether they are
displayed over or underneath the current web content being browsed.) The use of Flash and
DHTML ads has risen in recent years in an effort to counter the increased usage of pop-up
blockers.


Flash / DHTML Ads
These kinds of ads incorporate Flash animation or other motion graphics. Ads may be animated
display ads in more traditional shapes and sizes, or, as of late, they can be sophisticated ads that
function similarly to pop-up ads but with much deeper integration into the overall design of the
site.




                                                 32
Interstitial Ads




Interstitial ads appear between web pages that the user requests. For example, an interstitial ad
may appear after you click on a link in an excerpt to view the full content of news story. Because
interstitial ads load in the background and do not interrupt the users immediate browsing
experience, they are a preferred method of delivering ads with rich media, streaming video,
and/or large graphics.


Video Ads


With the popularity of online video watching, video ads have become a viable means of
distributing rich advertising content. Currently video ads can either be content created entirely by
the advertiser, or “in video” ads that will show your ad within a video. Major search properties
like Google (through YouTube), MSN, Yahoo, and AOL all offer advertising on their video
websites.




                                                33
On-Site Sponsorships
On-Site sponsorships are ads (typically just a company‟s logo) that can be bought on individual
websites. Sponsorship ads typically appear in an area on the website reserved for sponsors and
often noted as such.
Advertorials
Advertisements in editorial form that appear to contain objectively-written opinions are known
as paid editorial ads, or “Advertorials”. Online advertorials are typically featured on publisher‟s
websites and promote products and services related to the website‟s content. Some ad networks
will develop, optimize, and write your advertorial and place it on their ad network.

Targeting Methods
Contextual Targeting


When ads are served based on related content a user is currently reading or browsing online, it is
known as contextual targeting. For example, if you are reading an article on a news website
about sports, you may see contextual ads for sports gear, memorabilia, or game tickets.
Contextual ads are purchased through major search properties like Google, Yahoo, MSN, and
through many other contextual ad networks. Ad relevancy is typically determined by algorithms
that will assess the appropriateness of the ad in relation to the displayed content.
Behavioral Targeting
When ads are served based on user behavior, it is known as behavioral targeting. Behavioral
targeting is based on a variety of online factors such as recent online purchases, searches, and
browsing history, as well as demographic details such age or gender. For example, if you
recently visited a real estate website, you may see behavioral ads selling mortgages.
Geo-Targeting / Local Advertising
When ads are served based on a user‟s geographical location, it is known as geo-targeting. For
advertisers interested in targeting users within a specific locality or region, geo-targeted online
advertising is an effective solution. An increasing number of websites now offer geo-targeting
capabilities. Local advertising also includes network buys through radio, television and
newspaper websites, as well as localized search engines and directories such as Yahoo! Local,
Google Local, and AOL City Guide.


                                                 34
Advertisement Types on Social Networking Sites




Facebook Advertising
With over 500 million active users across the globe, Facebook is
the largest social network online today. Because of its popularity
and ability to target users based on their profile data, Facebook is
a very attractive platform for advertisers.
Facebook offers simple image and text-based ads that are highly
targeted toward user data, with the ability to test multiple ad
versions to maximize the effectiveness of your campaign. With
controllable ad costs, flexible pricing structures like CPC and
CPM, and its own tracking analytics, Facebook ads can be a very
effective way to reach your target market.

LinkedIn Advertising
LinkedIn is the professional social network that boasts over 90 million members. LinkedIn
offers several different advertising options that range in visibility and affordability, including
self-service ads called DirectAds and more robust advertising options leveraging multiple
display ad formats, as well as others.




                                                35
On LinkedIn, advertisers have the unique ability to target users by job title ad function, seniority,
company name, company size, and industry. Larger ad buyers can target based on custom
criteria such as Career Changes, Unemployed Professionals, Business Travelers, and Opinion
Leaders, among others. Such granular professional targeting options make LinkedIn a very
effective B2B advertising option.




Twitter Advertising
Twitter offers its own advertising options in the form of Promoted Tweets. Promoted Tweets are
ordinary tweets that advertisers pay to highlight to a wider group of users. Displayed at the top
of Twitter.com search results pages and in some users‟ tweet streams and third-party Twitter
applications (such as TweetDeck), Promoted Tweets are very visible and retain all the
functionality of a regular tweet. Since Promoted Tweets are essentially regular tweets, they are
not an “ad” in the traditional sense and function more as an organic part of Twitter. Twitter also
offers Promoted Trends and Promoted Accounts.




                                                 36
Looking for Advertisement patterns

If the Advertiser make use of cookies to analyze the path of each visitor, then they can start to
make assumptions about what people are looking for and if they had trouble finding it. The trick
is to look for patterns.

The researcher, the comparison shopper and the buyer all have their own traffic patterns, and it‟s
up to you to serve them according to their needs. If people are always clicking from the product
page to the warranty page and back, it‟s good stewardship to put the pertinent information on the
product page and save them a click. Watch where they go and then do what you can to make
their way easier next time. The final consideration is how often people visit your site a
combination of regency and frequency. It‟s great that somebody came to your site 10 times in
one day, but if that day was six months ago, it won‟t do you any good. The most desirable
regency-frequency tally is different for different types of sites. If your name is Yahoo! or AOL,
then you want all the people, all the time.

Identifying prospects

Identifying what pattern is the best indication of imminent procurement which depends upon the
Review of the site path taken by those who completed the purchase and watch for it again. Your
site can make special offer when a potential customer visits a certain number of times or looks at
particular pages. And then you can go one step further, called Geniality‟s a clever software that
will determine the fewest attributes common to those who performed the desired act (purchase,
register, subscribe, etc.). It shifts through mountains of data about your customers so you can
more quickly recognize the ones who are statistically most likely to buy, and it can tell you
which offer is the one most likely to make that sale. Taking all this into the consideration one can
manage their site measurement of effectiveness.




                                                37
Online Advertising Operational Definition

Advertising Network

A group of websites, which share a common banner server Typically, a sales organization, which
manages the commerce and reporting. An ad network has the ability to deliver unique
combinations of targeted audiences because they serve your banner or ad across multiple sites.

Ad view

An ad view, synonymous with ad impression, is a single ad that appears (usually in full view
without scrolling) on a Web page when the page arrives at the viewer‟s display. Ad views are
what most Web sites sell or prefer to sell. A Web page may offer space for a number of ad views.
In general, the term impression is more commonly used.

Affiliate marketing

Affiliate marketing is the use by a Web site that sells products of other Web sites, called
affiliates, to help market the products. Amazon.com, the bookseller, created the first large-scale
affiliate program and hundreds of other companies have followed since.

Bandwidth

The amount of information that can be transmitted over communications lines at one time. The
higher the bandwidth, the faster the Web page loads. Limited bandwidth is the main reason for
keeping pictures small. Just as it seems we will never have fast enough computers, it feels like
we will never have enough bandwidth. The amount of research and development money being
thrown at this problem should yield surprising results before long.

Click

According to ad industry recommended guidelines from FAST, a click is 'when a visitor interacts
with an advertisement.' This does not apparently mean simple interacting with a rich media ad,
but actually clicking on it so that the visitor is headed toward the advertiser‟s destination. (It also
does not mean that the visitor actually waits to fully arrive at the destination, but just that the
visitor started going there).

                                                  38
Click streams

The electronic path a user takes while navigating from site to site, and within site, from page to
page.

Click Through

The act of clicking on a banner or other ad, which takes the use through to the advertiser's Web
site. Used as a counter point to impressions to judge the response-inducing power of the banner.
Click Through Rate (CTR) - The response rate of an online advertisement, typically expressed as
a percentage and calculated by taking the number of click through the ad received, dividing that
number by the number of impressions and multiplying by 100 to obtain a percentage - Example -
20clicks / 1,000 impressions = .02 x 100 = 2% CTR

CPA

Cost Per Action. The price paid by an advertiser for each „action' that a content site delivers.
'Action' may be a sale, a lead, successful form fill-out, a download of a software program or an e-
commerce sale of a product. Both the action, price and terms of a CPA purchase are mutually
agreed upon by the advertiser and content site and such a purchase typically involves a back end
tracking system provided by the advertiser that allows the content site to view clicks and actions
every 24 hours if they choose to do so.

CPC

Cost Per Click. The price paid by an advertiser to a content site. When buying on a Cost Per
Click model, the advertiser and content site have mutually agreed that the content site will
continue to display the advertiser‟s ad creative until X number of clicks have been delivered - the
amount purchased. As with other forms of online advertising, s dependent on content, audience
reached and targeted delivery - Untargeted being owner priced, targeted to an affluent audience
being at the high end of the rate scale.




                                                39
CPM (Cost Per Mile)

Cost Per Thousand (Roman Numeral) impressions. The price paid by an advertiser for a content
site displaying their banner 1,000 times.

CPS (Cost Per Sale)

Cost Per Sale. The price paid by an advertiser to a content site for each sale that results from a
visitor who is referred from the content site to the advertiser‟s site. This type of buying model is
typically tracked with cookies, where the cookie is offered on the content site and read on the
advertiser‟s site at the success page after successful completion of one transaction/sale. Typical
rates/bounties range between 5% and 25% of the retail price of the product or service being sold.
See also CPA above.

Cookies

Client-side text file that is used by Web servers to store information about the site visitor and
visitor behavior. Information pertaining to a site can only be ready the side that wrote the
information. Used to identify repeat visitors and track visitor behavior.

Effective Frequency

The number of times an ad should be shown to one person to realize the highest impact of the ad
without wasting impressions on that individual.

Frequency

The number of times a given person will see an ad in agiven time period. Gross Exposures/Gross
Impressions - The total number of times an ad is shown, including duplicate showings to the
same person.

Hits

Every time a file is sent by a server, be it text, graphic, video, and so on, it is recorded as a hit.
Not a reliable gauge to compare different sites, as one page with five graphic elements will
register six hits when viewed, while a page with no graphics will only register one hit.



                                                  40
Impression

The Opportunity To See (OTS) a banner or other ad by a surfer. When a page that includes a
banner is viewed, it is considered an impression. Inventory - The amount of available space for
banners on a Website that can be delivered in a given time period. Also known as the amount of
gross impressions per month (or clicks if the publishers is selling on a Cost Per Click rate model)
available for sale to advertisers by a Web publisher.

Link

A hypertext connection between two documents, image maps, graphics, and the like.

Page view

When a Web page is requested by somebody through a browser. Page views are often used to
track the number of impressions a banner gets.

Run-of-network

A run-of-network ad is one that is placed to run on all sites within a given network of sites. Ad
sales firms such as Latitude90handle run-of-network insertion orders in such a way as to
optimize results for the buyer consistent with higher priority ad commitments.

Run-of-site

A run-of-site ad is one that is placed to rotate on all non-featured ad spaces on a site. CPM rates
for run-of-site ads are usually less than for rates for specially-placed ads or sponsorships.

Spam

Originally posting an ad to multiple newsgroups, now used to describe unsolicited email
advertising. Named after a skit by Monty Python, spam is one marketing and advertising
technique to avoid at all costs




                                                 41
Unique visitor

A unique visitor is someone with a unique address who is entering a Web site for the first time
that day (or some other specified period). Thus, a visitor that returns within the same day is not
counted twice. A unique visitors count tells you how many different people there are in your
audience during the time period, but not how much they used the site during the period.

View

A view is, depending on what‟s meant, either an ad view or a page view. Usually an ad view is
what‟s meant. There can be multiple ad views per page views. View counting should consider
that a small percentage of users choose to turn the graphics off (not display the images) in their
browser.

Visit

A visit is a Web user with a unique address entering a Web site at some page for the first time
that day (or for the first time in a lesser time period). The number of visits is roughly equivalent
to the number of different people that visit a site. This term is ambiguous unless the user defines
it, since it could mean a user session or it could mean a unique visitor that day.




                                                 42
1.2 PURPOSE & SCOPE OF STUDY




             43
Purpose & Scope of study


Social networking has been used by most of the people in and around the nations. It has reached
even to basic sectors. Despite the enormous growth of social networks in these years, the
advertisements sectors have never faced major success due to several reasons. Thus, a useful
growth turning into an effectual way for those sectors. To make it effective, we have to put-forth
a positive trait in this fast moving world by proposing some new methodologies and inducing
some modifications to the existing system.


I) To determine the impacts of advertisements on social networking sites.


II) To determine the criteria for successful advertising in social networking
medium


I) To Determine The Impacts Of Advertisements On Social Networking Sites.
In the past few decades most people said that social networks were a waste of time and
resources. But in the past five years, the popularity of social networking sites like Facebook,
Twitter, Pinterest, Orkut and LinkedIn has created more popularity among users with no end
in sight. Due to this apparent stability, many people are now wondering about the benefits of
social media networking.


Nowadays Social networking sites created a new trend of approach to make the business even to
reach the end user, no doubt that the bigger social networking sites out there are making huge
profits, and so are the companies that advertise through them. Some might argue that these
websites are making money off of their users, and that they‟re just using their members. Still,
most people who belong to social networking sites don‟t think they‟re being taken advantage of.




                                                44
1.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY




           45
Research Methodology


Research methods are used to provide a systematic approach to research and helps in ordering
the data collected in order to be to analyze it and conclude whether it answered a particular
question or not. There are basically, two types of researches, Primary research and secondary
research. We have used both the researches in our study. Our primary research supports the
knowledge and curiosity behind our secondary research.

There are generally two types of research methods, quantitative and qualitative. These methods
can be used together or separately, one should choose the method most appropriate to the
purpose of the thesis. The two approaches mainly differ in how to collect and analyze data.
Quantitative method is focusing on statistical instruments and how to prove relations between
different variables Further more, it is characterized by a large sample which is examined via
forms, statistical methods and analysis of the data. An advantage of quantitative research is the
high degree of objectivity and due to the large scope of observations it is possible to make
generalizations. Qualitative method on the other hand, means research that generates descriptive
data. It is said that the qualitative method reflects upon something and that the data collection in
this method is focusing on so called “soft” data. The purpose of the thesis is to get industry
opinions and analyze them, Thus Quantitative method was used.



The research with consumers was extremely important for this study. The relevance of audience
criteria to media comparisons hinges on the assumption that media effectiveness is a function of
the extent to which audiences possess characteristics predictive of the future purchase of
advertised items. Which further has various aspects to it like likeliness towards a particular
medium of entertainment, what builds more trust inside a consumer, or what is most action
focused etc. Thus a research was carried out to study the behavioral aspects of consumers in
context of their responses to various medium of advertising.




                                                46
Method of Research

   A) Primary Research: Primary research was carried out using various research tools. Primary
        research carried various interviews, and questionnaires. It was basically taken from two
        perspectives, One was the company perspective and the other was the consumer
        perspective.
   B) Secondary Research: Secondary research was needed in the study, so as to understand all
        the previous researches, studies, and derivation in the above field of media comparisons
        for advertising. In our secondary research, we studied various research papers of multiple
        authors and publications to get the larger picture of the situation. Our secondary research
        is cited in various places in the research paper. The basic purpose of the secondary
        research is to back up the actions behind the primary research with the knowledge.
The method used for the research was Questionnaires. For the purpose of said research, three
different questionnaires were designed having different objectives each.

The questions used in the questionnaire were

       Demographic Questions
       Multiple choice questions with one answer
       Multiple choice question with multiple answeres
       Rating scales
       Open ended, single textbox questions


Methods of data collection
The survey method helped to identify the reach of the brand among its target audience, ways of
impact, usage of these social networking sites and access to these form of communication. And
the content analysis is another method used to analyze the communication strategy of different
social networking sites with certain parameters among top three Indian social networking sites
which are tabulated with results.




                                                47
Research design
This research study adopted survey and content analysis in order to find the effectiveness and the
impact of communication in branding any product or the service among the target market
through social networking sites like Facebook, Twitte, Orkut, linkedIn and other Online
Resources.


Survey
Survey was conducted randomly among Face book, Twitter, Orkut, and various online resources
like mail ID, Forum and user community, by sending questionnaire through online to collect the
individual opinion from the respondents.


Sampling
Non probability sampling technique is used to collect the opinion




                                               48
2. DATA COLLECTION & ANALYSIS
    2.1 DATA COLLECTION
      2.2 DATA ANALYSIS




              49
Data and Data Analysis

DATA COLLECTION ,SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION

PRIMARY DATA

Primary data are those data which is collected by researcher by self and In primary data
collection, you collect the data yourself using methods such as interviews and questionnaires.
The key point here is that the data you collect is unique to you and your research and, until you
publish, no one else has access to it.

There are many methods of collecting primary data and the main methods include:

Questionnaires, interviews, focus group interviews, observation, case-studies, diaries, critical
incidents portfolios.


Here in this research the Questionnaire / Interview method is used for data
collection.

Researcher go personally to take oral interview and collect the data according to their feedback.

SECONDARY DATA

Secondary data are those, which have already been collected by someone else and have already
been passed through the statistical process.

According to Dessel-“Data collected by other persons”.

All the data has been collected from internal sources that includes: -

      Magazines
      Books
      Websites
      Reports
      Files
      Available projects and Thesis.

                                                 50
Data Analysis

Sample size : 100




   1. Ratio of male – female on social networking sites.


      Gender                        Male                      Female
      Respondents                   57                        43




                    Gender Ratio on social Networking sites
                                             Male    Female




                              43%


                                                                   57%




                                              51
2. Age group of social network site users


   Age Group      Respondents
   Below 18       13
   18-24          21
   24-36          38
   36+            28




                                 Ratio of Age Group
                                 Below 18     18-24   24-36   36+



                                                      13%
                                28%

                                                                    21%




                                        38%




                                            52
    3.   Educational qualification of SNS User’s

Educational qualification         Respondents
10th                              8
12th                              19
Graduation                        54
Post Graduation                   19




                            Education qualification of SNS User's
                                   10th     12th      Graduation   Post Graduation



                                             19%             8%
                                                                          19%




                                                54%




                                                      53
4. SNS Users By Occupation
   Occupation                        Respondents
   Students                          48
   Employed                          34
   Self Employed                     8
   Business Man                      10




                          SNS users by occupation
                    Students        Employed    Self Employed   Business Man



                                          10%
                               8%
                                                                  48%



                       34%




                                           54
5. How often do you use internet ?

                            Respondents
Once a week                 12
2-3 days a week             19
1-2 hrs a day               30
More Than 3 hrs a day       39




                                     Uses of Internet
            Once a week      2-3 days a week   1-2 hrs a day   More Than 3 hrs a day



                                                  12%
                          39%
                                                                19%




                                                     30%




                                                55
5. From where you access Internet ?



   Place                         Respondents
   Home                          42
   Office                        26
   Cyber Café                    12
   Others                        20




                Place where Internet acces from
                        Home     Office   Cyber Café   Others




                               20%
                                                          42%
                 12%




                                26%




                                           56
7 . Are you aware of social networking site ?

Yes                                 98
No                                  2




                               Awareness about SNS
                                           Yes        No

                                                 2%




                                                       98%




                                                       57
8. How often do you “Log In” those Social Networking Sites ?

Frequency                             Respondents
Once a week                           2
Daily                                 18
2-3 Times                             42
More than 3 Times                     38




                                 Frequency of Log In
                     Once a week    Daily    2-3 Times    More than 3 Times

                                              2%

                                                         18%
                           38%




                                                           42%




                                                 58
9. How many social networking site’s profile do you have ?



No. of SNS                     Respondents
One                            2
Two                            8
Three                          62
Four                           16
More than Four                 12




                                 No. of SNS Profile
                         One     Two    Three     Four    More Than Four

                                                2%

                                       12%           8%

                         16%




                                                             62%




                                                  59
10. Do you check online ads while surfing SNS ?

Yes                                                68
No                                                 32




                    % of Users who check Online ads
                                            Yes   No




                             32%




                                                        68%




                                                  60
11. In which SNS do you find ads communicated well ?




Social Networking Sites                               Respondents
Facebook                                              35
Twitter                                               6
Orkut                                                 32
LinkedIn                                              12
Others                                                15




                     Ads Communicated well In SNS
                       Facebook     Twitter   Orkut        LinkedIn        Others



                                        15%
                                                                  35%
                       12%




                                                                      6%
                                  32%




                                                61
12. What kinds of ads have you come across in these sites ?




Types of Ads                                        Respondents
Web Banner                                          32
Pop up                                              6
Flash                                               34
Video                                               22
Others                                              6




                                     Types of Ads
                        Web Banner     Pop up    Flash    Video     Others



                                           6%
                            22%                               32%




                                                                    6%

                                     34%




                                                  62
13. Do you like ads appearing in SNS ?




Yes                                                   42
No                                                    14
Neutral                                               44




                               Perception about ads
                                         Yes   No     Neutral




                         44%                                    42%




                                                14%




                                                    63
14. How frequently you click on these ads coming on your way ?




Response                                           Respondents
Often                                              38
Sometimes                                          33
Never                                              4
Depending on ads                                   25




                          Frequency of clicking ads
                      Often     Sometimes      Never     Depending on ads




                                25%
                                                                 38%

                     4%




                                      33%




                                                 64
15. Which sites consists more ads ?




Social Networking Sites                                  Respondents
Facebook                                                 45
Twitter                                                  3
Orkut                                                    32
LinkedIn                                                 12
Others                                                   8




                            Sites Consists more ads
                        Facebook      Twitter    Orkut        LinkedIn   Others



                                            8%
                                12%
                                                                         45%



                          32%

                                                         3%




                                                   65
16 . Do you agree with Impact of communication of these ads ?




Response                                               Respondents
Agree                                                  68
Disagree                                               22
Neutral                                                10




                                   Impact of Ads
                                  Agree     Disagree        Neutral



                                          10%

                        22%



                                                                      68%




                                                 66
Findings/Conclusions and Recommendations

   3.1 Conclusion

   3.2 Constraints & Limitations
   3.3 Recommendations




                67
                                         Conclusion
Communication about the product or service provides a major contribution to brand competition
in the market. It not only provides information about a product or service but also promotes
creative innovation. Besides advertising, it also facilitates consumer satisfaction. The hidden fact
is that no brand can progress without effective communication strategy to attract their customers
or users. Big and small variety of brands nowadays laid their base on social network
communication to get recognized in the target market.


Social networking sites users of Face book, Twitter, Orkut, Linked, Google Plus and Others
have become a personal, product and corporate branding hub in India nowadays in digital era.
Every brand that exists on social networking sites has the same core features and benefits, such
as the ability to create a page, share resources, add multimedia and much more. Social
networking sites are filled with potential users who are mainly young adults. They spend more
time in these networking sites due to heavy commercial contents, entertainment and social
gathering. So, product or service communicators throng their ads in these areas with more and
more interactive and with fascinating factors so that their brand identity is developed among the
right choice of focused audience. Advertisers and brands uses social networking sites as the
major resource for their promotion and developing brand identity among the focused market.




                                                68
                           Limitations and Constraints

1. Budgetary constraints – gathering and processing data can be very expensive.
2. Time constraints – Since it is not a big limitation but generally people refuse these type
   of online survey.
3. Reliability of the data – the value of any research findings depend critically on the
   accuracy of the data collected. Data quality can be compromised via a number of
   potential routes, e.g., leading questions, unrepresentative samples, biased interviewers
   etc.
4. The data is gathered is not any geographic located so it is generalized data for whole
   world, But it can change according to the Geographical location.




                                           69
                                        SUGGESTIONS
Communication should be more preferred than advertising. People do not prefer buying products
through social networking sites. So, if the brand is communicated well and remembered by the
audience, then it is a greatest success to the company for their promotion through social media.
Promotional way of advertising is best: the usual banner ads and pop-up ads make the users to
ignore them. So advertising must be interactive, promotional and in innovative form to hold the
audience. It should target the individuals than the mass. If an ad is hosted for a group then that
would be no advantage in delivering specified information. Adding more multimedia elements.




                                                70
                                        BIBLIOGRAPHY


http://www.academicjournals.org/jmcs

Impacts of advertisements in social networking sites By- O.S.Karthick babu, D.Senthil kumar

https://twitter.com/about

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facebook

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twitter

http://in.linkedin.com/about-us

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linkedin

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orkut

http://www.linkedin.com/company/linkedin

http://www.google.com/images

http://www.optimus01.co.za/why-is-online-marketing-so-effective/

http://www.ehow.com/facts_5036191_effectiveness-internet-advertising.html

http://www.clicksor.com/publishers/adformat

http://www.affiliateseeking.com/forums/general-marketing/917-forms-of-online-advertising.html




                                                 71
                                             Annexure

Questionaire For Online Survey
This Is an Online survey for measuring of effectiveness of advertisement through Social Networking Site.
Note : Result will be Used only for Academics purpose, It can't be used for any type of
commercialization.

1. Sex
     Male
     Female
2. Age Group
     Below 18
     18-24
     24-36
     36+
3. Educational qualification
     10th
     12th
     Graduation
     Post Graduation
4. Occupation
     Student
     Employed
     Self Employed
     Businessman
5. How often do you use internet ?
     Once a week
     2-3 days a week
     1-2 hrs a day
     More Than 3 hrs a day




                                                   72
6. From where you access Internet ?
    Home
    Office
    Cyber Cafe
    Other:
7. Are you aware of social networking site ?
    Yes
    No
8. How often do you “Log In” those Social Networking Sites ?
    Once a week
    Daily
    2-3 times a day
    More Than 3 Times a day
    Other:
9. How many social networking site’s profile do you have ?
    One
    Two
    Three
    Four
    More Than Four
10. Do you check online ads while surfing SNS ?
    Yes
    No
11. In which SNS do you find ads communicated well ?
    Facebook
    Twitter
    Orkut
    LinkedIn
    Other:

                                        73
12. What kinds of ads have you come across in these sites ?
     Web Banner
     Pop Ups
     Flash
     Video
     Other:
13. Do you like ads appearing in SNS ?
     Yes
     No
     Neutral
14. How frequently you click on these ads coming on your way ?
     Often
     Sometine
     Never
     Depending on Ads
15. Which sites consists more ads ?
     Facebook
     Twitter
     Orkut
     LinkedIn
     Other:

16. Do you agree with Impact of communication of these ads ?

     Agree
     Disagree
     Neutral

 Submit




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Description: This is a Dissertation project report on A comparative study of the effectiveness of Advertising on different social networking ? The cases of Facebook, Orkut,Twitter & LinkedIn