Strengthening Urban Air Quality Management for the Sustainable Development In Dalian YU , DI
Dalian Environment Protection Agency 20 Feb. 2003
The development of environment protection undertaking and the enhancement of social economic capacity in Dalian have been constantly strengthened and deepened out of nothing and from small to large. Since 1973, the survey has been made mainly on the ―three industry waste‖ (waste water, waste gas and waste residue) in order to urge enterprises to strengthen management and reduce pollution discharge; since the enactment of environment protection law, the industry pollution prevention and control work has stepped in legal course so as to not only strengthen overall management progressively by means of administration, economy and legality but also set about to solve some environment protection problems; since 1990, Dalian government has executed a large scale of pollution control so that the remarkable achievements have been gained from it and the total volume of pollutants discharge has been reduced year by year. Up to the end of 1999, the up to standard discharge has been realized in the whole industrial pollution sources. Therefore, Dalian city has orderly step into the line of the top city in the national environmental comprehensive rectification and control among 10 indexes, the model city of national environment protection and the national garden city. In 2001, Dalian is selected as ―Global 500‖ by UNEP.
1. Introduction of Dalian City
Dalian city is located in the most southern tip of Liaodong peninsula in the Northeastern part of China with one side by mountains and three other sides circled by sea. It is separated by Bohai sea and with the remote neighbor of Huabei plain to the west, by Huanghai sea and face far to Korean peninsula to the east, by Bohai strait and opposite Shandong Peninsula to the south, and near three provinces of Northeastern and the vast hinterland in the eastern part of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region to the north. It has the geographic distribution of the east longitude 120º58ˊ~123º31ˊ and north latitude 38º43ˊ~40’º12ˊ. The land area is 12573.85 square kilometers including urban area of 2414.96 km2 occupying 6 districts, 3 satellite cities and 1 county with the total population of 5.90 million including non-peasant population of 2.7535 million and average density of 468 persons/square kilometer and natural rate of 1.08 %. It has mild weather and four obvious seasons belonging to semi-humid continental monsoon climate of warm temperature zone with annual average temperature of 8—10ºC, highest 35.3ºC and lowest 21.1ºC ,and non-frost period of 170—190 days. In summer, it features south to southeast wind, north to northwest in winter with the average speed of 5.3 meters/second. The most water precipitation occurs from July to September with the annual precipitation of 590-800 mm. The land utilization ratio is 92.8 % including 13.8 % of non-farming land. It has vast marine space with the total coastline of 1906 km including bank shoreline of 1288 km, island shoreline of 618 km and beach area of 646.7 km2. There are 226 islands totally. Dalian , one of heavy industry cities, is port, trade and tourism base in China. It is one of the most open to outside world, the most vigor and the most developed city in northern part of China. In 2002, GDP of RMB 123.56 billion has been realized totally with the increasing rate of 11.8 % and per capita GDP of RMB 22,340, including RMB 11.14 billion of increased value from the primary, RMB 57.42 billion from the secondary and RMB 55 billion from the tertiary. The composition ratio of the increased value from three industries is 9: 46.5 : 44.5. The total investment in relate to environment protection is RMB 2.538 billion accounting for 2.05 % of GDP including RMB 1.405 billion of environmental infrastructure construction and RMB 1.13 billion of industry pollution control composed of RMB 27.15 million of waste water treatment , RMB 65.42 million of air pollution control, RMB 4.56 million of solid waste and sludge and RMB 2.62 million of noise control and RMB 13.25 billion of personnel , management and equipment. In Dalian, there are 40 Agencies or Bureaus or Commissions working for local government and having respective responsibility. Dalian Environment Protection Agency is in charge of urban air quality management and control such as planning, executing, enforcement, coordination and monitoring etc.
Administration Office Environment Protection Committee Secretariat Science Technology and Industry Department Legislation and Regulation Department Development and Construction supervision Department Nature Conservation Department Pollution Control Department Planning and Financial Department International Cooperation Department
Environment Scientific & Technological Institute
Dalain Environmental Protection Agency
The organization chart of Dalain EPA
Environment Monitoring Center
Automobile Tail Gas Management Department
Environment Supervision and Management Branch
High-tech Zone Branch
There are more than 800 people working for Dalian Environmental Protection Agency including 60 staffs in the head office, 200 in 5 branches, 260 in Dalian Environment Monitoring Center (affiliated to Dalian EPA ) and 30 in Dalian Environment Supervising & Controlling Branch etc. In 3 satellite cities and 1 county and 2 districts, there are their own environmental protection agencies supervised and guided by Dalian EPA in terms of environment protection management. In Dalian EPA, the planning and financial department provides domestic financial support to air pollution control project; the pollution control department is in charge of formulating air pollution control scheme and project selection; the development and construction supervision department makes examination and evaluation on applying project according to China’s environment protection law and local regulation; the science, technology and industry department provides technical consultation for air pollution control project and select suitable air pollution control technology. 5 branches are in charge of air pollution control enforcement in 5 districts. Dalian Environment Monitoring Center takes the responsibility of air quality monitoring including stationary and non-stationary source. More than 1.04 million monitoring data have been finished each year. There are 10 air automatic monitoring sub-stations set up in urban area. In china, the complete law system has been formulated including 2 environmental protection laws relate to air pollution control and management such as environmental protection law and air pollution control law, more 23 rules or regulations, and many administration and management documents issued by central, provincial and local government. Also, there are more than 20 monitoring and emission standards relating to air pollution.
2.The situation of air quality and air pollution
Right now, the air pollution is still the combined type of coal smoke and automobile tail gas and the main pollutant is PM10 in Dalian. In 2001, the days of first class of API is 89 days, 262 days of the second class, respectively accounting for 24.4 % and 71.8 % of the whole year. The air pollution is lighter in summer, but heavier in spring and winter. The annual average of dust in urban area is 17.4 t / (square km • month) exceeding 1.2 times of Liaoning provincial standard but keeping with last year in urban area, PM10 0.079 mg / m3, NO2 0.024 mg / m3, CO 0.59 mg / m3, SO2 0.031 mg / m3, Dust 17.4. All the main indexes of air quality comply with the second class of national air quality standard. In the whole city, there are 113.2 thousand tons of SO2 emitted with 14.2 % decrease as compared with 2000, smoke 74.5 thousand tons, 13.8 %; dust 20.4 thousand tons, 5.1 %. In 2001, there are 7 times sand storm happened in Dalian area, mainly occurring in the winter and spring with the duration time of 10 –20 hr per time and average PM10 concentration of 0.24 to 0.80 mg / m3. But non acid rain fell. The main pollutants of industry waste gas are SO2 of 70 thousand tons with 18.6 % decrease as compared with 2000; smoke 35 thousand tons, 35.2 % and dust 20
thousand tons, 5.1 %. The main emission zone of industry waste gas is Ganjingzi district with SO2 emission of 31 thousand tons accounting for 45 % of the whole city; smoke 8 thousand tons, 23 %; dust 4 thousand tons, 20%. The firepower generation is the main industry emitting SO2 with emission volume of 37 thousand tons accounting for 54 %; non-metal mineral for smoke of 11 thousand tons for 31 %; non-metal mineral for dust of 15 thousand tons for 75 %, mainly from cement about 11 thousand tons. In Dalian, there are more than 0.35 million automobiles and 30 main traffic road. From 1998 to 2002, there are RMB 0.699 billion invested by the public communication and transportation system to renew 4948 old ones so as to effectively enhance the grade and quality of automobiles run in Dalian with the purpose of reducing the emission of NOX and CO greatly. 3.Major Measures and Experience Taken in the
Air Pollution Prevention & Control
Increasing investment and executing pollution control & treatment within limited time
Since the enactment of environment protection law in 1979, Dalian government has constantly strengthened the industrial pollution prevention and control work and more fund has been invested so that some major pollution problems have been thoroughly solved. During the 7th ―five-year plan‖, the ―524‖ project with the main content of air pollution control has been fulfilled so that 197.29 km2 of smoke and dust control zone has been set up and the air quality in urban become obviously better; in 8 th ―five-year plan‖, the time-limited projects of smoke and dust control have been implemented among the two sides of Shenda highway and in the area of Jinzhou and Ganjingzi district so that 3420 tons of dust has been reduced annually. In order to control dust, Dalian cement factory has installed 62 sets of various treatment equipments to reclaimed nearly 10 thousand tons of dust; in 9th ―five-year plan‖, air pollution prevention and control has been deepened positively by means of execution of time-limited treatment on pollution source so that several projects of environment protection have been completed orderly for example:
A). Environmentally comprehensive treatment and control project in Ganjinzi district: 16.95 m2 of waste and old factory buildings being
pull down, 1 million ton of industry waste being cleared away, 0.35 million m2 green land being newly opened. The pollution control on 9 sets of electrical furnaces have been carried out in Dalian Iron & Steel Group so as to reduce 4000 tons of smoke and eliminate the air pollution of ―red dragon‖ over Ganjinzi industrial zone. Dalian Ironworks has demolished the ore-sintering workshop and 2 blast furnaces with the purpose of distinguishing the dust pollution. After those, the air quality has been
obviously improved in the district. B). The lime-limited projects in the north of urban area: 18 enterprises have been closed down, 146 pollution sources of 16 units have been treated so as to reduce 11 thousand tons of dust annually, eliminate the pollution from lime factory in urban and purify the air quality around the highway exit of north in urban.
C). Shutting down, closing down and suspending the “15 sorts of small-scale” factories: In accordance with the requirement of state council
concerning to shutting down, closing down and suspending the ―15 sorts of small-scale‖ factories,18 factories were shut down, 19 closed down and 30 suspended in 1997.
D). Project of up to 2 standard: As per the requirements of the State,
emission fully satisfying standard had to be realized prior to the end of 1999 for all the industries pollution sources in Dalian. Thus the time-limited control had been practiced to all industrial pollution sources with the discharge out of the standard. By the end of 1999, those 1311 industrial enterprises listed in the examination for satisfying standard had realized the emission satisfying standard, for which RMB 0.282 billion had been invested accumulatively so as to control industry pollution effectively and lay solid foundation for air quality to satisfy standard according to different function zone. 655 outlets of industry waste gas had been controlled in a standardized way and pollutants discharge had been dynamically managed. So that the air pollution comprehensive index had dropped down from 7.88 in 1990 to 4.41 in 2000(chart 1) and its seat had raised from No.27 in 1995 to No.12 in 2000 among 47 key cities (chart 2). (2)
Adjusting industrial structure and layout to implement removal and transformation for pollution enterprises
In order to enhance whole environment quality of Dalian city, the industrial structure and layout have been vigorously adjusted so that the construction
of industry pollution project has been strictly restrained and the pollution enterprises have been removed and transformed in a developable way. Since 1995, 134 enterprises have been listed into the removal plan and successively divided into 14 lots, among which 105 enterprises have fulfilled the removal and transformation tasks so as to vacate the land area of 1.3 million m2 for the development and construction of
trade, tour, residence and landscape projects, transfer 1.3 million m2 of land and gain RMB 1.1 billion. Therefore, 0.27 billion m3 of industrial waste gas, 5605 tons of smoke and dust have been reduced annually (diagram 1). (3).
Strengthen the management to motor vehicle to reduce the exhausted gas
Besides the routine and patrol checking and test, all diesel station including private, state-owned and enterprises have to use filter to guarantee the diesel quality; the owners have been actively guided to maintain automobiles in the motor repair shop, for which the checking, maintaining and repairing network composed of more than 100 shops have been established; more than 5000 farm machineries and automobiles have been specially controlled and treated; supervision has been strengthened for the useless automobiles in order to prevent its from using again. Therefore, the air quality has been greatly improved In Dalian city.
4.Current major air pollution problems
Even though greater progress of environment protection has been made and air quality become better In Dalian, but there is still a proper existing gap to the environment level of developed country in the world, as follows:
(1). The mixed air pollution is still serious
In Dalian, there are still a lot of coal-burning devices and smoke-exhausting installations so that the air pollution of smoke type has not been basically resolved. Along with the rapid development of automobiles and the imperfection of some complete sets such as urban traffic networks and parking lots, the pollution from motor vehicle will be more obvious. The air pollution features the mixture of smoke and tail gas.
(2). Unreasonable energy structure
Now, the coal consumption of Dalian city is nearly up to 3 times the average level of the world, and power and gas are used at a low ratio. The excessive proportion of coal consumption results in a series of environment problems that are difficultly resolved and restrain the enhancement of environment quality.
5.Main Countermeasures and Tasks (1). Adjust Economic Structure and Optimize City Layout
The strategic adjustment of economic structure will be promoted and the opportunities of economic development and knowledge innovation in Dalian will be seized in order to strengthen traditional industry transformation and high-tech product development, develop the high-tech industry and tertiary with higher scientific and technological content, higher grade product and higher production capacity, and
control pollution to a minimum level during the economic structure adjustment. By 2005, the ratio of the primary, secondary and tertiary will reach to 9: 43: 48, the high-tech output value will account for 30 % of GDP, the emission volume of industry waste gas will be controlled in the level of 2000 under the same annual increasing rate of 10 % of the national economic development, and the smoke will be further reduced. The cement plants of less than 0.5 million tons capacity in urban and less than 0.2 million tons in county will be closed down; the steel casting and forging factories will be removed out of urban after reorganization, the stone-making and mining factories which seriously destroy ecological environment will be eliminated and shut down; all the brick plants with clay will be closed down; Dalian glass plant will be removed out of the central area and transformed. From 2001, all the new industry zone intended to be constructed without satisfying environment protection requirement will not be approved with the purpose of avoiding new environment problems caused by unreasonable layout.
(2). Adjust Energy Structure and Vigorously Promote to Use Clean Energy
The price of energy such as electricity, gas and coal etc should be newly fixed. The environment compensation fee will be collected on coal-burning and the economic lever will be applied to guide enterprises, institution and household to use clean energy in order to reduce coal consumption amount. The coal-burning quota of each unit and department will be fixed so as to practice the limited supply. The charge on the increasing capacity of electricity and gas as well as others will be reduced or exempted in order to quicken the pace of replacing coal with clean energy such as electricity and gas. The supports will be gotten from national policies. The demonstration and implementation for drawing gas into Dalian will be done. The development, usage, production and construction for clean energy such as wind, tidal and solar energy will be encouraged so as to pursue gradually the system of annual clean energy quota. The clean energy will be used in all new small towns and residential quarters built after 2001. The clean energy will be used in all catering services in urban. The application rate of clean energy will be up to 50% in whole city. (3). Reform the ways of production and operation to
overall promote the industry clean production
The establishment of clean production management system will be speeded up. The examination standard of clean production will be formulated so as to become a basic system of enterprise management in combination with energy save and consumption reduction. The systems both of sewage water reusing quota and energy consumption ration will be practiced. The qualification approval system of environment manager of enterprise will be established so that the staff who fails to
meet the requirements of environment protection will not be allowed to take the enterprise leader and the environment consciousness and management level will be enhanced in enterprise. Encouragement will be offered to develop clean production technology and green food. The clean production audit for old industry enterprises will be overall launched. The implement scheme will be formulated for clean production. The energy saving, consumption decreasing and pollution reducing will be done well for the enterprises with big volume of emission. The goal responsibility system will be practiced. The clean production will be the major contents of enterprise mechanism transformation and adjustment through strong policy support. From 2001, all old enterprises failing to meet clean production requirement may not be allowed to extend production scale. The clean production audit will be strengthened for enterprises newly built, reformed, extended and removed. From 2001, the project approval will be overall considered in such phases as raw material purchase, manufacture, transportation, sale, usage, maintenance, reclaim, utilization and final disposal as per clean production requirement.
(4). Enforce Legal System Construction and Enhance the Legal Guarantee
―Regulations for Environmental Protection in Dalian Municipality” and ―Detail Penalty Regulations for Environmental Protection in Dalian Municipality‖ will be amended and improved. ―MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PREVENTING & CONTROLLING MARINE WATERS FROM VESSELS POLLUTION IN DALIAN WUNICIPALITY‖ and ―MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS FOR PREVENTING & CONTROLLING ENVIRONMENT FROM DANGEROUS CHEMICAL WASTE POLLUTION‖ will be formulated and issued. Laws will be enforced more strictly. Some stipulations of enforcement authority relating to concerned department will be formulated and issued to define the enforcement range, balance the relationship between united supervision and separate supervision and form a unblocked and order atmosphere for the law enforcement. Actions violating the environment law will be strictly investigated and handled so as to enhance the authority for law enforcement on environment.