Essential Question/ Warm-up
Give two – three examples of empires or
countries that have become very powerful
and then collapsed. Why do you think this
AKS 33: Analyze the importance of the
Byzantine and Mongol empires
between 450 CE and 1500
What was the Byzantine Empire? (PAGE
It was the Eastern part of the Roman
Empire, with Byzantium, or
Constantinople, as its capital
From which half of the Roman Empire was the
Byzantine Empire created?
What was the capital of the Byzantine Empire?
How did the city get its name?
Constantinople (formerly Byzantium); it was
named after the emperor Constantine, who
made it the capital in A.D. 330
For how long after the collapse of the “Western
Roman Empire” did the Byzantine Empire last?
Nearly 1,000 years
. Whowas Justinian?
A high-ranking Byzantine nobleman who
succeeded his uncle to the throne in 527 A.D
What was the Justinian Code? List the four ‘works’
that made up the code and what each was.
A single, uniform code of Roman civil law
collected and organized by order of Justinian.
The Code: 5,000 Roman laws still considered
useful from the old Western Roman Empire
The Digest: Summary of opinions of Rome’s
greatest legal thinkers – 50 volumes
The Institutes: Textbook that told law students
how to use the code
The Novellae: New laws passed after 534 A.D.
List the different areas of Byzantine
life that the Justinian Code
Marriage, slavery, property,
inheritance, women’s rights, and
For how long did the Justinian Code
serve the Byzantine Empire?
was her political role
within the Byzantine
She met with
wrote to foreign
and built churches.
Closing Question and Assignment
Do you think Justinian was a
good ruler? Why or Why not? Use
your notes to support your
Assignment: Workbook pg. 38
Do you think Justinian was a good
ruler? Why or Why not? Use your
notes to support your answer.
Should religion shape/ dictate how
society is run? Does religion
shape/ dictate society today?
Why was church-
building such an
important part of
It was a visible sign
of the close
and state and it
was also a good
way to impress
Why had Christianity
differently in the
Western and Eastern
Mainly due to the
distance and lack of
contact between the
What’s the term used to
describe the leading
bishop of the Church in
the Byzantine Empire?
What is the Hagia
Sophia? Why is it
considered such an
important part of
A church rebuilt
Justinian; it could
he governed, it
“Mese.” List three continents from
which products were sold at the
It meant “Middle Way” and was
the main street running
products from Asia, Africa, and
Europe were sold there.
Explain the impact that active trade
between Byzantines and Slavs had
on the development of Russian
As the Byzantines traded with the
Slavs, the Slavs began absorbing
many Greek Byzantine ways.
It was this blending of Slavic and
Greek cultures that eventually
produced the Russian culture.
Which present-day Russian city did
Viking Chief Rurik found in 862 A.
Why was Kiev’s geographic location
important to trade between Russians
It was located on the Dnieper River,
which ran south to the Black Sea,
where access to Constantinople
allowed them to trade for goods
Rurik the Viking
Why did the line between Viking and Slavic cultures
As Kiev grew into a principality, Viking nobles
intermarried with their Slavic subjects and
adopted many aspects of Slavic culture.
Which Kievan princess visited Constantinople in 957
and converted to Orthodox Christianity, beginning
the process by which Kiev would become Orthodox?
In what year did Kiev officially adopt Eastern
Orthodox Christianity? Who was the ruler of Kiev
during the conversion?
The birth of the Czars
Which Russian ruler was the first to
use the title ‘czar’ while ruling?
What does the term ‘czar’ mean?
What connection does it have with
the Roman Empire?
Russian version of “Caesar”;
Caesar was the name given to the
emperors of Rome.
Ivan the Great or Ivan III
Do you think religion can cause more
harm than good or vice versa?
Assignment: Pages 308-310 #’s 1 & 2
on each page. 6 questions total,
please answer them in complete
How can a difference in opinion
cause/create/start a conflict?
What are some major topics in society
that people disagree on?
Define the role of Orthodox
Christianity and the Schism
What are icons? Why was there a
controversy over their use within the early
Religious images used by Eastern
Christians to aid their devotions;
Emperor Leo III of the Byzantine Empire
banned the use of icons because he
viewed it as idol worship.
The Great Schism
The great division of the Catholic Church
Why did Pope Leo IX and the Byzantine Patriarch
Michael I excommunicate each other in 1054?
Differences between the Eastern and Western
church continued to grow, but a dispute over
religious doctrine caused the pope and
patriarch to excommunicate each other.
What was the official name given the Christian
Church in the Byzantine Empire after if officially
split from the Western Church?
Orthodox Church, or Eastern (Greek)
Pope Leo IX
Patriarch Michael I
Can you tell the difference?
Can you tell the difference?
What kind of church is this?
Close & Chart assignment
Complete the chart in your packet by using your
textbook. If you do not finish in class this will be
The chart can be found on page 305
After completing the chart answer the following
1. Define one HUGE difference b/w the two
2. Where are the heads of each church located?
3. State your opinion on if you think the churches
should have split.
The Eastern Orthodox faith, whether Greek, Russian,
Romanian, or a number of other expressions, is one faith, one
Church. Orthodoxy is often characterized as those Christians in
communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople, rather than
with the Pope of Rome.
The Holy Orthodox Catholic and Apostolic Church and the
Roman Catholic Church were one Church for the first millenium
of Christianity, so there are many similarities. Common to both
are most of the points of the Nicene Creed * belief in the Holy
Trinity - Father, Son and Holy Spirit
* the divinity of Jesus Christ
* the Virgin Birth
* the crucifixion and resurrection of Christ
* the ascension of Christ into heaven
* the future return of Christ and the creation of his everlasting
* eternal life
Similar also are
* the structure of church governance (a hierarchy
of of various ranks and responsibilities of bishops,
a priesthood, and a diaconate)
* the change of communion bread and wine into
the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ
* baptism in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy
* liturgical worship forms
* the major sacraments (baptism, marriage,
ordination, confession, etc.)
* male-only clergy
* only celibates may become bishops
Beliefs have become different in some areas over the
years. The chief differences, and those which
precipitated the split between Orthodox Christianity and
Roman Catholicism, commonly called the Great Schism
* the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father (Nicene Creed
and John 15:26)
* the patriarchs of the various churches have no ruling
bishop over them all, always having been organized by
councils/synods of bishops
Roman Catholicism believes
* the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son
(an addition to the Creed)
* the Pope of Rome is the presiding bishop over all
Additional post-schism Catholic dogmas,
required for Catholics to believe, but that have
never been Orthodox dogmas:
* infallibility of the Pope
* the immaculate conception of Mary
There are addition differences in practice that
aren't quite dogma:
* Married men may become deacons and priests in
the Orthodox Church
* Orthodox fasting practices are more severe
* Orthodoxy uses the Greek Septuagint for Old
Testament, and the original Greek for New.
Answer this question in your notes packet.
If a dictator/ general/ ruler invaded your
homeland would you defend it? Or would you
What if the dictator threatened to murder all
of your neighbors/ family/ friends if you
decided to fight. Would you still fight? Why?
33g - Evaluate the impact of the
Mongols on the Eurasian Continent
Who was Genghis Khan? What
made him want to conquer the
Islamic regions west of Mongolia
(Central Asia) between 1211 and
Mongol clan leader who united
Mongols under his leadership; He
was angered by the murder of
Mongol traders and an
ambassador at the hands of the
At its largest, how far did the Mongol Empire
stretch? (from what country to what country)
From China to Poland
What is the Pax Mongolica? How long did it
Mongol Peace, or period of stability and
law and order; mid-1200s to mid-1300s
(about 100 years)
How was trade between Europe and Asia
impacted during Mongol domination?
It had never been more active; ideas and
innovations traveled along with trade
goods; many Chinese innovations, like
gunpowder, reached Europe during this
Name AT LEAST one positive
AND one negative effect of
Mongol consolidation of trade
routes throughout Eurasia.
Positive – many goods were
traded along the routes, along
with ideas and innovations
Negative – It is speculated that
the bubonic plague was first
Who was Kublai Khan? What
dynasty did he create after
conquering China? (PAGE 335)
Grandson of Genghis Khan,
called Great Khan,
controlled the Chinese area of
the Mongol Empire;
he created the Yuan Dynasty
Answer the following questions using your
textbook and notes. Page 333.
1. What were some tactics Ghengis Khan
used in battle?
2. Using the picture on page 333. Name 3
things that allowed the Mongol Army to be
Workbook: pg 42.
Why was the Yuan era an important
period in Chinese history?
Kublai united China for the first
time in more than 300 years;
control imposed by Mongols
opened China to greater foreign
contacts and trade;
Kublai and his successors
tolerated Chinese culture and
made few changes to the system
Why did the Mongols employ foreigners
rather than Chinese in high government
Mongols believed foreigners were
more trustworthy since they had no
Why did foreign trade increase under
The Mongol Peace, which made
caravan routes across Central Asia
safe for trade and travel
Who was Marco Polo and what was his
relationship to Kublai Khan?
Venetian trader who traveled by caravan on
the Silk Roads; he was a government official
How did Europeans view Marco Polo’s account of
his time in China?
As a marvelous collection of tall tales – i.e.
they did not believe a word of it
Routes of Marco Polo
This is Marco Polo
What factors led to the decline and fall of
the Yuan Dynasty?
resentment from Chinese,
squabbling within family,
Using your knowledge of the Khans answer the
If a Khan invaded your homeland would you
defend it? Or would you seek peace?
How would you defend your home against their
Why did Marco Polo come to Asia?
Of the factors that led to the fall of the Yuan
dynasty which one do you think impacted them the
Assignment: Workbook pages 43.