Incentives for Energy Efficient Data Centers by a62nh

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									        Incentives for
Energy Efficient Data Centers




                    March 1, 2007
                    William Tschudi
                   wftschudi@lbl.gov
                     510-495-2417
LBNL Project Staff

 Bill Tschudi        Subcontractors
 Dale Sartor         – Ecos Consulting
                     – EPRI Solutions
 Steve Greenberg
                     – EYP Mission Critical
 Tim Xu                Facilities
 Evan Mills          – Rumsey Engineers
 Bruce Nordman       – Syska & Hennesy
 Jon Koomey
 Paul Mathew
 Arman Shehabi
  Data Center Research Roadmap


A “research roadmap” was
developed for the California Energy
Commission and outlined key areas
for energy efficiency research,
development, and demonstration
Data Center research activities

  Benchmarking and 22 data center case studies
  Self-benchmarking protocol
  Power supply efficiency study
  UPS systems efficiency study
  Standby generation losses
  Performance metrics – Computation/watt
  Market analysis
LBNL Data Center demonstrations

  “Air management” demonstration (PG&E)
  Outside air economizer demonstration
  (PG&E)
    – Contamination concerns
    – Humidity control concerns
  DC powering demonstrations (CEC)
    – Facility level
    – Rack level
Case studies/benchmarks

 Banks/financial
 institutions
 Web hosting
 Internet service
 provider
 Scientific Computing
 Recovery center
 Tax processing
 Storage and router
 manufacturers
 others
IT equipment load density

                                                        IT Equipment Load Intensity

                  100


                   90


                   80
                                                                                               2005 Benchmarks
                   70                                                                              Ave. ~ 52

                   60
  Watts/sq. ft.




                   50
                                                               2003 Benchmarks
                                                                   Ave. ~ 25
                   40


                   30


                   20


                   10


                    0
                        1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8     9   10      11   12    13       14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23
                                                                   Data Ce nte r Number
Benchmarking energy end use

              Electricity Flows in Data Centers

                                                               HVAC system



   local distribution lines



                                                          lights, office space, etc.


                              uninterr
                                       uptible

                                  load

   to the building, 480 V

                                                                                               computer
                                                 UPS     PDU                 computer racks   equipment



                                         backup diesel
                                          generators
                                                         UPS = Uninterruptible Power Supply
                                                         PDU = Power Distribution Unit;
Overall power use in Data Centers




 Courtesy of Michael Patterson, Intel Corporation
Data Center performance differences

                              Variation in Data Center Energy End Uses

                         100%
                         90%
                                                                                                Other
 % of total energy use




                         80%
                         70%                                                                    Lighting

                         60%                                                                    UPS Losses

                         50%                                                                    Total HVAC
                         40%
                                                                                                DC Equipment
                         30%
                                                                                                Servers
                         20%
                         10%
                          0%
                                                              5




                                                                              7


                                                                                  8




                                                                                            9
                                      1


                                          2


                                              3




                                                                                        2
                                                    1


                                                          5




                                                                    1


                                                                          2
                                  E




                                                  4.


                                                        4.




                                                                  6.


                                                                        6.




                                                                                      8.
                              AG
                              R




                                                        Facility Number
                           VE
                          A
                    Performance varies

The relative percentages of the                      Computer
                                                      Loads

energy actually doing computing
                                                       67%



varied considerably.

             Lighting       Other
Office Space    2%          13%
Conditioning
     1%                                                                       HVAC - Air
                                                                              Movement
  Electrical Room                                                                7%
      Cooling
         4%                                       Lighting
                                    Data Center     2%
  Cooling Tower
                                    Server Load                  HVAC -
      Plant
                                       51%                      Chiller and
       4%
                                                                 Pumps
                                                                  24%


              Data Center
              CRAC Units
                 25%
Percentage of power delivered
to IT equipment

                                          IT Equipment load Index
                                                                                                                       0.75
    All values are shown as a
    fraction of the respective
                                            0.74
                                                        Average 0.49                                            0.70
    data center total pow er         0.68                                                                0.67
                 0.66
    consumption.                                                        0.63
   0.59                                            0.59                                           0.59                        0.60
          0.55

                                                                                      0.49 0.49
                                                          0.47
                             0.43                                              0.42
                                                                 0.38
                      0.33




    1      2     3      4        5    6      7      8      9      10     11     12    16    17     18    19      20     21     22
                                                     Data Center Number
HVAC system effectiveness

      We observed a wide variation in HVAC performance
                                              HVAC Effectiveness Index

                        4.0
Ratio of IT Equipment
Power to HVAC Power




                        3.5
                        3.0
                        2.5
                        2.0
                        1.5
                        1.0
                        0.5
                        0.0
                              1   2   3   4    5   6   7    8   9 10 11 12 14 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
                                                           Data Ce nte r Numbe r
Benchmark results helped to find
best practices

 The ratio of IT equipment power to the total
 is an indicator of relative overall efficiency.
 Examination of individual systems and
 components in the centers that performed
 well helped to identify best practices.
Best practices topics identified
through benchmarking
   HVAC                        Facility       IT             Cross-cutting / misc.
   – Air Delivery              Electrical     Equipment      issues
   – Water Systems             Systems
   Air            Cooling      UPS            Power Supply   Motor efficiency
   management     plant        systems        efficiency
                  optimization
   Air            Free cooling Self           Sleep/standby Right sizing
   economizers                 generation     loads
   Humidification Variable     AC-DC          IT equip fans Variable speed drives
   controls       speed        Distribution
   alternatives   pumping

   Centralized air Variable    Standby                       Lighting
   handlers        speed       generation
                   Chillers
   Direct liquid                                             Maintenance
   cooling
   Low pressure                                              Commissioning/continuous
   drop air                                                  benchmarking
   distribution

   Fan efficiency                                            Heat recovery
                                                             Redundancies
                                                             Method of charging for
                                                             space and power
                                                             Building envelope
Design guidelines for 10 “Best
Practices” were developed in
collaboration with PG&E



 Guides available through
 PG&E’s Energy Design
 Resources Website
Design guidance - a web based
training resource
A web-based training resource is available




            http://hightech.lbl.gov/dctraining/TOP.html
Performance metrics


 Couple existing computing benchmark
 programs with energy use
 Computations/Watt (similar to mpg)
 Energy Star interest
 Jon Koomey led effort to establish first
 protocol
Encourage improved
“Air Management”

                     Goal:
                     Obtain better cooling
                     and energy savings
                     through
                     improvements in air
                     distribution.
Concepts

 Better isolation of hot and cold aisles will improve
 temperature control and allow air system optimization
 Airflow (fan energy) can be reduced if air is delivered
 without mixing
 Air system and chilled water systems operate more
 efficiently at higher temperature differences
 Temperatures in entire center can be raised if mixing
 is eliminated. It may be possible to cool with tower
 water rather than use of chillers.
Isolation scheme –
cold aisle isolation
Isolation scheme –
hot aisle isolation
   Fan energy savings – 75%




If there is no mixing of cold
supply air with hot return
air -
fan speed can be reduced
Temperature control can be improved

                                                                       Cold Aisle NW - PGE12813

                           90

                                            Baseline                              Alternate 1                        Setup
                           85

                                                           Setup                                                         Alternate 2
                           80


                           75
  Temperature (deg F)




                           70


                           65


                           60


                           55


                           50

                                               Low
                           45
                                               Med
                                               High
                            40
                        6/13/2006 12:00   6/14/2006 0:00      6/14/2006 12:00   6/15/2006 0:00   6/15/2006 12:00   6/16/2006 0:00   6/16/2006 12:00
                                                                                     Time
Better temperature control allows
raising the temperature in the
entire data center
                                                                                                               ASHRAE
                                                                                                               Recommended
                                                                       Cold Aisle NW - PGE12813



                                                                                                               Range
                           90

                                            Baseline                              Alternate 1                        Setup
                           85

                                                           Setup                                                         Alternate 2
                           80


                           75
  Temperature (deg F)




                           70


                           65


                           60


                           55


                           50

                                               Low
                           45
                                               Med


                                                                                                                   Ranges with
                                               High
                            40
                        6/13/2006 12:00   6/14/2006 0:00      6/14/2006 12:00   6/15/2006 0:00   6/15/2006 12:00   6/16/2006 0:00   6/16/2006 12:00
                                                                                     Time
                                                                                                                   aisles isolated
Incentives for outside air economizers

 Issue:
  – Many data centers are reluctant to use economizers
  – Concerns are outdoor pollutants and humidity
    control
 Incentive strategy:
  – Encourage use of outside air economizers where
    climate is appropriate
  – Address concerns: contamination/humidity control
  – Quantify energy savings benefits
Overcoming barriers


Identify potential failure mechanisms

Address contamination in data centers

Address humidity control

Illustrate that contamination is within
guidelines or easily controlled

Case studies of economizers in data centers
Particle bridging

Only documented pollutant problem

  Deposited particles bridge isolated
  conductors
  Increased RH cause particles to absorb
  moisture
  Particles dissociate, become electrically
  conductive
  Causes current leakage
  Can damage equipment
LBNL measurements

Features of study:

  Measurements taken at eight locations

  Approximately week long measurements

  Before and after capability at three centers

  Continuous monitoring equipment in place at one
  center (data collection over several months)
Findings

 Water soluble salts in combination with high
 humidity can cause failures
 Static electricity can occur with very low humidity
 New ASHRAE particle limits drastically lower than
 manufacturer standard
 Particle concentration typically (no economizer) an
 order of magnitude lower than new ASHRAE limits
 Economizers, without other mitigation, cause
 particle concentration to reach new ASHRAE limits
 Current filters are only Class II 40% efficiency
DC powering data centers

Goal:
  Show that a DC system could be assembled
  with commercially available components and
  measure actual energy savings – a proof of
  concept demonstration.
                   Data Center power conversions


          AC voltage conversions

                                                                                     5V
                                                                                                                   Internal Drive
                                                                                     12V
                                                                                                                External Drive
                       Bypass
                                                                                     3.3V
                                                                    PWM/PFC
                                                                                                                        I/O
                                                                     Switcher
                                                                  Unregulated DC    12V              1.5/2.
                                                                                            DC/DC
In                                         Out   AC/DC            To Multi Output                    5V         Memory Controller
                                                                  Regulated DC
                                                                                     12V            1.1V-
                                                                     Voltages                                   μ Processor
                                                                                            DC/DC   1.85V
     Battery/Charger            Inverter
                                                                                    3.3V
         Rectifier                                                                                                    SDRAM

                                                                                    3.3V
                                                                                                                Graphics Controller

                                                                                    Voltage Regulator Modules
                                                   AC/DC Multi output PS
                          Prior research illustrated large
                          losses in power conversion
                                                                                                            Factory Measurements of UPS Efficiency
                                                                                                                    (tested using linear loads)
                                                                                                    100%

                                                                                                    95%


                          Power Supplies                                                            90%




                                                                                       Efficiency
                          in IT equipment                                                           85%


               85%                                                                                  80%                                           Flywheel UPS

                                                                                                                                                  Double-Conversion UPS
               80%                                                                                  75%
                                                                                                                                                  Delta-Conversion UPS
               75%                                                                                  70%
                                                                                                           0%     20%         40%          60%            80%            100%
% Efficiency




               70%
                                                                                                                   Percent of Rated Active Power Load
               65%

               60%                                                                                          Uninterruptible Power
               55%                                                                                          Supplies (UPS)
                                                         Average of All Servers
               50%

               45%
                     0%   10%   20%   30%   40%   50%   60%   70%   80%     90% 100%
                                      % of Nameplate Power Output
UPS draft labeling standard

 Based upon proposed
 European Standard
 Possible use in
 incentive programs
Included in the demonstration
                 Side-by-side comparison of
                 traditional AC system with new
                 DC system
                  – Facility level distribution
                  – Rack level distribution
                 Power measurements at
                 conversion points


                 Servers modified to accept
                 380 V. DC
                 Artificial loads to more fully
                 simulate data center
Additional items included
 Racks distributing 48 volts to illustrate that other DC
 solutions are available, however no energy monitoring
 was provided for this configuration

 DC lighting
 Typical AC distribution today



480 VAC
  480         AC/DC   DC/AC         AC/DC      DC/DC
                                                       12 V
                                                              VRM   12 V
 Bulk Power
Volt AC
   Supply
                                                                    5V
                                                                             Loads
                                                                              using
                                       PSU                    VRM
                                                                             Legacy
                      UPS     PDU                                           Voltages
                                                                    3.3 V
                                                              VRM


                                                              VRM   1.2 V

                                                                             Loads
                                                                    1.8 V    using
                                                              VRM
                                                                             Silicon
                                            Server                  0.8 V
                                                                            Voltages
                                                              VRM
 Facility-level DC distribution


                            380V.DC
480 VAC
   480         AC/DC
                              380 VDC
                                        DC/DC
                                                  12 V
                                                         VRM   12 V


      AC
VoltSupply
  Bulk Power                                                            Loads
                                                               5V        using
                DC UPS                  PSU              VRM
                                                                        Legacy
                  or
                Rectifier                                      3.3 V
                                                                       Voltages
                                                         VRM


                                                         VRM   1.2 V

                                                                        Loads
                                                               1.8 V    using
                                                         VRM
                                                                        Silicon
                                         Server                0.8 V
                                                                       Voltages
                                                         VRM
   Rack-level DC distribution



480 Power
  480 VAC
 Bulk
            AC/DC   DC/AC         AC/DC     DC/DC
                                                    12 V
                                                           VRM   12 V


Volt AC
   Supply
                                            PSU                  5V
                                                                          Loads
                                                                           using
                                                           VRM
                                                                          Legacy
                    UPS     PDU   380 VDC                                Voltages
                                                                 3.3 V
                                                           VRM

                                                           VRM   1.2 V

                                                                          Loads
                                                                 1.8 V    using
                                                           VRM
                                                                          Silicon
                                                                 0.8 V
                                                                         Voltages
                                                           VRM


                                    Rack                     Server
       AC system loss compared to DC
                                                                             12 V
        480 VAC        AC/DC       DC/AC                 AC/DC      DC/DC                  VRM     12 V
       Bulk Power                                                                                             Loads
         Supply                                                                                                using
                                                                                                   5V
                                                            PSU                            VRM
                                                                                                              Legacy
                                    UPS     PDU                                                              Voltages
                                                                                                  3.3 V
                                                                                           VRM


                                                                                           VRM    1.2 V

                                                                                                              Loads
                                                                                                   1.8 V      using
                                                                                           VRM
                                                                                                              Silicon

7-7.3% measured                2-5% measured
                                                                 Server
                                                                                           VRM
                                                                                                   0.8 V
                                                                                                             Voltages



  improvement                   improvement


                                               380 VDC                              12 V
           480 VAC             AC/DC                               DC/DC                         VRM       12 V
          Bulk Power                                                                                                Loads
            Supply                                                                                                   using
                                                                                                           5V
                                DC UPS                            PSU                            VRM
                                                                                                                    Legacy
                                  or
                                            Rotary UPS                                                             Voltages
                                Rectifier                                                                  3.3 V
                                                                                                 VRM


                                                                                                 VRM       1.2 V

                                                                                                                    Loads
                                                                                                           1.8 V    using
                                                                                                 VRM
                                                                                                                    Silicon
                                                                    Server                                 0.8 V
                                                                                                                   Voltages
                                                                                                 VRM
Implications could be even better
for a typical data center

 Redundant UPS and server power supplies operate
 at reduced efficiency

 Cooling loads would be reduced.

 Both UPS systems used in the AC base case were
 “best in class” systems and performed better than
 benchmarked systems – efficiency gains compared
 to typical systems could be higher.

 Further optimization of conversion devices/voltages
 is possible
Industry Partners in the Demonstration
    Equipment and Services Contributors:


Alindeska Electrical Contractors   Intel
APC                                Nextek Power Systems
Baldwin Technologies               Pentadyne
Cisco Systems
                                   Rosendin Electric
Cupertino Electric
Dranetz-BMI                        SatCon Power Systems
Emerson Network Power              Square D/Schneider Electric
Industrial Network Manufacturing   Sun Microsystems
    (IEM)
                                   UNIVERSAL Electric Corp.
Other firms collaborated

                    Stakeholders:

380voltsdc.com              Morrison Hershfield Corporation
CCG Facility Integration    NTT Facilities
Cingular Wireless           RTKL
Dupont Fabros               SBC Global
EDG2, Inc.                  TDI Power
EYP Mission Critical        Verizon Wireless
Gannett
Hewlett Packard
Picture of demonstration set-up
– see video for more detail
DC power – next steps

 DC power pilot installation(s)
 Standardize distribution voltage
 Standardize DC connector and power strips
 Server manufacturers develop power supply
 specification
 Power supply manufacturers develop prototype
 UL and communications certification
             website:
http://hightech.lbl.gov/datacenters/
Discussion/Questions??

								
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